Cairo University

Cairo University (Arabic: جامعة القاهرة‎, romanizedGām‘et El Qāhira), known as the Egyptian University from 1908 to 1940, and King Fuad I University from 1940 to 1952, is Egypt's premier public university. Its main campus is in Giza, immediately across the Nile from Cairo. It was founded on 21 December 1908;[1] however, after being housed in various parts of Cairo, its faculties, beginning with the Faculty of Arts, were established on its current main campus in Giza in October 1929. It is the second oldest institution of higher education in Egypt after Al Azhar University, notwithstanding the pre-existing higher professional schools that later became constituent colleges of the university. It was founded and funded as the Egyptian University by a committee of private citizens with royal patronage in 1908 and became a state institution under King Fuad I in 1925.[2] In 1940, four years following his death, the University was renamed King Fuad I University in his honor. It was renamed a second time after the Egyptian revolution of 1952.[1] The University currently enrolls approximately 155,000 students in 20 faculties and 3 institutions.[3][4] It counts three Nobel Laureates among its graduates and is one of the 50 largest institutions of higher education in the world by enrollment.

Cairo University
جامعة القاهرة
Cairo University Crest.png
Thoth, the embodiment of knowledge, hieroglyphs, and wisdom.
Former names
Egyptian University
Fuad I University
TypePublic
Established1908; 112 years ago (1908)
PresidentMohammed Othman Al Khasht
Administrative staff
12,158
Students231,584
Location, ,
30°01′39″N 31°12′37″E / 30.02760°N 31.21014°E / 30.02760; 31.21014Coordinates: 30°01′39″N 31°12′37″E / 30.02760°N 31.21014°E / 30.02760; 31.21014
CampusUrban
AffiliationsUNIMED
Websitecu.edu.eg/
Cairo University

Concerning the faculty of Engineering, In 2006, the college began implementing the credit hour system in specialties: Construction Engineering , Computer and Telecommunications engineering

In 2007, more programs were developed: mechanical design engineering, architecture, engineering, construction, technology, and petrochemical engineering. Following in 2008, the Construction Engineering program was introduced. In 2009, the Water and Environmental Engineering Program was implemented.

HistoryEdit

The university was founded on 21 December 1908, as the result of an effort to establish a national center for higher education. Several constituent colleges preceded the establishment of the university including the College of Engineering (كلية الهندسة) in 1816, which was shut down by the Khedive of Egypt and Sudan, Sa'id Pasha, in 1854. Cairo University was founded as a European-inspired civil university, in contrast to the religious university of Al Azhar, and became the prime indigenous model for other state universities. In 1928, the first group of female students enrolled at the university.[5]

FoundationEdit

At the turn of the century, Egyptian intellectuals and public figures began making calls to establish an Egyptian institute of higher education to provide a modern, professional education to Egyptians. Armenian bureaucrat Yaqub Artin made the first known published reference to establishing an Egyptian university in 1894. In a report, he suggested "the existing higher professional schools could well provide the basis for a university."[6] These higher schools included the School of Management and Languages, established in 1868 (which became the School of Law in 1886), the School of Irrigation and Construction (known as the School of Engineering) in 1866, Dar al-Ulum in 1872, the School of Agriculture in 1867 and the School of Antiquities 1869.[7]

Syrian journalist Jurji Zaydan called for an "Egyptian college school" (madrasa kulliya misriyya) in 1900 in his monthly magazine Al-Hilal. He provided two models for this institute of higher education: the Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College at Aligarh, India, which delivered a Western-style education in the English language, or the Syrian Protestant College (now the American University of Beirut) in Beirut, run by American missionaries.[8] The new school would provide an alternative to the student missions to Europe begun under Muhammad Ali. Controversy surrounding Zaydan’s publications would later prevent him from taking a teaching post at the University.[9] A number of other prominent Egyptians played a role in the university's foundation. A collection of large landowners, bureaucrats, members of the royal family, and journalists, lawyers, and school teachers including Mustafa Kamil, disciples of Muhammad Abduh such as Qasim Amin and Saad Zaghlul, and eventually Khedive Abbas II and Prince Ahmad Fu’ad I became involved. As Donald M. Reid writes, "Royalist partisans stressed Fu'ad's founding role, Watanists pointed out Mustafa Kamil's call for a university, and Wafdists emphasized the contributions of Saad Zaghlul, Muhammad Abduh, and Qasim Amin."

Wealthy Egyptians began to independently pledge funds to the establishment of a university as early as 1905. Following the Dinshaway incident, Mustafa Kamil al-Ghamrawi, a wealthy notable from Beni Suef, pledged 500 Egyptian pounds towards a university in September 1906. Mustafa Kamil published a call for supplementary funds, while Saad Zaghlul and Qasim Amin arranged a meeting attended by Muhammad Farid and 23 other prominent Egyptians. The members of the meeting founded a committee with Zaghlul as vice-president and Amin as secretary, and all but three pledged at least 100 Egyptian pounds towards the university. However, splinters quickly emerged between the Watanists, the disciples of Abduh and the Royalists, leaving the project in the hands of the Palace.[10] By the time of its establishment in 1908, Prince Fuad I was the rector and only one of the men who had met in 1906 remained in the committee.

Concerning the faculty of engineering In 2006, the college began implementing the credit hour system by launching the following programs: construction engineering, Computer and telecommunications engineering.

In 2007 programs that were developed: mechanical design engineering, architecture engineering and construction technology and petrochemical engineering.

In 2008, it introduced a program: Construction Engineering.

In 2009, it introduced the Water and Environmental Engineering Program.

Challenges to foundationEdit

The British, particularly Lord Cromer, had continually opposed the establishment of such a university. Only a year after his departure from Egypt, under Sir Eldon Gorst, was the Egyptian University finally established. The Egyptian educational system remained woefully underdeveloped under British rule.[11] Two decades after occupation, education received less than 1 percent of the state budget. Cromer publicly stated that free public education was not an appropriate policy for a nation such as Egypt, although the funds were found to regenerate the law school in Cairo so Egyptians didn't have to go abroad to obtain legal degrees during Sir John Scott's time as Judicial Advisor to the Khedive.[12] Donald M. Reid speculates that this was due to fear that European-style education would create political unrest or foment opposition to British rule. Cromer also opposed providing financial aid to the university after the private committee began to pursue the matter independently of the British.

In its early years, the university did not have a campus but rather advertised lectures in the press. Lectures would be held in various palaces and conference halls. After a grand opening ceremony in 1908, it remained on financial insecure footing for a number of years, nearly collapsing during World War I. Upon its founding in 1908, the Egyptian University had a women’s section but this was closed in 1912. Women were first readmitted to the arts faculty in 1928.[13]

Problems during this period also included a lack of professional faculty to fulfill the founders’ educational vision. There were simply no Egyptians with doctoral degrees, the ability to teach in Arabic and a familiarity with Western literature in their fields with whom to fill professorial posts.[14] Thus European Orientalists who lectured in classical Arabic filled many posts until the 1930s. The university also sent its own students on educational missions to obtain the necessary training. First, the university hired Italians Carlo Nallino, David Santillana and Ignazio Guidi, due to King Fuad I’s connections with Italy. Following the departure of the Italians after the invasion of Libya, French orientalists Gaston Wiet and Louis Massignon took up posts on the faculty. The Germans and British were less represented.

In 1925, the university was re-founded and expanded as a state institution under Fuad I. The liberal arts college (kulliyat al-adab) of 1908 was joined with the schools of law and medicine, and a new faculty of science was added. Ahmed Lutfi al-Sayyid became the first president.

FacultiesEdit

 
Cairo faculty of engineering
  • Faculty of Engineering
  • Faculty of Medicine
  • Faculty of Computers and Information System
  • Faculty of Pharmacology
  • Faculty of Agriculture
  • Faculty of Science
  • Faculty of Economics and Political Science
  • Faculty of Mass Communication
  • Faculty of Archaeology
  • Faculty of Arts
  • Faculty of Commerce
  • Faculty of Specialized Education
  • Faculty of Nursing
  • Faculty of Law
  • Faculty of Physiotherapy
  • Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine 
  • Faculty of Veterinary Medicine
  • Faculty of Dar El-Ulum
  • Faculty of Kindergarten
  • Faculty of Regional and Urban Planning[4]

RankingEdit

University rankings
Global – Overall
ARWU World[15]401-500 (2020)
QS World[16]561-570 (2021)
THE World[17]601-800 (2020)

Cairo University is usually ranked among the top universities in Egypt, and one of the top universities in Africa.

In QS ranking 2021, Cairo University was ranked the 2nd in Egypt and the 6th across Africa, and it was rated 561-570 worldwide.

In the ARWU 2020 ranking, the university was ranked 1st in Egypt. It was rated 401-500 worldwide.

StructureEdit

Cairo University includes a School of Law and a School of Medicine. The Medical School, also known as Kasr Alaini (القصر العيني, Qasr-el-'Ayni), was one of the first medical schools in Africa and the Middle East. Its first building was donated by Alaini Pasha. It has since undergone extensive expansion. The first president of Cairo University, then known as the Egyptian University, was Professor Ahmed Lutfi el-Sayed, who served from 1925 to 1941.[18]

 
Saad Zaghloul.

New Central LibraryEdit

A new Central Library is planned.[19]

Notable alumniEdit

 
Yasser Arafat, 1956
 
Mohamed ElBaradei, 1962
 
Naguib Mahfouz, 1934

Yuriko Koike, former Japanese Minister of Defense and first female governor of Tokyo

Nobel LaureatesEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Brief history and development of Cairo University." Cairo University Faculty of Engineering. http://www.eng.cu.edu.eg/CUFE/History/CairoUniversityShortNote/tabid/81/language/en-US/Default.aspx Archived 2014-08-20 at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ Cuno, Kenneth M. Review: Cairo University and the Making of Modern Egypt by Donald Malcolm Reid. JSTOR. https://www.jstor.org/stable/368175
  3. ^ Cairo University. The roots of Cairo University. Arabic language. http://cu.edu.eg/ar/page.php?pg=contentFront/SubSectionData.php&SubSectionId=29 English language. http://cu.edu.eg/page.php?pg=contentFront/SubSectionData.php&SubSectionId=29
  4. ^ a b Faculties of Cairo University
  5. ^ Mariz Tudros (18–24 March 1999). "Unity in diversity". Al Ahram Weekly. 421. Archived from the original on 30 May 2014. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
  6. ^ Reid, Donald M. Cairo University and the Making of Modern Egypt. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1990. Print. 23.
  7. ^ Cairo University. The roots of Cairo University. Arabic language. http://cu.edu.eg/ar/page.php?pg=contentFront/SubSectionData.php&SubSectionId=29
  8. ^ Reid, 23
  9. ^ Reid, 27
  10. ^ Reid, 234.
  11. ^ Reid, Donald Malcolm. "Cairo University and the Orientalists." International Journal of Middle East Studies 19.01 (1987): 51-75. Print. 60.
  12. ^ Journal of the Society of Comparative legislation, Vol. 1, No2, July 1899, pp. 240-252
  13. ^ Cuno, 531
  14. ^ Reid, 24.
  15. ^ [Academic Ranking of World Universities 2020 http://www.shanghairanking.com/ARWU2020.html]
  16. ^ "QS World University Rankings 2021". Top Universities.
  17. ^ "World University Rankings". Times Higher Education (THE). 2019-08-20. Retrieved 2020-08-15.
  18. ^ "Cairo University Presidents". Cairo University. Retrieved 2 January 2013.
  19. ^ New Central Library Archived 2012-03-10 at the Wayback Machine, Cairo University.
  20. ^ "2003 Honorary Degree". Purdue University. Retrieved 23 July 2019.
  21. ^ Rizk, Yunan Labib. "Al-Ahram Weekly | Chronicles | Lady lawyer". weekly.ahram.org.eg. Archived from the original on 2016-10-02. Retrieved 2016-09-29.
  22. ^ "Profile: Ayman al-Zawahiri". August 13, 2015 – via BBC.
  23. ^ "A closer look at Ayman al-Zawahiri". The Washington Post.
  • Reid, Donald Malcolm. Cairo University and the Making of Modern Egypt. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1990. Print.
  • Reid, Donald Malcolm. "Cairo University and the Orientalists." International Journal of Middle East Studies 19.01 (1987): 51-75. Print.
  • Cairo University (English) جامعة القاهرة (Arabic) جامعة القاهرة

External linksEdit