President of Turkmenistan
The President of Turkmenistan (Turkmen:Türkmenistanyň prezidenti) is the head of state and of the executive power, is the highest official of Turkmenistan, and has the constitutional charter to act as a guarantor of national independence, territorial integrity, and adherence to the Constitution and international agreements.
|President of Turkmenistan|
Coat of Arms of Turkmenistan
Standard of the President of Turkmenistan
|Style||His Excellency (international correspondence)|
Mr. President (informally)
Distinguished Supreme Commander-in-Chief (military)
Arkadag (used to address Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow)
Turkmenbasy (used during rule of President Niyazov)
|Member of||Cabinet of Ministers|
State Security Council
|Residence||Oguzkhan Presidential Palace|
|Appointer||Direct popular vote|
|Term length||7 years, renewable|
|Inaugural holder||Saparmurat Niyazov|
|Formation||2 November 1990 (Turkmen SSR) |
27 October 1991 (Turkmenistan)
|Succession||Chairman of the Assembly of Turkmenistan|
|Deputy||Vice President of Turkmenistan|
Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow is the current President of Turkmenistan, only the second in the history of the country since it gained independence with the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. He succeeded Turkmenistan's first President for Life, Saparmurat Niyazov, when Niyazov died in 2006 after a reign of 15 years. In the 2017 election Berdimuhamedow received 98% of the country's popular vote against eight other candidates, and has now reigned for over 12 years. The country passed reforms in 2016 eliminating term limits for the presidency and removing the previous age requirement of below 70, as well as extending the term from five to seven years. The President is also the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces of Turkmenistan and the Chairman of the country's Cabinet of Ministers.
Requirements for presidents and removal from officeEdit
Requirements for candidates for President of Turkmenistan include the following:
- Must have been born in Turkmenistan
- Must be fluent in the Turkmen language
- Must be at least 40 years old
- Must have resided in Turkmenistan for the past 15 consecutive years
- Must be employed
The powers of the President of Turkmenistan may be terminated in accordance with article 57 of the Turkmen constitution in the event of:
- Inability to perform their duties due to illness
- Violation of the constitution and public laws
- A vote of no confidence in the president
Should the president be removed from office, the First Deputy Chairman of the Cabinet of Ministers is appointed as acting president, with elections being held no later than 60 days after the fact. An acting president does not have the right to run for president.
The Oguzkhan Presidential Palace is the principal residence/workplace of the president, located on Independence Square in Ashgabat. The various halls of the palace are used to receive foreign leaders and sign presidential decrees. Former president Saparmurat Niyazov owned a private residence in official residence in Arshabil, a town 28 kilometers outside of Ashgabat.
Transport and securityEdit
The President of Turkmenistan utilizes a specially made Boeing 777-200LR, painted in the national colors, during international and regional visits. These planes are provided by Turkmenistan Airlines. The president employs a Mercedes-Benz S-Class vehicle to transport him/her throughout the capital city. On some occasions, the vehicle is escorted by a mounted troop from the armed forces. The president also utilizes trains to transport them from one place to another.
The Presidential Security Service (Prezidentiniň howpsuzlyk gullugy) is responsible for ensuring the protection and security of the president. Established in November 1990, it is an directly reporting body of the President of Turkmenistan. During state visits to foreign countries, the service provides at least 10 agents to protect the president. The Presidential Security Service is organized in the following way:
- Duty Division
- 1st Division (Personal guard of the president)
- 2nd Division
- 3rd Division
- 4th Division
- Special Operations Regiment
- 1st Battalion
- 2nd Battalion
- 3rd Battalion
The Presidential Security Service is currently composed of 2,000 employees.
Presidents of the Republic (1990–present)Edit
The first column consecutively numbers the individuals who have served as president, while the second column consecutively numbers the Presidential terms or administrations.
|Picture||Took office||Left office||Political party|
|2 November 1990||16 December 1991||Communist Party of Turkmenistan|
|(1)||16 December 1991||21 June 1992||Democratic Party of Turkmenistan|
|21 June 1992||28 December 1999|
President for Life
|28 December 1999||21 December 2006|
|21 December 2006||11 February 2007||Democratic Party of Turkmenistan|
|11 February 2007||12 February 2012|
|12 February 2012||12 February 2017|
|12 February 2017||Incumbent|
Rank by time in officeEdit
|Rank||President||Time in office|
|1||Saparmurat Niyazov||15 years, 55 days|
|2||Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow||12 years, 260 days||12 years, 315 days|
|—||Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow||55 days (Acting)|
- Acting between 21 December 2006 and 14 February 2007.
- Article 50 of the Constitution of Turkmenistan.
- "The president of Turkmenistan wins re-election with 98% of the vote". The Economist. Retrieved 2017-02-26.
- Конституция Туркмении
- Hiro, Dilip (November 2011). Inside Central Asia: A Political and Cultural History of Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz stan, Tajikistan, Turkey, and Iran. ISBN 9781590203781.
- Declared President for Life.
- Died in office.
- Counting from the declaration of independence on 27 October 1991.