Sharaf ad-Dīn al-Muʿaẓẓam ʿĪsā (al-Malik al-Muʿaẓẓam ʿĪsā) (1176 – 1227) was the Ayyubid emir of Damascus from 1218 to 1227. The son of Sultan al-Adil I and nephew of Saladin, founder of the dynasty, al-Mu'azzam was installed by his father as governor of Damascus in 1200. After his father's death in 1218, al-Mu'azzam ruled the Ayyubid lands in Syria in his own name, down to his own death in 1227. He was succeeded by his son, an-Nasir Dawud.
|Emir of Damascus|
|Died||12 November 1227 (aged 50–51)|
He was respected as a man of letters, and was interested in grammar and jurisprudence.
He ordered or contributed to the construction of some buildings and modifications inside the Ḥaram ash-Sharīf (the Noble Sanctuary) in Jerusalem:
- the extension of the terrace (maṣṭaba) of the Dome of the Rock by 18 meters westward,
- He contributed money towards two water-distribution structures, but was not their patrons (one who ordered them built):
- 1217 or 1218: the arched portico of al-Aqsa Mosque's façade.
In addition to an-Naḥawiyya Madrasa, he also founded these madrasas:
- Littmann, E. (1960). "Aybak". In Gibb, H. A. R.; Kramers, J. H.; Lévi-Provençal, E.; Schacht, J.; Lewis, B. & Pellat, Ch. (eds.). The Encyclopaedia of Islam, New Edition, Volume I: A–B. Leiden: E. J. Brill. p. 780. OCLC 495469456.
- "Madrasat al-Malik Mu'azzam 'Isa (al-Mu'azzamiya)". Institute for International Urban Development.
- Grabar, Oleg; Ḳedar, B. Z. (2009). Where Heaven and Earth Meet: Jerusalem's Sacred Esplanade. University of Texas Press. p. 164. ISBN 978-0-292-72272-9.
Al-Muʿazzam's most striking enterprise was perhaps his extension of the whole west side of the Dome of the Rock terrace a full 18 m to the west, with the addition of some water tanks and, a little to the north of the terrace, a water fountain called Sabil Shaʿlan. […] By extending the upper terrace, al-Muʿazzam created a prestigious site for a new building known as the "Grammar School" (al-Madrasa al-Nahwiyya).
- "Qubbat al-Nahawiya". Institute for International Urban Development (I2UD).
- Humphreys, R. Stephen (1977). From Saladin to the Mongols. SUNY Press. p. 151. ISBN 978-0-87395-263-7.
The other two works of public utility connected with the name of al-Mu‘azzam were in fact not directly sponsored by him. One is a cistern built in 607/1210, the other a cistern and kiosk built in 613/1216-17. Their inscriptions identify their patron – i.e., the man who ordered them built – as one Muhammad b. ‘Urwa b. Sayyar al-Mausili, but the inscriptions also say they were built "by the benevolence of" (min ni‘mat) al-Malik al-Mu‘azzam. […It] probably indicates that the prince contributed a sum of money towards the work as a gesture of piety.
- Hawari, Mahmoud (2007). Ayyubid Jerusalem (1187-1250). Archaeopress. p. 127. ISBN 978-1-4073-0042-9.
Ṣahrīj al-Malik al-Muʿaẓẓam ʿĪsā. 607 / 1210-11. Cistern of al-Malik al-Muʿaẓẓam ʿĪsā
- "Sabil Sha'lan". Institute for International Urban Development.
- Hillenbrand, Carole (2018). The Crusades: Islamic Perspectives. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-95613-4.
In the Aqsa mosque, for example, some of the second-hand material used in the arches of the facade includes the sculpted ornament taken from Crusader structures of the twelfth century […] One of the inscriptions on the porch records that the facade of the portico was constructed by the Ayyubid prince al-Mu'azzam 'Isa in c. 609/1217-18.
- Blessing, Patricia (2017). Architecture and Landscape in Medieval Anatolia. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 978-1-4744-1131-8.
al-Aqsa Mosque […] the north porch was rebuilt in 1217–18 under the patronage of Salah al-Din’s nephew al-Malik al-Muʿazzam.
- Herzfeld, Ernst (1934). Ars islamica XI-XII. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. pp. 49–50.