Jalal al-Din Mangburni

  (Redirected from Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu)

Jalal al-Din Mangburni (Persian: جلال الدین مِنکُبِرنی‎), also known as Jalal al-Din Khwarazmshah (جلال‌الدین خوارزمشاه) was the last Khwarazmshah of the Anushtegin line, ruling parts of Iran and northwestern India from 1220 to 1231. He was the son and successor of Ala ad-Din Muhammad II. He is best known as the nemesis of and a heroic fighter against the Mongol Empire[1] and credited with halting the Mongol expansions into the Levant, Anatolia and Baghdad by at least a decade. He is considered the mighty wall between the Mongol Empire and the West.[2][3][a]

Jalal al-Din Mangburni
Modern statue of Jalal al-Din in Urgench
PredecessorMuhammad II
SuccessorÖgedei Khan (Mongol Empire)
Died1231 (aged 31–32)
SpouseMelika Khatun
Terken Khatun
Fulana Khatun
Sulafa Khatun
DynastyAnushtegin dynasty
FatherMuhammad II
ReligionSunni Islam

Jalal al-Din only ruled his ancestral kingdom in Khwarazm briefly, until he was forced to leave for the southwestern part of the realm (roughly corresponding to present-day Afghanistan), due to facing opposition by many of his Turkic commanders, who supported his brother and original heir-apparent, Uzlagh-Shah. The following year, the Khwarazmian capital of Gurganj was captured and devastated by the Mongols. Meanwhile, at the city of Ghazni, Jalal al-Din rallied a substantial army which consisted of Khwarazmians, Turks, and Ghurids, subsequently defeating the pursuing forces of the Mongol leader Genghis Khan at the battle of Ustuva, the battle of Kandakhar, the battle of Waliyan, the battle of Djerdin and the battle of Parwan.[1][4] Jalal al-Din was, however, forced to withdraw to northwestern India by the Mongol forces.


The spelling and meaning of his Turkic personal name are obscure as how the Arabic consonant ductus MNKBRNY was pronounced is not known.[5] Early scholarship spelled it as Manguburti (or similar variants), whilst the most common variant today is Mangburni ("with a birthmark on the nose") or Mingirini ("valiant fighter worth one thousand men"; cf. Persian hazarmard).[6] Henry George Raverty, a British linguist and translator of Tabaqat-i Nasiri, mentions the following about Jalal al-Din's name in his translation of Tabaqat-i Nasiri:

In one of the oldest copies of the text where the vowel-points are given, he is called Mang-barni, and was so styled from having a mole on his nose.[7]


Jalal al-Din was reportedly the eldest son of the Khwarazmshah Ala ad-Din Muhammad II (r. 1200–1220), while his mother was a concubine of Turkmen origin, whose name was Ay-Chichek.[8] Due to the low status of Jalal al-Din's mother, his powerful grandmother and Qipchaq princess Terken Khatun refused to support him as heir to the throne, and instead favored his half-brother Uzlagh-Shah, whose mother was also a Qipchaq. Jalal al-Din first appears in historical records in 1215, when Muhammad II divided his empire among his sons, giving the southwestern part (part of the former Ghurid Empire) to Jalal al-Din.[6]

Resistance against the Mongol invasionEdit

Jalal al-Din's rise to fame came at the battle near the Irghiz river against Subutai, Jochi and Jebe where he saved the Khwarezmians from defeat.[b]

Battle of the Indus: Jalal al-Din Khwarazm-Shah crossing the rapid Indus River on horseback, escaping Genghis Khan and the Mongol army.

When it became known that Genghis Khan was marching towards Khwarazm, Jalal ad-din proposed to his father to meet the Mongols in one decisive battle near the Syr Darya. However, Muhammad II relied on his well-fortified fortresses and did not assemble troops, distributing them instead among the major towns of his empire. Meanwhile, the Mongols swiftly took one city after another. At the beginning of 1220, Bukhara fell, followed by Samarqand. Muhammad started to retreat west, and after a series of unsuccessful battles, was left with a handful of soldiers and his sons. The huge and undisciplined Khwarazmian army was unable to defeat the empire.

Legend has it that Muhammad, who fled to the Caspian Sea, being terminally ill, gathered his sons: Jalal ad-Din, Aqshah, and Uzlagh Khan and announced that he appointed Jalal ad-Din as heir to the throne, because only he could confront the enemy. Summoning the younger sons to obedience, he hung his sword on the belt of Jalal ad-Din. A few days later, Muhammad died and Jalal ad-Din was proclaimed a Khwarazmshah but when Jalal al-Din arrived at the capital, Urgench, the army generals did not recognize him as the legitimate successor and instead Uzlag Shah was proclaimed the new Khwarezmshah.[9]

Jalal al-Din Mangburni left the capital after gaining intelligence about the Kipchak generals' coup plan against him. Jalal al-Din arrived at Nisa with his bodyguards, sent messengers to other cities announcing he plans to fight the Mongols. Meanwhile, an army under the leadership of Jebe besieged the city but Jalal al-Din managed to escape, breaching the siege. Following the siege, Mongol patrol units consisting of 750-900 cavalry caught up with Jalal al-Din who had 240-300 bodyguards with him but Jalal al-Din defeated the Mongols and departed again.

Following the clash near Nesa, Jalal al-Din met his father-in-law Amin Malik, who was the governor of Herat. With him, Jalal al-Din marched towards Kandahar which was under siege of the Mongol invaders under the leadership of Tolui. Jalal al-Din attacked the besiegers and defeated them after three days-long battle. In the history of military science, the method of infantries-against-cavalries deployed by Jalal al-Din in this battle is considered a novelty and has been praised by the British. The British used his tactics against the French at the battle of Crecy.[10][11]

After liberating Kandahar, Jalal al-Din arrived at Ghazni and he assembled an army of 60,000-70,000. With his new army, Jalal al-Din started an expedition to liberate the city of Valiyan which was under siege of the two Mongol armies under the leaderships of two Mongol generals, Tekejik and Molghar.[12][13][14][15][16] After Valiyan was captured back by Jalal al-Din, Genghis Khan sent a new army, numbering 30,000 - 50,000 cavalries, under the leadership of Shikhikhutug. Jalal al-Din intercepted the new army in a valley named Parwan and defeated them at the battle of Parwan, north of Kabul.[17] After the battle of Parwan was won, Jalal al-Din sent a messenger to Genghis Khan, asking for a place to meet to fight a battle. Genghis Khan sent a large army, larger than the one of Shikhikhutug, under the leadership of his son Tolui. Jalal al-Din met them in Kabul and defeated them again.[c][18]

Inspired by Jalal al-Din's several back-to-back victories against the Mongol invaders, independent insurgency groups emerged in multiple cities. KushTeghin Pahlawan launched a revolt in Merv and ousted the Mongol vassal. After seizing Merv, Kushteghin Pahlawan made a successful attack on Bukhara, too. Due to the insurgency, the Mongols lost Herat as well. Another insurgency leader named Muhammad the Marghani attacked and looted the camp of Genghis Khan twice.

Due to the Mongol invasion, the sacking of Samarkand, and his army was disassembled due to having fought 3 different Mongol armies and being deserted by his Afghan allies, Jalal ad-Din was forced to flee to India.[19] At the Indus River, however, a new huge Mongol army under the leadership of Genghis Khan caught up with him and slaughtered his forces which was outnumbered by a lot, along with thousands of refugees, at the Battle of the Indus. Carl Sverdrup assess upon fleeing to India, before Genghis Khan caught up with Jalal al-Din, Jalal al-Din fought and defeated another Mongol army at a place named Djerdin (which is now known as Gardez) under the leadership of a Mongol general Chagan.[4][10]

He escaped and sought asylum in the Sultanate of Delhi but Iltutmish denied this to him in deference to the relationship with the Abbasid caliphs. The cities of Herat, Ghazni and Merv were destroyed and massacred by the Mongols, for his resistance or rebelliousness.

Conquests, settlement and war with the Mongol Empire in the Indian subcontinentEdit

After the battle of Indus, Jalal al-Din crossed the Indus and settled in India. A big local army under the leadership of Rana Shatra attacked Jalal al-Din's forces which were minor compared to the Indian army. Rana Shatra led six thousand soldiers against Jalal al-Din whose forces were outnumbered by ten-to-one. Jalal al-Din targeted Rana Shatra and killed him. As Rana Shatra was killed, his army had scattered in chaos. After this battle, Jalal al-Din's forces in India grew exponentially.[20][21]

Jalal al-Din re-crossed the Indus back to bury the dead of his campaign, Genghis Khan sent Chagatai Khan back to capture Jalal al-Din before he gets strong enough. Settling in India, Jalal al-Din battled with two local forces close to Lahore and defeated them. Jalal al-Din started to raise a new army and was able to assemble an army as high as 10,000 strong. Chagatai Khan failed to deal with Jala al-Din and returned back. After the summer of 1222, Genghis Khan appointed Dorbei Doqshin and Bala with huge armies to the expedition of India to pursue Jalal al-Din. Jalal al-Din moved closer to Delhi. Dorbei Doqshin and Bala left the Indian subcontinent and returned to Genghis Khan when he was in Samarkand. Genghis Khan got angry with them and sent them back again with the same mission. In January 1223, three different Mongol armies coming from Khorasan, Seistan and Ghazni met in Saifrud and together they made an all-out assault. After being beaten, the Mongol army gave up and left in March. Later, Dorbei Doqshin was sent on the same mission for the second time. Under Dorbei Doqshin's leadership, the Mongol army took Nandana from one of the lieutenants of Jalal ad-Din, sacked it, then proceeded to besiege the larger Multan. The Mongol army managed to breach the wall but the city was defended successfully by the Khwarezmians. Jalal al-Din himself came to the siege and repelled Dorbei Doqshin back. Dorbei Doqshin decided to retreat due to the climate before the city was captured. The siege was aborted after 42 days (March–April 1224). The Mongols under the leadership of Dorbei returned north via Ghazni. Dorbei Doqshin was sent with the same mission again but after several unsuccessful battles against Jalal al-Din, he joined Jalal al-Din and converted to Islam.[22][23][24][25]

Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu spent three years in exile in India. He entered into an alliance with the Khokhars, Lahore, and much of Punjab was captured. At this stage, he requested an alliance with Iltutmish, the Turkish Mamluk Sultan of Delhi against the Mongols. The Sultan of Delhi refused so he could avoid a conflict with Genghis Khan and marched towards Lahore at the head of a large army. The sultan Iltutmush at first started an expedition against Jalal al-Din, Jalal sent Jahan Pahlivan as his detachment army and got ready for the battle but the Sultan Iltutmush offered a peace treaty and his daughter to Jalal al-Din to form an alliance but it turned out to be a decoy to earn time. Jalal accepted the proposal but later learned that Iltutmush did so in order to gain time and form an alliance against Jalal al-Din. The marriage was not finalized. Upon discovering Iltutmush's plot against him, Jalal appointed Jahan Pahlivan as the governor of his lands in the Indian subcontinent,[26] retreated from Lahore and moved towards Uchch, inflicting a heavy defeat on its ruler Nasir-ud-Din Qabacha, and entered Sindh, then northern Gujarat before returning to Persia in 1224.[27]

Re-establishment of the kingdomEdit

Having gathered an army and entered Persia, Jalal ad-Din sought to re-establish the Khwarazm kingdom, but he never fully consolidated his power. In 1224, he confirmed Burak Hadjib, ruler of the Qara Khitai, in Kerman, received the submission of his brother Ghiyath al-Din Pirshah, who had established himself in Hamadan and Isfahan, and the province of Fars, and clashed with the Caliph An Nasser in Khuzestan. Jalal al-Din conquered western Iran after defeating the Caliph.[28]

In 1225, the sultan dethroned the Ildegizid Uzbek Muzaffar al-Din and set himself up in their capital of Tabriz on the 25 of July in 1225. In 1225, he attacked Georgia, defeating its forces in the battle of Garni, and conquered Tbilisi,[29] after which allegedly a hundred thousand citizens were put to death for not renouncing Christianity.

In 1227 after the death of Genghis Khan, a new Mongol army was sent to invade Mangburni's lands. Mangburni met them near Dameghan and defeated them.[d][30]

On August 25, 1228, a new Mongol army under the leadership of Taymas Noyan invaded the re-established kingdom. Jalal al-Din met them near Isfahan and the two armies battled. On the eve of the battle, Jalal al-Din was betrayed by his half-brother Ghiyath al-Din and was abandoned by Ghiyath al-Din's army. Jalal fought and defeated the army of Taymas Noyan conclusively. Witnessing Jalal al-Din's bravery Taymas Noyan applauded him saying "You are indeed the boy of your time."[10] In the same year, another Mongol army attacked Jalal al-Din again, again near Isfahan and again under the leadership of Taymas Noyan. The Mongols scored a phyrrhic victory in this battle but it was the Mongols who retreated despite the victory, unable to utilize their victory as they had no power left to advance.[1]


Jalal ad-Din spent the rest of his days struggling against the Mongols, pretenders to the throne and the Seljuqs of Rûm. His dominance in the region required year-after-year campaigning. In 1226, the governor of Kerman, Burak Hadjib, rebelled against him, but after the sultan marched against him he was again brought back into agreement. Jalal ad-Din then had a brief victory over the Seljuqs and captured the town of Akhlat in Turkey from the Ayyubids. In 1228, he battled against the Mongols on the approach to Isfahan and while he did not defeat the invaders following their great losses they were not able to utilize their victory and withdrew afterwards across the Oxus river. In 1228, his brother Ghiyath al-Din rebelled and was defeated by the Sultan. Ghiyath al-Din fled to Burak Hadjib in Kerman where he and his mother were murdered. The revived Khwarezmid Sultan by this time controlled Kerman, Tabriz, Isfahan and Fars. Jalal ad-Din moved against Akhlat again in 1229. However, he was defeated in this campaign by Sultan Kayqubad I at Erzincan on the Upper Euphrates at the Battle of Yassıçemen in 1230, from whence he escaped to Diyarbakır.

Family, spouses and personal lifeEdit

Nasawi narrates that 8 years old son of Jalal al-Din was captured at the battle of Indus, brought to Genghis Khan and killed in front of the khan's eyes whereas Jalal's wife and mother were thrown into the river and drowned there per the commands given by Jalal al-Din himself. Later in his life, Jalal al-Din had a son named Mengtus Shah.[31] Retreated to Ghaznin, Jalal al-Din married the daughter of Sangin, the ruler of Kokhar, to form an alliance with them. En route to India, Jalal al-Din married Burak Khadjib's daughter and in return, Jalal al-Din helped him conquer Kirman. After settling in India, Jala al-Din married the daughter of Amin Malik, the former governor of Herat who joined Jalal al-Din after the battle of Indus. Sangin not only married his daughter to Jalal al-Din but sent his son with an army to assist his resistance. Jalal called the son Kutlugh Khan. After returning from India, Jalal al-Din married Melika Khatun, the daughter of Sa'd b. Zengi who was a local ruler in Iran. In 1225, Jalal al-Din fought the Maraghehs, defeated them and their ruler Sulafa Khatun offered Jalal al-Din marriage and her power. Jalal al-Din accepted the proposal, Sulafa Khatun divorced her then-husband Ozberg and married Jalal al-Din.[26][32]

In his book The history of the world conquerer, Juvayni reveals that when Jalal died he had a 2 years old daughter named Türkan. After Jalal al-Din disappeared, Chormagan captured his daughter and gave her to Oghedei khan, the third son and successor of Genghis Khan. Oghedei khan raised her in the horde. Jalal al-Din's daughter Turkan grew up in Oghedei khan's guardianship, when Mongke khan sent her with Hulagu khan into the western expeditions. Hulagu Khan married her into Melek Salikh, the son of the governor of Mosul.

Jalal al-Din's paternal grandmother Terken Khatun despised Jalal al-Din very much that she preferred to be captured by the Mongols rather than being protected by Jalal al-Din. When proposed with Jalal al-Din's providence, she replied:[33]

“Go away, tell him to leave! How can I become dependent on the mercy of the son of Aychichek and be under his protection, when I have Uzlag-shah and Aq-shah? Even being in the captivity at the hands of Genghis Khan and my current humiliation are better for me than that!”

Jalal al-Din's half-brother Giyath al-Din also hated him. After suppressing Burak Hadjib's rebel, Jalal al-Din had to deal with possible loss of Isfahan due to Giyath al-Din's sneaky rebel. Giyath al-Din at first sent a message to the Mongols, stating that he wants to defect to them. In the year 1227, Giyath al-Din cooperated with a Mongol appointee to overthrow Jalal al-Din. One of the Mongol commanders left behind in Iran went rogue, Giyath al-Din hatched a plot with him. Together, they lured Jalal al-Din into battle and the general faked a small army. Just as the battle began, Giyath al-Din deserted Jalal's army and defected to the Mongol side. Jalal al-Din managed to defeat the alliance with difficulty, as a result Giyath al-Din fled westwards, taking refugee in Nizari Assassins and were murdered later.[34]

In the final year of his life, Jalal al-Din was in extreme depression. Ibn al-Athir attributes this depression to Jalal al-Din's feelings towards the death of his eunuch servant named Kilich.[35]

Jalal al-Din believed in astrology and he always had astrologers in his palaces. He often consulted his astrologers before concluding his plans.[36]


Through the ruler of Alamut, the Mongols learned that Jalal ad-Din was weakened by a recent defeat. The Nizari Ismaili Assassins sent a letter to Ogedei Khan, proposing joint operation against Jalal al-Din.[37] Ögedei Khan sent a new army of 30,000 - 50,000[38] men under the command of Chormagan[39] and the remaining Khwarazmians, whose numbers were in hundreds, were swept away by the new Mongol army. In the winter of 1231, in the ensuing confusion, the Mongols arrived at Azerbaijan from the direction of Khorasan and Rayy.[40][41][42] The 30,000 - 50,000 strong Mongol army led by Chormagan easily defeated Jalal ad-Din's small band[43] and occupied northern Iran. Khwarazmshah retreated to Ganja, Azerbaijan. The Mongols followed him and captured Arran. Jalal ad-Din took refuge in the Mayyafarikin (Silvan) mountains and there in August of that year he was killed by a Kurd[44] who claimed that his brother was killed by forces of Jalal ad-Din in Ahlat.

Legacy and assessmentEdit

Dirham of Jalal ad-Din, citing Abbasid caliph Al-Mustansir Bi'llah 623-628 AH (1226-1231 AD).

Mangburni is considered a fearless leader and a great warrior.[3] Harold Lamb describes Jalal al-Din as "valiant son of a weak father",[45] Carl Sverdrup describes Jalal al-Din as "brave and energetic".[4] Jürgen Paul describes Jalal al-Din as "the mighty wall". About his battle against Genghis Khan at the banks of the Indus, Osborne describes him as the first vigilante enemy of Genghis Khan[46] while Timothy May describes him as the most stalwart enemy of the Mongols in West Asia until the time of the Mamluk Sultanate.[3] Modern scholarship credits him with halting the Mongol expansion by at least a decade.

Shihab al-Din Muhammad al-Nasawi, the personal secretary of the Sultan Jalal ad-Din, described him as follows:

He was swarthy (dark-skinned), small in stature, Turkic in "behavior" and speech, but he also spoke Persian. As for his courage, I have mentioned it many times when describing the battles he took part in. He was a lion among lions and the most fearless among his valiant horsemen. He was mild in his temper though, did not get easily provoked and never used bad language.[47]

The Georgian Royal Annals from the 13th century described Jalal al-Din as follows:

...the Sultan Jalaldin - valorous and brave, courageous and fearless like some immaterial being, superb, strong and an excellent fighter, came to the rescue of his father with a 5 small group of soldiers, picked him up, and together they fled to Khorasan.[48]

In Tabaqat-i Nasiri, Juzjani describes Jalal al-Din as follows:

Sultan Jalal ud-Din, Mangburni, was the eldest son of Sultan Muhammad, and was endowed with great heroism, valour and high talents and accomplishments.[7]

In The Complete History, Ibn al-Athir described Jalal al-Din as follows:[49]

...Jalâl al-Dîn whom all the princes on earth held in awe and feared.

At the end of the battle of the Indus, Genghis Khan said the following about Jalal al-Din:[50][10][51][45]

A father should only have such a son. Whether he escaped from the fiery battlefield and came to the brink of salvation from the whirlwind of destruction, great deeds and great revolts will still come from him!

Yaqut al-Hamawi notes that Jalal al-Din was known as a bellicose warrior and Jalal al-Din's passiveness after the battle of Yassichemen was seen as unbelievable. At the battle of Yassichemen, the army of the allied forces of the Seljuks and Ayyubids refrained from attacking the retreating Khwarezmian forces thinking it is a trap by Jalal al-Din. Nor the alliance neither others believed Jalal al-Din would accept defeat and remain passive.[35]

Though considered a successful warrior and a general, Jalal al-Din is considered a poor ruler and his loss of re-established empire to the Mongol is attributed to his poor rulership. Jalal al-Din had enmity with all of his neighbors which resulted in Jalal's calls to form an alliance against the Mongol army of Chormaqan being dismissed by all other Muslim kingdoms. Though historians agree that Jalal al-Din inherited these enmities from his father and predecessors.[1][3] Vasily Bartold assesses Jalal al-Din executed more cruel and irrational brutality than Genghis Khan did. In his time, his enemies believed Jalal al-Din uses magic. Jalal al-Din was also famous for his dominance in one-on-one duels, which he fought on the eve of the battles. In politics, Jalal al-Din was seen as an untrustable king.[35] Ibn al-Athir described Jalal al-Din as follows in regard to his ruling:[52]

Jalâl al-Dîn was a bad ruler who administered his realm abominably. Among the princes who were his neighbours he did not leave one without showing hostility to him and challenging him for his kingdom, acting as a bad neighbour. As an example of that, as soon as he appeared in Isfahan and gathered an army, he invaded Khuzistan and besieged Tustar, a possession of the caliph. He marched to Daquqa, which he sacked and where he killed many people. It too belonged to the caliph. Then he took Azerbayjan, which was held by Uzbek, and attacked the Georgians, whom he defeated and harassed. Later he made war on al-Ashraf, lord of Khilât, and then on ‘Alâ’ al-Dîn, ruler of Anatolia, and on the Ismâ‘îlîs, whose lands he ravaged and many of whom he killed. He imposed upon them an annual tribute in money and also on others. Every prince abandoned him and would not take his hand.

Even Nasawi, however, was unable to justify the negative impact Jalal al-Din's rule and conduct of his soldiers had on his subjects.[53] Iranian bureaucrat and historian Ata-Malik Juvayni (died 1283) represented Jalal al-Din as a hero who valiantly fighting for "Persian independence", even though Juvayni was aware that Jalal al-Din was fighting for his own survival and selfish motives.[54]

Due to his reputation for resisting the Mongols, Jalal al-Din is commonly depicted on artwork resembling that of the Persian epic Shahnameh, where he is associated with the mythological warrior Rostam.[53]

Jalal al-Din was not as successful in politics and diplomacy as he was in leadership and heroism. Although he managed to escape from the Mongols and arrive to Anatolia, and subsequently asked for help from the fellow Muslim rulers against the Mongols, his politics and attitude terrified all the neighboring monarchs and caused them to distance themselves from him. He tried to maintain friendship with the Seljuq Sultan of Anatolia, Ala' ad-Din Kay-Qubad. This could have been a turning point in his warfare against the Mongols had he succeeded, but he abandoned this policy for unknown reasons. Jalal al-Din's diplomatic attempts to cooperate against the Mongols with the Abbasid Caliphate and the Georgians also failed.[55]

People in the Islamic world did not believe that Jalal al-Din died. Many rumours and speculations circulated about Jalal being alive, being seen somewhere as well as speculations about Jalal al-Din forming new army and planning to establish a new state. These speculations gave rise to the emergence of new armies named Khwarezmiyyas. In 1236, a new insurgency group was formed in Mazandaran, the founder and the leader of the insurgency claimed he is Jalal al-Din Mangburni. The insurgents were defeated and the claimant was captured alive. The Mongols sent people who knew Jalal al-Din personally to identify whether the claimant is indeed Jalal al-Din. The claimant was beheaded as the identifiers identified he is not Jalal al-Din. In the year 1254, a leader of a merchant group claimed he is Jalal al-Din Mangburni. He was detained and tortured yet asserted on till his death.[28][56]

The KhwarezmiyyasEdit

After Jalal al-Din's death in the summer of 1231, there emerged a mercenary group that called themselves Khwarezmiyyas consisting of former emirs of Jalal al-Din and they claimed to carry on Jalal al-Din's mission. At first, they worked with the Ayyubids for a year or two but then under the leaderships of former lieutenants of Jalal al-Din like Ghayir khan, Bereket khan, Yilan Bogha, Janberdi, Sary khan and Guchlu khan they sealed a deal with the Seljuk Sultanate of Anatolia, In return, the Khwarezmiyyas were given Erzurum as Iqta'. Ala al-Din Qayqubad gave them even more iqta to use them as a shield against possible Mongol invasion. Ghayir khan was given Erzincan, Bereket khan was given Amasya, Yilan Bogha was given Nigde as Iqta'. Abul Farac gives their number as 10,000 whereas other contemporaries report them to be 12,000 only in Akhlat and as high as 20,000 in total. The mercenary group was divided, some worked with Ayyubids, some switched sides whereas some abandoned their contracts in the following years. There emerged many groups called Khwarezmiyyas, ranging from Anatolia to the Indian subcontinent. Though they acted independently from each other, they get united at times and acted under a single leadership and joined some military expeditions under QayQubad. The Khwarezmiyyas became a force of balance of power in the region. Qayqubad used the group for years and gave them important missions like assigning Ghayir khan as the viceroy of Sivas. Even though the Khwarezmiyyas acquired great power in the Seljuk Sultanate of Anatolia during QayrQubad's years, they were ousted following his death. In 1237, after QayQubad's death, Ghayir khan, the Khwarezmid who assumed the most power in the empire, was arrested and killed. After Ghayir khan's death, the remaining Khwarezmid former emirs of Jalal al-Din united under the leadership of Bereket khan, they hurried to leave Seljuk lands and on their way they looted the Seljuk lands. Qayqubad's successor Kaykhusraw II tried to get the Khwarezmiyyas back and sent an army to either get them back or make them pay for their deeds. The Khwarezmiyyas met them in Malatya and defeated them in a battle. As a result, the Khwarezmiyyas conquered Urfa, Kharran and other cities around. The newly seized territories were shared among the khans. The Khwarezmiyyas played major roles in the region's politics till 1246, like capturing and plundering Jerusalem. After the self-governing Khwarezmiyyas defeated the Frankish Kingdom of Jerusalem in 1244, the Ayyubids and the neighboring states got worried about the rising power. In March 1246, The Khwarezmiyyan army besieged Damascus. An-Nasir Yussuf and Al-Mansur Ibrahim formed a coalition against the besieger Khwarezmiyyan, the coalition was consisted of Turkmen and Bedouin soldiers. The Khwarezmiyyas and Mansur Ibrahim met near Lake Homs. The Khwarezmiyyas lost the battle and were no longer a military entity. After the defeat, some former Khwarezmid emirs joined the Abbasid caliphate while some joined Hulagu khan but none of them were an independent force anymore.[28][57]

In fictionEdit

Jalal ad-Din has been portrayed by Emre Kıvılcım in the Turkish-Uzbek TV series Mendirman Jaloliddin, created by Mehmet Bozdağ in collaboration with the Uzbek Ministry of Culture and Sports.[58] Jalal al-Din has also been portrayed by Abulimiti in the 2004 Chinese television series Genghis Khan.[citation needed] Jalal al-Din is also one of the main heroes in the novel Genghis Khan by Vasily Yan.[citation needed] In 2015, Turkmen national artist Saragt Babaýew was awarded by the president of Turkmenistan, Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow, for his sculpture of Jalal al-Din Mangburni.[59]


  1. ^ Carl Sverdrup credits Jalal al-Din with 5 victories against the Mongols in the years 1220 and 1221, during the Mongol conquest of the Khwarazmian Empire. Historians also agree that Jalal al-Din served as the wall between the Mongol Empire and the Middle East.
  2. ^ Juvayni, 13th century Georgian Royal Chronicles, some other contemporaries and modern scholars like Carl Sverdrup and Dmitry Timokhin credit Jalal al-Din with saving Khwarezmians from defeat. V. Bartold finds it dubious, stating that Nasavi, the biographer of Jalal al-Din Mangburni, does not mention this individual glory.
  3. ^ Jalal al-Din's secretary Nasawi's account states the son who led the army against Jalal al-Din was "Tolui khan", Al Athir does not give the name of the son.
  4. ^ "The Mongol forces sent against him in 1227 were defeated at Dameghan."[1]


  1. ^ a b c d e May, Timothy. Chormaqan and the Mongol Conquest of the Middle East.
  2. ^ Paul 2017.
  3. ^ a b c d May, Timothy (June 1996) Chormaqan Noyan: The First Military Mongol Governor in the Middle East. Department of Central Eurasian Studies, Indiana University.
  4. ^ a b c Sverdrup, Carl (2017). The Mongol Conquests The Military Operations of Genghis Khan and Sübe'etei. West Midlands: Helion&Company Limited. ISBN 978-1-910777-71-8.
  5. ^ "Jalāl-Al-Din Kwārazmšāh (I) Mengübirni". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 2021-08-28.
  6. ^ a b Paul 2017, p. 142.
  7. ^ a b Juzjani, Minhaj-i Siraj. Tabakat-i Nasiri. Translated by Raverty, H. G. p. 285.
  8. ^ An-Nasawi. "Description of life of Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu. Chapter 18". Vostochnaya Literatura (Eastern Literature) (in Russian).
  9. ^ Gudogdyev, Ovez. "Historical and Cultural Heritage of Turkmenistan: Encyclopedic Dictionary". Istanbul. 2000. pages 381; ISBN 9789759725600
  10. ^ a b c d Toshmurodova, Sarvinoz Quvondiq qizi (July 2021). "JALOLIDDIN MANGUBERDI IS A GREAT COUNTRY DEFENDER" (PDF). JournalNX- A Multidisciplinary Peer Reviewed Journal. 7. Issue: 7: – via NOVATEUR PUBLICATIONS.
  11. ^ Rashid ad-Din. Sbornik letopisey. Volume 1. 1952
  12. ^ Sverdrup, Carl (2017). The Mongol Conquests The Military Operations of Genghis Khan and Sübe'etei. West Midlands: Helion & Company Limited. ISBN 978-1-910777-71-8
  13. ^ Barthold, W. (1968). Turkestan down to the Mongol Invasion. Great Britain: Love and Brydon (Printers) Ltd.
  14. ^ Atwood, Christopher (2004). ENCYCLOPEDIA OF MONGOLIA AND THE MONGOL EMPIRE. The United States of America: Facts On File, Inc. ISBN 978-1-4381-2922-8.
  15. ^ Mclynn, Frank (2015). Genghis Khan His Conquests, His Empire, His Legacy. De Capo Press. ISBN 978-0-306-82396-1.
  16. ^ Timokhin, Dmitry (2013). "ХОРЕЗМИЙСКАЯ АРМИЯ ДЖАЛАЛ АД-ДИНА МАНКБУРНЫ В ПЕРИОД МОНГОЛЬСКОГО ВТОРЖЕНИЯ В ЦЕНТРАЛЬНУЮ АЗИЮ (Translation: Jalal al-Din Mangburnu's Khwaremian Army during the Mongol Invasion of Central Asia)"(PDF). ЗОЛОТООРДЫНСКОЕ ОБОЗРЕНИЕ. 2.
  17. ^ Man, John (2004). Genghis Khan: Life, Death, and Resurrection. St. Martin's Press. p. 181. ISBN 0-312-31444-2.
  18. ^ Al-Athir, Ibn (1231). The Chronicle of Ibn al-Athir for the Crusading Period from al-Kamil fi'I-Ta'rikh. Translated by D. S. Richards. Part 3. London and New York. Routledge Taylor & Francis Group. ISBN 9780754640790
  19. ^ Dupuy, Trevor N.; Dupuy, R. Ernest (1993). The Harpers Encyclopedia of Military History. Harper Collins. p. 366. ISBN 0-06-270056-1.
  20. ^ Jackson, Peter (1990). "JALAL AL-DIN, THE MONGOLS, AND THE KHWARAZMIAN CONQUEST OF PUNJAB AND SIND". British Institute of Persian Studies. 28: p. 49 – via British Institute of Persian studies.
  21. ^ "CELÂLEDDİN HÂRİZMŞAH - TDV İslâm Ansiklopedisi". TDV İslam Ansiklopedisi (in Turkish). Retrieved 2021-10-24.
  22. ^ Jackson, Peter (1990). "JALAL AL-DIN, THE MONGOLS, AND THE KHWARAZMIAN CONQUEST OF PUNJAB AND SIND". British Institute of Persian Studies. 28: 45–54 – via British Institute of Persian studies.
  23. ^ Sverdrup, Carl (2017). The Mongol Conquests The Military Operations of Genghis Khan and Sübe'etei. West Midlands: Helion & Company Limited. pp. 168-196. ISBN 978-1-910777-71-8.
  24. ^ Boyle, John Andrew (June 1963). "THE MONGOL COMMANDERS IN AFGHANISTAN AND INDIA ACCORDING TO THE ṬABAQĀT-I NĀṢIRĪ OF JŪZJĀNĪ". Islamic Studies. 2 (2): 235–247 – via Islamic Research Institute, International Islamic University, Islamabad.
  25. ^ Atwood, Christopher (2004). ENCYCLOPEDIA OF MONGOLIA AND THE MONGOL EMPIRE. The United States of America: Facts On File, Inc.
  26. ^ a b Ayan, Ergin (2016). "THE MARRIAGES OF THE KHWARAZMSHAHS DYNASTY". KaradeniZ. 32: 30–33.
  27. ^ Chandra, Satish (2004). Medieval India: From Sultanat to the Mughals-Delhi Sultanat (1206–1526). Part One. Har-Anand Publications. p. 40. ISBN 9788124110645.
  28. ^ a b c Gül, M. HAREZMLİ TÜRKLERİN ANADOLU VE YAKİNDOĞU'DAKI ROLLERİ VE TESİRLERİ (English: The role and effects of the Khwarezmıan Turks ın Anatolia and Near East). Harran Üniversitesi Fen-Edebiyat Fakültesi, Tarih Bölümü.
  29. ^ Grousset, Rene (1991). The Empire of the Steppes. Rutgers University Press. p. 260. ISBN 0-8135-1304-9.
  30. ^ Al-Athir, Ibn (1231). The Chronicle of Ibn al-Athir for the Crusading Period from al-Kamil fi'I-Ta'rikh. Translated by D. S. Richards. Part 3. London and New York. p. 284. Routledge Taylor & Francis Group
  31. ^ Taneri, Aydın, ed. (1977). Celalud-din Harizmşah ve zamanı (English: Jalal al-Din Kharezmshah and his era). Kültür Bakanlığı yayınları. p. 102.
  32. ^ El-Azhari, Taef. Queens, Eunuchs and Concubines in Islamic History, 661–1257. Edinburgh University Press, 2019
  33. ^ An-Nasawi. "Description of life of Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu. Chapter 18". Vostochnaya Literatura (Eastern Literature) (in Russian).
  34. ^ Mclynn, Frank (2015), Genghis Khan His Conquests, His Empire, His Legacy, De Capo Press, p. 390, ISBN 978-0-306-82396-1
  35. ^ a b c Taneri, Aydın, ed. (1977). Celalud-din Harizmşah ve zamanı (English: Jalal al-Din Kharezmshah and his era). Kültür Bakanlığı yayınları. p. 84-91
  36. ^ Aydın, Taneri (1993). Harezmşahlar. Ankara: Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı Yayınları. pp. 118. ISBN 975-389-110-5
  37. ^ Mclynn, Frank (2015), Genghis Khan His Conquests, His Empire, His Legacy, De Capo Press, p. 392-393, ISBN 978-0-306-82396-1
  38. ^ Jackson, Peter (December 15, 1993). Čormāgūn. Encyclopædia Iranica
  39. ^ Pelliot, P. (1923). "Les Mongols et la Papauté" (PDF). Revue de l'Orient Chrétien. 23: 3–30.
  40. ^ Irwin, Robert (1999). "Islam and the Mediterranean: The rise of the Mamluks". In Abulafia, David (ed.). The New Cambridge Medieval History. Volume 5, c.1198–c.1300. Cambridge University Press. p. 611. |volume= has extra text (help)
  41. ^ "PHI, Persian Literature in Translation". Archived from the original on March 5, 2016.
  42. ^ "Jalāl-al-Din Ḵvārazmšāh (I) Mengübirni". Encyclopædia Iranica.
  43. ^ Atwood, Christopher (2004). ENCYCLOPEDIA OF MONGOLIA AND THE MONGOL EMPIRE. The United States of America: Facts On File, Inc. p. 417. ISBN 978-1-4381-2922-8.
  44. ^ Khorandezî Zeydârî, Nasawî. Sîret-i Celâleddîn-i Mingburnî. Tehran. p. 1344.
  45. ^ a b Lamb, Harold. Genghis Khan Emperor of all men. London: Thornton Butterworth, Ltd.
  46. ^ Osborne (1759). An Universal History, from the Earliest Account of Time, Volume 4. p. 436.
  47. ^ Buniyatov, Z.M (1996). Shikhab an-Nasawi. Sirat as-sultan Jalal al-Din Mankburni (Biography of sultan Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu) (in Russian). Vostochnaya Literatura, Russian Academy of Sciences. p. 288.
  48. ^ Chronicle of Hundred Years (online text) Translated by Georgian National Academy of Sciences. Tbilisi. 2014. p.320
  49. ^ Al-Athir, Ibn (1231). The Chronicle of Ibn al-Athir for the Crusading Period from al-Kamil fi'I-Ta'rikh. Translated by D. S. Richards. Part 3. London and New York. Routledge Taylor & Francis Group. P. 302 ISBN 9780754640790
  50. ^ History of the World Conqueror by Ala Ad Din Ata Malik Juvaini, translated by John Andrew Boyle, Harvard University Press 1958, p. 411. Online text (in English) on the Unesco Digital Library.
  51. ^ Sverdrup, Carl (2017). The Mongol Conquests The Military Operations of Genghis Khan and Sübe'etei. West Midlands: Helion&Company Limited. p.163 ISBN 978-1-910777-71-8
  52. ^ Al-Athir, Ibn (1231). The Chronicle of Ibn al-Athir for the Crusading Period from al-Kamil fi'I-Ta'rikh. Translated by D. S. Richards. Part 3. London and New York. Routledge Taylor & Francis Group. P. 303 ISBN 9780754640790
  53. ^ a b Paul 2017, p. 145.
  54. ^ Lane 2012, p. 251.
  55. ^ Taneri, Aydin (1977). Jalal al-Din Khwarazmshah and his era (in Turkish). Ankara: Publications of the Ministry of Culture. pp. 85–91.
  56. ^ Taneri, Aydın, ed. (1977). Celalud-din Harizmşah ve zamanı (English: Jalal al-Din Kharezmshah and his era). Kültür Bakanlığı yayınları. p. 81-83.
  57. ^ Humphreys, R. Stephen (1977), From Saladin to the Mongols: The Ayyubids of Damascus, 1193-1260, SUNY Press, p. 286-287. ISBN 0-87395-263-4
  58. ^ "New Turkish series about Sultan Jalaluddin Khwarazmshah to release in Uzbekistan". The News International. Retrieved 2021-04-07.
  59. ^ "Hormatly Prezidentimiz Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow Türkmen bedewiniň baýramyna bagyşlanan dabaralara gatnaşdy". turkmenistan.gov.tm. 24 April 2015. Retrieved 2021-09-12.


Preceded by Sultan of the Khwarezmian Empire
Succeeded by