The 1910s (pronounced "nineteen-tens" abbreviated as the "10s" or simply the "Tens") was a decade that began on January 1, 1910, and ended on December 31, 1919.

Ford Model TSinking of the TitanicWorld War ISpanish fluWestern Front (World War 1)Eastern Front (World War I)Russian RevolutionBattle of the Somme
From left, clockwise: The Ford Model T is introduced and becomes widespread; The sinking of the RMS Titanic causes the deaths of nearly 1,500 people and attracts global and historical attention; Title bar: All the events below are part of World War I (1914–1918); French Army lookout at his observation post in 1917; Russian troops awaiting a German attack; A ration party of the Royal Irish Rifles in a communication trench during the Battle of the Somme; Vladimir Lenin addresses a crowd in the midst of the Russian Revolution, beginning in 1917; A flu pandemic in 1918 kills tens of millions worldwide.
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The 1910s represented the culmination of European militarism which had its beginnings during the second half of the 19th century. The conservative lifestyles during the first half of the decade, as well as the legacy of military alliances, were forever changed by the assassination, on June 28, 1914, of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne. The murder triggered a chain of events in which, within 33 days, World War I broke out in Europe on August 1, 1914. The conflict dragged on until a truce was declared on November 11, 1918, leading to the controversial, one-sided Treaty of Versailles, which was signed on June 28, 1919.

The war's end triggered the abdication of various monarchies and the collapse of four of the last modern empires of Russia, Germany, Ottoman Turkey and Austria-Hungary, with the latter splintered into Austria, Hungary, southern Poland (who acquired most of their land in a war with Soviet Russia), Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia, as well as the unification of Romania with Transylvania and Moldavia. However, each of these states (with the possible exception of Yugoslavia) had large German and Hungarian minorities, creating some unexpected problems that would be brought to light in the next two decades. (See Dissolution of Austro-Hungarian Empire: Successor states for better description of composition of names of successor countries/states following the splinter.)

The decade was also a period of revolution in many countries. The Portuguese 5 October 1910 revolution, which ended the eight-century long monarchy, spearheaded the trend, followed by the Mexican Revolution in November 1910, which led to the ousting of dictator Porfirio Diaz, developing into a violent civil war that dragged on until mid-1920, not long after a new Mexican Constitution was signed and ratified. The Russian Empire had a similar fate, since its participation in World War I led it to a social, political and economical collapse which made the tsarist autocracy unsustainable and, succeeding the events of 1905, culminated in the Russian Revolution and the establishment of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, under the direction of the Bolshevik Party later renamed as Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The Russian Revolution of 1917, known as the October Revolution, was followed by the Russian Civil War, which dragged on until approximately late 1922. China saw 2,000 years of imperial rule end with the Xinhai Revolution, becoming a nominal republic until Yuan Shikai's failed attempt to restore the monarchy and his death started the Warlord Era in 1916.

Treaty of Versailles

Much of the music in these years was ballroom-themed. Many of the fashionable restaurants were equipped with dance floors. Prohibition in the United States began January 16, 1919, with the ratification of the Eighteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. Best-selling books of this decade include The Inside of the Cup, Seventeen, Mr. Britling Sees It Through, and The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse.

Politics and warsEdit

WarsEdit

Internal conflictsEdit

Major political changesEdit

Decolonization and independenceEdit

Prominent political eventsEdit

Assassinations and attemptsEdit

Prominent assassinations, targeted killings, and assassination attempts include:

DisastersEdit

 
Sinking of the Titanic.

Other significant international eventsEdit

Science and technologyEdit

TechnologyEdit

 
British World War I Mark V tank

ScienceEdit

EconomicsEdit

Popular cultureEdit

SportsEdit

Literature and artsEdit

Below are the best-selling books in the United States of each year, as determined by The Bookman, a New York-based literary journal (1910 - 1912) and Publishers Weekly (1913 and beyond).[14]

Visual ArtsEdit

The 1913 Armory Show in New York City was a seminal event in the history of Modern Art. Innovative contemporaneous artists from Europe and the United States exhibited together in a massive group exhibition in New York City, and Chicago.

Art movementsEdit

Cubism and related movementsEdit
Expressionism and related movementsEdit
Geometric abstraction and related movementsEdit
Other movements and techniquesEdit

Influential artistsEdit

PeopleEdit

PoliticsEdit

  • John Barrett, Director-general Organization of American States
  • Georges Louis Beer, Chairman Permanent Mandates Commission
  • Henry P. Davison, Chairman International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies
  • Sir James Eric Drummond, Secretary-general League of Nations
  • Emil Frey, Director International Telecommunication Union
  • Christian Louis Lange, Secretary-general Inter-Parliamentary Union
  • Baron Louis Paul Marie Hubert Michiels van Verduynen, Secretary-general Permanent Court of Arbitration
  • William E. Rappard, Secretary-general International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies
  • Manfred von Richthofen, alias the "Red Baron", fighter pilot
  • Eugène Ruffy, Director Universal Postal Union
  • William Napier Shaw, President World Meteorological Organization
  • Albert Thomas, Director International Labour Organization
  • Grigory Yevseyevich Zinoviev, Chairman of the Executive Committee Communist International

BusinessEdit

InventorsEdit

AuthorsEdit

EntertainersEdit

Sports figuresEdit

BaseballEdit

 
Babe Ruth, 1915

OlympicsEdit

BoxingEdit

See alsoEdit

TimelineEdit

The following articles contain brief timelines which list the most prominent events of the decade:

1910191119121913191419151916191719181919

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Dictionary of Genocide, by Samuel Totten, Paul Robert Bartrop, Steven L. Jacobs, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2008, ISBN 0-313-34642-9, p. 19
  2. ^ Intolerance: a general survey, by Lise Noël, Arnold Bennett, 1994, ISBN 0773511873, p. 101
  3. ^ Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Society, by Richard T. Schaefer, 2008, p. 90
  4. ^ Friedel, Robert D (1996). Zipper : an Exploration in Novelty. New York: Norton. p. 94. ISBN 0393313654. OCLC 757885297.
  5. ^ "A Non-Rusting Steel: Sheffield Invention Especially Good for Table Cutlery" (PDF). The New York Times. 1914-01-31. Retrieved 2017-05-11.
  6. ^ "Bread-toaster" (Patent #1,387,670 application filed May 29, 1919, granted August 16, 1921). Google Patents. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  7. ^ "Patent for Bread-Toaster Issued October 18, 1921". United States Patent and Trademark Office. Archived from the original (Patent #1,394,450 application filed June 22, 1920, granted October 18, 1921) on October 27, 2018. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  8. ^ Brinkley, Douglas (2004). Wheels for the world : Henry Ford, his company, and a century of progress, 1903-2003. Penguin Books. ISBN 9780142004395. OCLC 796971541.
  9. ^ Watson, Greig (2014-02-24). "World War One: The tank's secret Lincoln origins". BBC News. Retrieved 2017-05-11.
  10. ^ MBTA (2010). "About the MBTA-The "El"". MBTA. Archived from the original on 26 November 2010. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  11. ^ O'Conner, J.J.; Robertson, E.F. (May 1996). "General relativity". www.st-andrews.ac.uk. University of St. Andrews. Retrieved 2017-05-11.
  12. ^ "Gerade auf LeMO gesehen: LeMO Bestand: Biografie". www.dhm.de (in German). Stiftung Deutsches Historisches Museum. 2014-09-14. Retrieved 2017-05-11.
  13. ^ Demhardt, Imre (2012) [1912]. "Alfred Wegeners Hypothesis on Continental Drift and its Discussion in Petermanns Geographische Mitteilungen" (PDF). Polarforschung. 75: 29–35. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-10-04.
  14. ^ "Annual Bestsellers, 1910-1919". 2006. Archived from the original on 2011-10-16.

Further readingEdit