James Hubert "Eubie" Blake (February 7, 1887 – February 12, 1983), was an American composer, lyricist, and pianist of ragtime, jazz, and popular music. In 1921, he and his long-time collaborator Noble Sissle wrote Shuffle Along, one of the first Broadway musicals to be written and directed by African Americans. Blake's compositions included such hits as "Bandana Days", "Charleston Rag", "Love Will Find a Way", "Memories of You" and "I'm Just Wild About Harry". The musical Eubie!, which opened on Broadway in 1978, featured his works.
|Birth name||James Hubert Blake|
|Born||February 7, 1887|
Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
|Died||February 12, 1983 (aged 96)|
Brooklyn, New York, U.S.
|Genres||Jazz, popular, ragtime|
|Associated acts||Noble Sissle|
Eubie Blake was born February 7, 1887, at 319 Forrest Street, in Baltimore, Maryland. Of the eight children of former slaves Emily "Emma" Johnstone (1861–1927) and John Sumner Blake (1838–1917), he was the only one to survive infancy. John Blake was a stevedore on the Baltimore Docks earning nine dollars per week.
Blake claimed in the latter part of his life to have been born in 1883, but records published beginning in 2003 – the U.S. Census, military and Social Security records, and Blake's passport application and passport – uniformly give his birth year as 1887.
Blake's musical training began when he was four or five years old. While out shopping with his mother, he wandered into a music store, climbed on the bench of an organ, and started "foolin’ around". When his mother found him, the store manager said to her, "The child is a genius! It would be criminal to deprive him of the chance to make use of such a sublime, God-given talent." The Blakes purchased a pump organ for US$75.00, making payments of 25 cents a week. When Blake was seven, he received music lessons from a neighbor, Margaret Marshall, an organist for the Methodist church. At age 15, without his parents' knowledge, he began playing piano at Aggie Shelton's Baltimore bordello. Blake got his first big break in the music business in 1907, when the world champion boxer Joe Gans hired him to play the piano at Gans's Goldfield Hotel, the first "black and tan club" in Baltimore. Blake played at the Goldfield during the winters from 1907-1914, spending his summers playing clubs in Atlantic City. During this period, he also studied composition in Baltimore with Llewellyn Wilson.
According to Blake, he also worked the medicine show circuit and was employed by a Quaker doctor. He played a Melodeon strapped to the back of the medicine wagon. Blake stayed with the show only two weeks, however, because the doctor's religion didn't allow the serving of Sunday dinner.
Blake said he composed the melody of the "Charleston Rag" in 1899, when he would have been only 12 years old. It was not committed to paper, however, until 1915, when he learned to write musical notation.
In 1912, Blake began playing in vaudeville with James Reese Europe's Society Orchestra, which accompanied Vernon and Irene Castle's ballroom dance act. The band played ragtime music, which was still quite popular. Shortly after World War I, Blake joined forces with the performer Noble Sissle to form a vaudeville musical act, the Dixie Duo. After vaudeville, the pair began work on a musical revue, Shuffle Along, which incorporated songs they had written, and had a book written by F. E. Miller and Aubrey Lyles. When it premiered in June 1921, Shuffle Along became the first hit musical on Broadway written by and about African-Americans. The musical also introduced hit songs such as "I'm Just Wild About Harry" and "Love Will Find a Way." Rudolf Fisher insisted that Shuffle Along "had ruined his favorite places of African-American sociability in Harlem" due to the influx of white patrons. The reliance on "stereotypical black stage humor" and "the primitivist conventions of cabaret," in the words of Thomas Brothers, made the show a hit, running for 504 performances with 3 years of national tours.
In 1923, Blake made three films for Lee DeForest in DeForest's Phonofilm sound-on-film process: Noble Sissle and Eubie Blake, featuring their song "Affectionate Dan"; Sissle and Blake Sing Snappy Songs, featuring "Sons of Old Black Joe" and "My Swanee Home"; and Eubie Blake Plays His Fantasy on Swanee River, featuring Blake performing his "Fantasy on Swanee River". These films are preserved in the Maurice Zouary film collection in the Library of Congress collection. He also appeared in Warner Brothers' 1932 short film Pie, Pie Blackbird with the Nicholas Brothers, Nina Mae McKinney, and Noble Sissle. That same year he and his orchestra provided as well most of the music for the film Harlem Is Heaven.
In July 1910, Blake married Avis Elizabeth Cecelia Lee (1881–1938), proposing to her in a chauffeur-driven car he hired. Blake and Lee met around 1895, when both attended Primary School No. 2, at 200 East Street in Baltimore. In 1910, Blake brought his newlywed to Atlantic City, New Jersey, where he had already found employment at the Boathouse nightclub.
In 1938, Avis was diagnosed with tuberculosis. She died later that year, at the age of 58. Of his loss, Blake said, "In my life I never knew what it was to be alone. At first when Avis got sick, I thought she just had a cold, but when time passed and she didn’t get better, I made her go to a doctor and we found out she had TB … I suppose I knew from when we found out she had the TB, I understood that it was just a matter of time."
While serving as bandleader with the United Service Organizations (USO) during World War II, he met Marion Grant Tyler (1896-1982), the widow of the violinist Willy Tyler. Blake and Tyler married in 1945. She was a performer and a businesswoman and became his valued business manager until her death in 1982. In 1946, Blake retired from performing and enrolled in New York University, where he studied the Schillinger System of music composition, graduating in two and a half years. He spent the next two decades using the Schillinger System to transcribe songs that he had memorized but had never written down.
Blake was a frequent guest of The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson and Merv Griffin. He was featured by leading conductors, such as Leonard Bernstein and Arthur Fiedler. In 1977 he played Will Williams in the Jeremy Kagan biographical film Scott Joplin. By 1975, he had been awarded honorary doctorates from Rutgers, the New England Conservatory, the University of Maryland, Morgan State University, Pratt Institute, Brooklyn College, and Dartmouth. On October 9, 1981, he received the Presidential Medal of Freedom, awarded by President Ronald Reagan.
Eubie!, a revue featuring the music of Blake, with lyrics by Noble Sissle, Andy Razaf, Johnny Brandon, F. E. Miller, and Jim Europe, opened on Broadway in 1978. The show was a hit at the Ambassador Theatre, where it ran for 439 performances. The production received three nominations for Tony Awards, including one for Blake's score. The show was filmed in 1981 with the original cast members, including Lesley Dockery, Gregory Hines and Maurice Hines. Blake performed with Gregory Hines on the television program Saturday Night Live on March 10, 1979.
He was interred in Cypress Hills Cemetery in Brooklyn, New York. His headstone, engraved with the musical notation of "I'm Just Wild About Harry", was commissioned by the African Atlantic Genealogical Society (AAGS). The bronze sculpture of Blake's bespectacled face was created by David Byer-Tyre, curator and director of the African American Museum and Center for Education and Applied Arts, in Hempstead, New York. The original inscription indicated his correct year of birth, but individuals close to him insisted that Blake be indulged and paid to have the inscription changed.
Blake was reported to have said, on his birthday in 1979, "If I'd known I was going to live this long, I would have taken better care of myself", but it has been attributed to others including Adolph Zukor, Mae West and Mickey Mantle, and appeared in print at least as early as 1966.
Honors and awardsEdit
- 1969: Nomination for a Grammy Award for The 86 Years of Eubie Blake in the category of "Best Instrumental Jazz Performance, Small Group or Soloist with Small Group"
- 1972: Omega Psi Phi Scroll of Honor
- 1974: Doctor of Fine Arts, Rutgers University 
- 1974: Doctor of Humane Letters, Dartmouth College,
- 1978: Doctor of Fine Arts, University of Maryland
- 1979: Doctor of Music, Morgan State University
- 1980: George Peabody Medal, Johns Hopkins University
- 1981: Presidential Medal of Freedom, October 9, 1981, awarded by President Ronald Reagan
- 1982: Doctor of Music, Howard University
- 1995: United States Postal Service stamp issued in his honor
- 1995: Induction into the American Theatre Hall of Fame, New York City
- 1998: James Hubert Blake High School in Cloverly, Maryland
- 2006: The album The Eighty-Six Years of Eubie Blake (1969) was included by the National Recording Preservation Board in the Library of Congress' National Recording Registry. The board annually selects songs that are "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant."
- Sullivan, John Jeremiah (March 24, 2016). "'Shuffle Along' and the Lost History of Black Performance in America". The New York Times Magazine. Retrieved March 27, 2016.
- "The 93 Years Of Eubie Blake | AMERICAN HERITAGE". www.americanheritage.com. Retrieved 2019-02-24.
- Waldo, Terry (2009). This is ragtime. p. 233.
- Brooks, Tim (2004). Lost sounds: Blacks and the birth of the recording industry, 1890-1919. p. 564n1.
- Green, Jeffrey; Lotz, Rainer E.; Rye, Howard (2013). Black Europe. 2. p. 268.
- Prahlad, Anand (2006). The Greenwood Encyclopedia of African American Folklore: A-F. Greenwood Press. p. 141. ISBN 978-0-313-33036-0.
- Peter Hanley. "Portraits from Jelly Roll's later travels. April 1923–1941". www.doctorjazz.co.uk.
- Koenig, Karl. "The Life of Eubie Blake". Maryland Historical Society. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved February 17, 2007.
- Aycock, Colleen; Scott, Mark (2008). Joe Gans: A Biography of the First African American World Boxing Champion. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland. p. 228. ISBN 978-0786439942. OCLC 228498035.
- Blake, Eubie; Southern, Eileen (1973). "A Legend in His Own Lifetime". The Black Perspective in Music. 1 (1): 50–59. doi:10.2307/1214125. JSTOR 1214125.
- Curtis, Constance; Herndon, Cholie (April 30, 1949). "Know Your Boroughs – Orchestra Men Talk About Show Business". New York Amsterdam News. p. 15.
- Price, Gary (2017-02-01). "James Hubert "Eubie" Blake". The Syncopated Times. Retrieved 2019-11-30.
- Southern, Eileen (2002). "Eubie Blake". In Kernfeld, Barry. ed. The New Grove Dictionary of Jazz. 2nd ed. Vol. 1. London: MacMillan. p. 231.
- Brothers, Thomas (2014). Louis Armstrong: Master of Modernism. New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Company. pp. 341–44. ISBN 978-0-393-06582-4.
- Brooks, Tim, Lost Sounds, p. 368-382.
- "Pie, Pie Blackbird (1932)", film catalog, Turner Classic Movies (TCM), Turner Broadcasting System, Time Warner, Inc., New York, N.Y. Retrieved February 8, 2018.
- "Harlem Is Heaven (1932)", TCM. Retrieved February 8, 2018.
- Wilson, John S. (1983-02-13). "Eubie Blake, Ragtime Composer, Dies 5 Days After 100th Birthday". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-02-24.
- "Scott Joplin (TV Movie 1977)". IMDb.com. Retrieved 1 June 2018.
- Goldsmith, Melissa U. D.; Willson, Paige A.; Fonseca, Anthony J. (7 October 2016). The Encyclopedia of Musicians and Bands on Film. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 9781442269873. Retrieved 12 February 2017 – via Google Books.
- "Eubie Blake, Ragtime Composer, Dies 5 Days After 100th Birthday". The New York Times. Retrieved December 5, 2014.
Mr. Blake's lawyer, Elliot Hoffman, said the composer died shortly after noon. Mr. Blake, who had suffered a bout of pneumonia, was too ill to attend Monday's birthday celebrations but he heard a concert in his honor at the Shubert Theater by way of a special telephone hookup.
- Haberman, Clyde; Krebs, Albin (February 5, 1979). "Notes on People: Eubie Blake Is Almost Not at the Show on Time". The New York Times. p. C12. ProQuest 120969930.
- Gold, Bill (November 24, 1966). "The District Line...". The Washington Post. p. G20. ProQuest 142887941.
- "Eubie Blake". grammy.com.
- "Past Rutgers University Honorary Degree Recipients | Office of the Secretary of the University". universitysecretary.rutgers.edu. Retrieved 2019-02-24.
- American Theatre Hall of Fame Inductees (1995), nyu.edu; accessed April 6, 2016
- 2006 National Recording Registry Choices, loc.gov; accessed May 18, 2016.
- Brooks, Tim, Lost Sounds: Blacks and the Birth of the Recording Industry, 1890-1919, 363-395, Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2004.
- Rose, Al (1979). Eubie Blake. New York: Schirmer Books. ISBN 978-0-02-872170-5.
- Salute to Eubie Blake, The Rag Times (May/June 1969)
- The New York Times; December 27, 1982, Monday. "Eubie Blake Birthday Party. In honor of Eubie Blake's 100th [sic] birthday, St. Peter's Church, at Lexington Avenue and 54th Street, will hold a 24-hour celebration beginning at midnight February 6. The tribute to the composer will feature a host of musicians, vocalists and dancers, including Billy Taylor, Bobby Short, Dick Hyman, Honi Coles and the Copacetics, Bill Bolcom and Joan Morris, Max Morath, Marianne McPartland, Maurice Hines and Cab Calloway. Mr. Blake, born in Baltimore February 7, 1882, may attend."
- Waldo, Terry (2009). This is Ragtime. New York: Jazz at Lincoln Center Library Editions. ISBN 978-1-934793-01-5.
Media related to Eubie Blake at Wikimedia Commons
|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
- Eubie Blake at Find a Grave
- Eubie Blake at the Internet Broadway Database
- Eubie Blake on IMDb
- The Eubie Blake National Jazz Institute and Cultural Center Baltimore, MD
- The Eubie Blake Collection at the Maryland Historical Society
- Eubie Blake & Ragtime includes transcription of 1970 interview with Blake