Mansoura[2] (Al Manṣūra, IPA: [el.mɑnˈsˤuːɾɑ], rural: [el.mænˈsˤuːɾe]) is a city in Egypt, with a population of 621,953, as of 2021.[3] It is the capital of the Dakahlia Governorate.

From top left:
Mansoura Nile river, Mansoura Art, Mansoura buildings, Mansoura sunset, Mansoura bridge,
Nile's Bride
The Nile Delta
The Nile Delta
Mansoura is located in Egypt
Location in Egypt
Coordinates: 31°2′25″N 31°22′58″E / 31.04028°N 31.38278°E / 31.04028; 31.38278
 • GovernorAyman AbdelMenem Mohtar Hasnan
 • Total28.2 km2 (10.9 sq mi)
Elevation15 m (49 ft)
 • Total621,953
 • Density22,000/km2 (57,000/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
Area code+(20) 50

Etymology edit

Mansoura in Arabic means "victorious". The city is named after the El Mansoura Battle against Louis IX of France during the Seventh Crusade.

History edit

Mansoura was established in 1219 by al-Kamil of the Ayyubid dynasty upon a Phatmetic branch of the Nile on a place of several older villages like Al-Bishtamir (Arabic: البشطمير) and Kafr al-Badamas (Arabic: كفر البدماص, from Ancient Greek: ποταμός, "river, canal").[4][5] After the Egyptians defeated the Crusaders during the Seventh Crusade, it was named Mansoura (aka. "The Victorious").

In the Seventh Crusade, the Capetians were defeated and put to flight; between fifteen and thirty thousand of their men fell on the battlefield. Louis IX of France was captured in the main Battle of Fariskur, and confined in the house of Ibrahim Ibn Lokman, secretary of the sultan, and under the guard of the eunuch Sobih. The king's brother was imprisoned in the same house. The sultan provided for their sustenance. The house of Ibrahim Ibn Lokman is now the only museum in Mansoura. It is open to the public and houses articles that used to belong to the French monarch, including his personal thirteenth century toilet.[6]

The Mansoura Air Battle[7][8] on October 14, 1973, occurred during the Yom Kippur War. Israeli Air Force fighters attacking Egyptian air bases were intercepted by the Egyptian Air Force. On that day, 160 jet fighters, most belonging to Israel, battled for 53 minutes over Mansoura. The Egyptian army claimed that despite the numerical and qualitative superiority of the Israeli warplanes, 17 Israeli planes were downed. (2 according to the Israelis), while the rest retreated.[9][10][11] Egypt announced the loss of six planes, only three of which fell to Israeli fire. The Egyptian government subsequently changed the country's "Air Force Day" from November 2 to October 14, to commemorate the Mansoura Air Battle.[8]

Geography edit

Location edit

Mansoura lies on the east bank of the Damietta branch of the Nile, in the Delta region. Mansoura is about 120 km northeast of Cairo. Across from the city, on the opposite bank of the Nile, is the town of Talkha.

Climate edit

Köppen-Geiger climate classification system classifies its climate as hot desert (BWh).

Climate data for Mansoura
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 19.0
Daily mean °C (°F) 12.9
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 6.8
Average precipitation mm (inches) 13

Culture edit

Folklore show in Mansoura

The Egyptian Arabic dialect spoken by Mansoura's population is a northern Egyptian Arabic dialect, with noticeable influences from the city's surrounding rural villages, each of which has contributed to the city's population over the years. There are some similarities to Alexandrian Egyptian Arabic in some aspects of pronunciation.

Mansoura National Museum used to be Dar Ibn Lockman, the house where Louis IX was imprisoned in 1250 during the Seventh Crusade. Displayed in the museum are the suits of mail and swords of the crusaders, as well as a collection of maps. Huge paintings depict the Battle of Mansoura.

The Mansoura branch of the National Library was recently inaugurated as the Mansoura Misr Library.[13]

Mansoura is famous for its architectural style, especially the Shinnawi Palace (after Mohamed Bek El-Shinnawi, a member of the Wafd Party). It was built by an Italian architect in 1928. The mosque of El-Saleh Ayoub El-Kebir is one of the most important in Mansoura. It was built by a loyal servant of the Sultan and is located in Al-Sagha Street that separates "Old Mansoura" from the modern city.[14]

Like Cairo, Alexandria and Port Said, Mansoura was home to a flourishing Greek community until the Nasser era, when many were forced to leave. Many of the older and best established shops and businesses around the city still bear their original Greek names. Mansoura also had a small Italian population living in the city too. The first Old English school in the city was established on the site of the old Greek school in the Toriel area, one of the traditionally relatively affluent residential districts of the city.

Education edit

University of Mansoura

The University of Mansoura was founded in 1962, initially as a branch of Cairo University.[15] The Urology and Nephrology center of Mansoura University founded by Prof Mohammed Ghonem is considered to be the best kidney center in the Middle East and Africa.[14]

Mansoura has a sports stadium (Mansoura Stadium) which is home to its football team. [16]

Clubs (Sport) edit

  • Gezert Elward Sport Club: It is located directly on the Nile and has tennis courts, swimming, gymnastics, squash and social club. Recently, the gymnastics team participated under the seven-year club in the Republic Championship and received 2 gold medals 13 silver and 1 bronze and 1 participation.
  • Mansoura Sports Club: It has an official football field.
  • Mansoura Sports Stadium: It has an official football field, swimming pool, social club and many sports facilities.
  • The Olympic Village (Mansoura University Stadium): It covers an area of 15 acres and is open to university students, faculty members and those wishing to play abroad in individual and group games.
  • Nile Club: The club was established by decision of the University Council in its session held on 12/27/1993, provided that it has financial, administrative and technical resignation, and it is located in Rose Island in the lower walkway in Mansoura. The club is a cultural, social, sports and recreational center for faculty members, their assistants, and university staff.

Notable people edit

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ a b "Egypt: Governorates, Major Cities & Towns - Population Statistics, Maps, Charts, Weather and Web Information". Retrieved 17 June 2023.
  2. ^ "El Mansoura Hostels - Lonely Planet". Archived from the original on 2016-08-08. Retrieved 2016-06-07.
  3. ^ "citypopulation". Retrieved 2017-10-03.
  4. ^ Ramzi, Muhammad (1945). Geographical dictionary of the Egyptian places from the ancient Egyptians dynasty to 1945.
  5. ^ Timm, Stefan (2007). Das christlich-koptische Agypten in arabischer Zeit. p. 366.
  6. ^ "Al-Makrisi: Account of the Crusade of St. Louis". Retrieved 6 February 2018.
  7. ^ Photos of the battle Archived 2014-12-20 at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ a b "Mansourah air battle, Near true story". Retrieved 6 February 2018.
  9. ^ Al-Ahram weekly Archived 2009-05-19 at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ Al-Ahrm weekly Archived 2009-09-13 at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^ (in Hebrew) CalcalistArchived 2020-10-06 at the Wayback Machine
  12. ^ "Climate: Mansoura - Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". Retrieved 13 August 2013.
  13. ^ Mansura public library Archived 2008-10-17 at the Wayback Machine
  14. ^ a b Mansoura Archived 2008-05-20 at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ "Mansourah University official website". Archived from the original on 2008-09-24. Retrieved 2008-10-31.
  16. ^ "World Stadiums - El-Mansora Stadium in El-Mansora". Archived from the original on 1 February 2011. Retrieved 6 February 2018.
  17. ^ "Kareem Mohamed Abu-Elmagd", Wikipedia, 2022-09-25, retrieved 2022-10-01

External links edit

31°03′00″N 31°23′00″E / 31.05000°N 31.38333°E / 31.05000; 31.38333