Alā ad-Dīn Kayqubād ibn Kaykhusraw (Turkish: I. Alâeddin Keykûbad; Turkish pronunciation: [kejkuːbad], Persian: علاء الدين كيقباد بن كيخسرو 1190–1237), also known as Kayqubad I, was the Seljuq Sultan of Rûm who reigned from 1220 to 1237.[1] He expanded the borders of the sultanate at the expense of his neighbors, particularly the Mengujek Beylik and the Ayyubids, and established a Seljuq presence on the Mediterranean with his acquisition of the port of Kalon Oros , later renamed Ala'iyya in his honor. The sultan, sometimes styled Kayqubad the Great,[2] is remembered today for his rich architectural legacy and the brilliant court culture that flourished under his reign.

Kayqubad I
Coinage of Ala' al-Din Kay Qubad I, Ankuriyya, 1219-1237
Sultan of Rum
PredecessorKaykaus I
SuccessorKaykhusraw II
Died1237 (aged 46–47)
Kayseri, Sultanate of Rum
  • Mahpari Hunat Khatun
  • Malika Adila Khatun
  • Ismat al-dunya wa'l-din
Alā ad-Dīn Kayqubād bin Kaykhusraw
FatherKaykhusraw I
MotherRaziya Khatun, a daughter of Manuel Maurozomes
ReligionSunni Islam

Kayqubad's reign represented the apogee of Seljuq power and influence in Anatolia, and Kayqubad himself was considered the most illustrious prince of the dynasty. In the period following the mid-13th century Mongol invasion, inhabitants of Anatolia frequently looked back on his reign as a golden age, while the new rulers of the Anatolian beyliks sought to justify their own authority through pedigrees traced to him.

Early life edit

Kayqubad was the second son of Seljuk Sultan Kaykhusraw, who bestowed upon him at an early age the title malik and the governorship of the important central Anatolian town of Tokat. When the sultan died following the battle of Alaşehir in 1211,[3] both Kayqubad and his elder brother Kaykaus struggled for the throne. Kayqubad initially garnered some allies among the neighbors of the sultanate: Leo I, the king of Cilician Armenia and Tughrilshah, the brothers' uncle and the independent ruler of Erzurum. Most of the emirs, as the powerful landed aristocracy of the sultanate, supported Kaykaus. Kayqubad was forced to flee to the fortress at Ankara, where he sought aid from the Turkman tribes of Kastamonu. He was soon apprehended and imprisoned by his brother in a fortress in western Anatolia.[4]

Reign edit

Upon his brother Sultan Kaykaus's unexpected death in 1219/1220 Kayqubad was released from captivity and succeeded to the Seljuk throne as its new Sultan.[citation needed]

The sultanate expanded considerably during the reign of Kayqubad, mostly in the east.

In the Cilicia Campaign of 1225, Kayqubad the great subjugated the Kingdom of Armenian Cilicia.[citation needed]

In 1221/1222 Kayqubad launched a naval attack on Sudak which defeated the combined forces of Rus and Cumans.[5] He attacked the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia in 1221 taking the city of Alanya from its governor, Kir Fard.[6]

The Kızıl Kule, or Red Tower, built in Alanya by Kayqubad I

In 1227/1228, Kayqubad advanced into Anatolia, where the arrival of Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu, who was fleeing the destruction of his Khwarezmian Empire by the Mongols, had created an unstable political situation. The sultan settled Turcomans along the Taurus Mountains frontier, in a region later called İçel. At the end of the 13th century, these Turcomans established the Karamanids. The Ayyubids, who were disturbed by the rapid expansion of Sultan Kayqubad I, especially in eastern Anatolia, took action against the sultan under the leadership of Al-Kamil in Egypt. In 1234 Kayqubad I completely defeated the allied Ayyubid forces. Afterward, Harput expanded its borders further in the south-east Anatolia region by capturing Siverek, Urfa, Harran and Raqqa.[7][8][9] The sultan defeated the Artuqids and the Ayyubids and absorbed the Mengujek emirate into the sultanate, capturing the fortresses of Hısn Mansur, Kahta, and Çemişgezek along his march. He also put down a revolt by the Empire of Trebizond and, although he fell short of capturing their capital, forced the Komnenos dynasty family to renew their pledges of vassalage.[citation needed]

At first, Kayqubad sought an alliance with his Turkish kinsman Jalal ad-Din Mingburni against the Mongol threat. The alliance could not be achieved, and afterward, Jalal ad-Din took the important fortress at Ahlat. Kayqubad finally defeated him at the Battle of Yassıçimen between Sivas and Erzincan in 1230. After his victory, he advanced further east, establishing Seljuq rule over Erzurum, Ahlat and the region of Lake Van (formerly part of Ayyubids). The Artuqids of Diyarbakır and the Ayyubids of Syria recognized his sovereignty. He also captured several fortresses in Georgia, whose queen sued for peace and gave her daughter Tamar in marriage to Kayqubad's son, Kaykhusraw II.[10] Mindful of the increasing presence and power of the Mongols on the borders of the Sultanate of Rum, he strengthened the defenses and fortresses in his eastern provinces.

Death edit

He was given poison during a feast at Kayseri[11] and died at an early age on 31 May 1237, the last of his line to die in independence.[12]

Historian Ibn Bibi mourned his death with these words,"With Kayqubad's death, the back of Islam was broken and the bond of kingdom and religion snapped".[13]

The Yivli Minare Mosque, built in Antalya by Kayqubad I

Succession edit

Kayqubad had three sons: Kaykhusraw II, eldest son of his Greek wife Mah Pari Khatun,[14] Rukn al-Din and Kilic Arslan, sons of his Ayyubid princess wife Malika Adila Khatun.[15] According to Ibn Bibi, Kayqubad wanted Rukn al-Din as his successor who was the elder one of his two sons from his Ayyubid wife, Malika Adila Khatun, but Kaykhusraw usurped the throne and had Rukn al-Din, Kilic Arslan and their mother strangled.[16][17]

Architectural and cultural legacy edit

Kayqubad sponsored a large-scale building campaign across Anatolia. Apart from reconstructing towns and fortresses, he built many mosques, medreses, caravanserais, bridges and hospitals, many of which are preserved to this day. Besides completing the construction of the Seljuq Palace in Konya, he also built the Kubadabad Palace on the shore of Lake Beyşehir,[18] Alanya Castle and Red Tower in Alanya and Kayqubadiyya Palace near Kayseri.[2]

Kayqubad, like the other Seljuq sultans of Rum, was quite well-versed in the fine arts and would recite quatrains in Persian during wine-drinking parties.[19]

Identity edit

Modern statue of Kaykubad I in Alanya

According to Rustam Shukurov, it is very probably that Kayqubad and his brother Kaykaus I, who both spent considerable time in Byzantium with their father, had the same dual religious (Christian and Muslim) and dual ethnic (Turkic/Persian and Greek) identity as Kaykhusraw I, Kaykaus II, and Mesud II.[20]

Relations with scholars edit

Kayqubad I had good relations with the Muslim scholars, Sufis and poets. Many Muslim Sufis and poets such as Mūhyūddīn İbnūl-Arābī, Abd al-Laṭīf al-Baghdādī, Ahi Evran, Necmeddīn-i Dāyē, Kāniî-i Tūsī, Shihab al-Din 'Umar al-Suhrawardi and Sultanulūlemā Bâhâeddīn Veled came to Anatolia during his reign.

Portrayal in media edit

In the Turkish historical television series, Diriliş: Ertuğrul, Kayqubad I is portrayed by Turkish actor Burak Hakkı.

References edit

  1. ^ Cahen 1997, p. 817-818.
  2. ^ a b Lambton & Lewis 1977, p. 248.
  3. ^ Redford 1991, p. 70.
  4. ^ Cahen 1968, p. 120-121.
  5. ^ Spinei 2009, p. 148.
  6. ^ Özcan 2010, p. 278.
  7. ^ Yazıcızâde Ali, Tevârih-i Âl-i Selçuk, s. 489-499
  8. ^ Kemaleddin İbnü’l-Adim, Zübdetü’l-Haleb min Tarih-i Haleb, s. 482-485
  9. ^ Claude Cahen, Anatolia Before the Ottomans, p. 85-86.
  10. ^ Cahen 1968, p. 130.
  11. ^ Savvides 1981, p. 190.
  12. ^ Wolff & Hazard 1969, p. 704.
  13. ^ Anooshahr 2008, p. 116.
  14. ^ Peacock & Yildiz 2013, pp. 118–119, 121.
  15. ^ Cahen 1968, p. 133.
  16. ^ Eastmond 2017, p. 197.
  17. ^ Cahen 1997a, p. 811.
  18. ^ Redford 1993, p. 220.
  19. ^ Koprulu 2006, p. 220.
  20. ^ Peacock & Yildiz 2013, p. 133.

Sources edit

  • Anooshahr, Ali (2008). The Ghazi Sultans and the Frontiers of Islam: A comparative study of the late medieval and early modern periods. Routledge. ISBN 978-11-34-04134-3. Retrieved 19 August 2020.
  • Lambton, Ann K.S.; Lewis, Bernard (1977). The Cambridge History of Islam: The Central Islamic lands since 1918. Vol. 1B. Cambridge University Press. p. 248. ISBN 978-052-129-135-4. Retrieved 19 August 2020.
  • Cahen, Claude (1968). Pre-Ottoman Turkey: A general survey of the material and spiritual culture and history c. 1071-1330. New York: Taplinger. hdl:2027/heb.00871. ISBN 1-59740-456-X.
  • Cahen, Claude (1997). "Kaykubad; Kaykubad I". In Van Donzel, E.; Lewis, B.; Pellat, Ch. (eds.). The Encyclopaedia of Islam. Vol. IV. Brill. pp. 817–818.
  • Cahen, Claude (1997a). "Kaykhusraw; Kaykhusraw II". In Van Donzel, E.; Lewis, B.; Pellat, Ch. (eds.). The Encyclopaedia of Islam. Vol. IV. Brill. pp. 816–817.
  • Crane, H. (1993). "Notes on Saldjūq Architectural Patronage in Thirteenth Century Anatolia". Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient. 36 (1). Leiden: Brill: 1–57. doi:10.1163/156852093X00010. ISSN 0022-4995. JSTOR 3632470.
  • Eastmond, Antony (2017). Tamta's World. Cambridge University Press. p. 197. ISBN 978-11-07-16756-8. Retrieved 15 August 2020.
  • Koprulu, M. (2006). Early Mystics in Turkish Literature. Translated by Leiser, Gary; Dankoff, Robert. Routledge.
  • Peacock, A. C. S. (2006). "The Saljūq Campaign against the Crimea and the Expansionist Policy of the Early Reign of 'Alā' al-Dīn Kayqubād". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. 16 (2). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 133–149. doi:10.1017/S1356186306005979. ISSN 1356-1863. S2CID 55636025.
  • Peacock, A.C.S.; Yildiz, Sara Nur, eds. (2013). The Seljuks of Anatolia: Court and Society in the Medieval Middle East. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 978-0857733467.
  • Redford, Scott (1991). "The Alaeddin Mosque in Konya Reconsidered". Artibus Asiae. 51 (1/2). Zürich: Artibus Asiae Publishers: 54–74. doi:10.2307/3249676. ISSN 0004-3648. JSTOR 3249676.
  • Redford, Scott (1993). "Thirteenth-Century Rum Seljuq Palaces and Palace Imagery". Ars Orientalis. 23, Pre-Modern Islamic Palaces.
  • Savvides, A.G.C. [in Greek] (1981). Byzantium in the Near East: Its Relations with the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum in Asia Minor, the Armenians of Cilicia and the Mongols, A.D. C. 1192-1237, Volume 16. Kentron Vyzantinōn Ereunōn - Original from University of Michigan. p. 190. Retrieved 15 August 2020.
  • Wolff, R.L.; Hazard, H. W., eds. (1969). The Later Crusades, 1189-1311 — XX: The Aiyubids. University of Wisconsin Press. pp. 693–714.
  • Sümer, Farok (2002). KEYKUBAD I (in Turkish). Ankara: Published in 25th Volume of TDV İslâm Ansiklopedisi. pp. 358–359. Retrieved 7 March 2021.
  • Özcan, Koray (2010). "The Anatolian Seljuk City An Analysis on Early Turkish Urban Models in Anatolia". Central Asiatic Journal. 54 (2). Harrassowitz Verlag: 273–290.
  • Spinei, Victor (2009). The Romanians and the Turkic Nomads North of the Danube Delta from the Tenth to the Mid-Thirteenth Century. BRILL. ISBN 9789047428800.

Further reading edit

  • Yalman, Suzan (2012). "ʿALA AL-DIN KAYQUBAD ILLUMINATED: A RUM SELJUQ SULTAN AS COSMIC RULER". Muqarnas Online. 29 (1): 151–186. doi:10.1163/22118993-90000186.

External links edit

Preceded by Sultan of Rûm
Succeeded by