Joe Gans

Joe Gans (born Joseph Gant; November 25, 1874 – August 10, 1910) was an American professional boxer. Gans was rated the greatest Lightweight boxer of all-time by boxing historian and Ring Magazine founder, Nat Fleischer. Known as the "Old Master", he became the first African-American World Boxing Champion of the 20th century, reigning continuously as World Lightweight Champion from 1902–1908, having defended the title against 13 boxers.[1] He was inducted into the International Boxing Hall of Fame in 1990.

Joe Gans
JoeGans.jpg
Statistics
Real nameJoseph Gant
Nickname(s)Old Master
Weight(s)Lightweight
Height5 ft 6+12 in (1.69 m)
Reach71 in (180 cm)
NationalityAmerican
BornNovember 25, 1874
Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
DiedAugust 10, 1910(1910-08-10) (aged 35)
Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
StanceOrthodox
Boxing record
Total fights196
Wins158
Wins by KO100
Losses12
Draws20
No contests6

CareerEdit

 
Portrait of Gans

Gans started boxing professionally in early 1891. Starting out in the city of Baltimore, he gained many fans within the boxing world, both white and black alike, with his "scientific" approach to fighting.[2]

Unlike the more brutish and adrenaline fueled styles of fighting more prevalent in the time, Gans’ fighting method involved learning an opponent's strengths and weaknesses in order to compete with a gameplan. He fought through much adversity and unfair stipulations for certain fights. On three separate occasions in 1895, after going the distance, he had to fight an extra round. In a fight versus Johnny Van Heest, "Gans had Van Heese whipped to a standstill in the eighth round, but Mr. Daniel Carr, the referee, ordered an extra round. Though Van Heese had none the best of the last round, he was given the decision.[3] Against Bobby Dobbs, "Gans had to stop Dobbs in 10 rounds or get the loser's end of the purse (25 per cent), and also had to pay Dobbs $50 for every round after 10th that the latter was able to stay. Dobbs asked his seconds to throw up the sponge in the middle of the 14th round, claiming a sore hand. Dobbs was down repeatedly, either from knock-downs or going down on his own. In the fight with Buddy King in 1903, they fought in the drizzling rain[4]

A slender man, never weighing over 137 pounds, Gans frequently fought heavier boxers; this adding to the legend of his scientific fighting technique.[5] He became known as a true student of the sport, earning him the nickname “Old Master”.

Two Fights in One DayEdit

On January 7, 1895, after knocking out Samuel Allen in three rounds, Allen's second, Bud Brown, immediately challenged to fight Gans. Not backing down from a fight, Gans accepted and outpointed Brown in a 10 round points decision.

Title BoutsEdit

On March 3, 1900 at the Broadway Athletic Club in New York, Gans quit with an eye injury in the twelfth round and lost via TKO while challenging reigning lightweight champion Frank Erne in Gans' first title fight.

However, in their rematch two years later at International A.C., Fort Erie, Canada, Gans knocked Erne out in one round to convincingly take the world lightweight title. ""In the exchange Gans got both hands to head and Erne seemed a trifle dazed. Gans felt him out with a left shove to the face, drawing blood to nose. Erne seemed dazed and Gans rushed and exchanged, putting right plump on Erne's jaw. Erne fell slowly to the floor with his mouth and nose bleeding, rolled over on his stomach and was counted out before he could attempt to regain his feet." (wire report)"[6] Gans had thus become the first ever African-American boxing champion; he had also become the first black title holder since the Canadian born, George Dixon won the bantamweight world title in 1892 [7] and the island-born Barbados Joe Walcott won the World Welterweight title on December 18, 1901.[8] Gans reigned as champion from 1902 to 1908.


On January 6, 1902, Gans defeated the former World Welterweight Champion Canadian born Eddie Connolly. Connolly lost in a five round bout at the Washington Sports Club in Philadelphia.

One reporter noted that Connolly, "did nothing but hug and wrestle, adding variety to his performance in the third by deliberately trying to butt the Balitmorean (Gans)". The reporter also noted that Connolly clinched frequently and "wrestled" rather than boxed, probably in attempt to protect himself from the fierce assaults of Gans. By the time the referee ended the bout in the fifth, Connolly had been "rendered practically helpless" by the powerful punching of Gans.[9]

Gans also defended his Lightweight World Title against other talented boxers such as Steve Crosby and Gus Gardiner. There was also Charley Sieger, Kid McPartland, Rufe Turner, Charles "Elbows" McFadden, and Frank Erne.

In an important title defense he defeated the "Durable Dane" Oscar "Battling" Nelson in 42 rounds on September 3, 1906 in Goldfield, Nevada. This blockbuster fight, arranged by legendary promoter Tex Rickard, would eventually be honored with a historic memorial.

on September 15, 1905, Gans fought to a 15 round pre-arranged draw with future Welterweight World Championship claimant Mike "Twin" Sullivan. Most people reporting on the fights believed that Sullivan deserved the decision. In an immediate rematch, he defeated Sullivan by knockout on January 19 and March 17, 1906 in San Francisco and Los Angeles and again in March of the same year.

Although recorded as a Welterweight Title match and the bout supposedly had a weight limit set at around 142 pounds (which was estimated to be Sullivan's weigh in), Gans' weigh in was estimated to have been seven or eight pounds lighter. Gans' defeat of the heavier Sullivan, a strong puncher by reputation, showed his mastery in the ring. In this well attended bout, Gans share of the gate was a considerable $2,425.20 and Sullivan's was $1,616.80. Gans reportedly had bet another $1,700 on himself, which if accurate, made his earnings on the fight quite considerable. [10]

Gans and Battling Nelson fought for the World Lightweight title twice in Colma, California: first on July 4 and September 9 of 1908. Gans will lost the first fight by KO in the 17th round of 45, ending his multi year reign, and subsequently lost the immediate rematch via KO in the 21st round of 45.[10]

Draw with Barbados Joe WalcottEdit

On September 30, 1904, Gans fought to a 20 round draw against Barbados Joe Walcott. "The San Francisco Chronicle reported that Walcott damaged ligaments in his left arm and that it was "useless from the 4th round on". It was announced before the fight that no title was at stake. Referee Jack Welch gave 7 rounds to Gans, 5 to Walcott, with 8 even, but thought that Walcott's aggressiveness compensated Gans' advantage in cleverness. Shortly after this fight Walcott accidentally shot himself in the hand and was out of action until January 1906."[11]

DeathEdit

Joe Gans died on August 10, 1910 of tuberculosis; he was only 35 and had died not long after his final fight. He is buried in Mount Auburn Cemetery (Baltimore, Maryland) in Baltimore. His monument is maintained by the International Boxing Commission and sits just to the left of the main entrance of the cemetery.

It reads: "I was born in the city of Baltimore in the year 1874, and it might be well to state at this time that my right name is Joseph Gant, not Gans. However, when I became an object of newspaper publicity, some reporter made a mistake and my name appeared as Joe Gans, and as Joe Gans it remained ever since."

Professional honors and legacyEdit

 
Joe Walcott vs. Joe Gans

Gans had a final professional record of 145 wins with 100 knockouts, 10 losses, 16 draws, 6 no contests and 19 no decisions (Newspaper Decisions: 13-2-4). He was inducted into the International Boxing Hall of Fame in 1990.[12]

A bronze statue of Joe Gans stands in the suite floor at Madison Square Garden but was previously outside of the locker rooms. Modern day boxers would traditionally bump the statue's outstretched left fist for good-luck before matches.[13]

Gans’ legendary fight on September 3, 1906 with Battling Nelson was commemorated with a memorial located in Goldfield, Nevada at the site of the fight.[14]

Gans was the first African-American to win a World Boxing Championship and the first to win a Lightweight Boxing title. Gans' achievements not only set new records, but gave African Americans hope in the early twentieth century. In a time of racial segregation, champion Joe Gans somehow emerged victorious.[15]

Gans was rated the greatest Lightweight boxer of all-time by boxing historian and Ring Magazine founder, Nat Fleischer.

One boxing historian writes about Gans saying: "through his ring accomplishments, Gans put into action what others could only theorize. The articulation of the black quest for social equality reached large audiences through the pulpits, and the most authoritative sermons were published in newspapers and religious quarterlies".[16]

Motion pictureEdit

 
A four-reel motion picture of the second Gans-Nelson fight in Colma, California, was shown in theaters across the country. Above, reporter-artist Marguerite Martyn sketched her impression of women watching the film in St. Louis, Missouri, in October 1908.

The Gans-Nelson battle in Colma, California was the subject of a four-reel motion picture that played in major cities around the country.

Hemingway connectionEdit

Ernest Hemingway utilized Joe Gans as a character in his 1916 short story 'A Matter of Colour'.[17] This early story set the stage for Hemingway's famous 1927 parable 'The Killers'.[18]

Unofficial Professional boxing recordEdit

Professional record summary
197 fights 157 wins 12 losses
By knockout 100 5
By decision 50 7
By disqualification 7 0
Draws 22
No contests 6

Record with the inclusion of Newspaper decisions to the win/loss/draw column

No. Result Record Opponent Type Round Date Location Notes
197 Win 157–12–22 (6)   Jabez White NWS 10 Mar 12, 1909   National S.C., New York City, New York, U.S.
196 Loss 156–12–22 (6)   Battling Nelson KO 21 (45) Sep 09, 1908   Mission Street Arena, Colma, California, U.S. For world lightweight title
195 Loss 156–11–22 (6)   Battling Nelson KO 17 (45) Jul 04, 1908   Mission Street Arena, Colma, California, U.S. Lost world lightweight title
194 Win 156–10–22 (6)   Rudy Unholz TKO 11 (20) May 14, 1908   Coliseum, San Francisco, California, U.S. Retained world lightweight title
193 Win 155–10–22 (6)   Frank Robson TKO 3 (6) Apr 01, 1908   National A.C., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
192 Win 154–10–22 (6)   Bob Blackburn KO 3 (5) Jan 01, 1908   Germania Maennerchor Hall, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
191 Win 153–10–22 (6)   George Memsic PTS 20 Sep 27, 1907   Naud Junction Pavilion, Los Angeles, California, U.S. Retained world lightweight title
190 Win 152–10–22 (6)   Jimmy Britt TKO 6 (20) Sep 09, 1907   Recreation Park, San Francisco, California, U.S. Retained world lightweight title
189 Win 151–10–22 (6)   Kid Herman TKO 8 (?) Jan 01, 1907   Casino A.C. Arena, Tonopah, California, U.S. Retained world lightweight title
188 Win 150–10–22 (6)   Battling Nelson DQ 42 (?) Sep 03, 1906   Casino Amphitheatre, Goldfield, Nevada, U.S. Retained world lightweight title
187 Win 149–10–22 (6)   Dave Holly PTS 20 Jul 23, 1906   Pleasant Beach, Bainbridge Island, Washington, U.S. Retained world lightweight title
186 Draw 148–10–22 (6)   Jack Blackburn NWS 6 Jun 29, 1906   National A.C., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
185 Draw 148–10–21 (6)   Harry Lewis NWS 6 Jun 15, 1906   National A.C., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
184 Loss 148–10–20 (6)   Willie Lewis NWS 6 May 18, 1906   Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
183 Win 148–9–20 (6)   Mike "Twin" Sullivan TKO 10 (20) Mar 17, 1906   Chutes Park, Los Angeles, California, U.S. Retained world welterweight title claim at 142 lbs;
Police ordered the ref to stop the fight in the 10th
182 Win 147–9–20 (6)   Mike "Twin" Sullivan KO 15 (20) Jan 19, 1906   Woodward's Pavilion, San Francisco, California, U.S. Makes world welterweight title claim at 142lbs
181 Draw 146–9–20 (6)   Mike "Twin" Sullivan PTS 15 Sep 15, 1905   Lyric Theater, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S. Retained world lightweight title
180 Win 146–9–19 (6)   Rufe Turner NWS 6 Mar 27, 1905   Washington S.C., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
179 Win 145–9–19 (6)   Jimmy Britt DQ 5 (20) Oct 01, 1904   Mechanic's Pavilion, San Francisco, California, U.S. Retained world lightweight title
178 Draw 144–9–19 (6)   Barbados Joe Walcott PTS 20 Sep 30, 1904   Woodward's Pavilion, San Francisco, California, U.S.
177 Draw 144–9–18 (6)   Dave Holly NWS 6 Jun 27, 1904   National A.C., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
176 Win 144–9–17 (6)   Sammy Smith TKO 4 (6) Jun 13, 1904   National A.C., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
175 Win 143–9–17 (6)   Kid Griffo TKO 7 (15) Jun 03, 1904   Germania Maennerchor Hall, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
174 Win 142–9–17 (6)   Jewey Cook RTD 7 (10) May 27, 1904   Germania Maennerchor Hall, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
173 Win 141–9–17 (6)   Sam Bolen PTS 15 Apr 21, 1904   Germania Maennerchor Hall, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
172 Win 140–9–17 (6)   Gus Gardner PTS 10 Mar 28, 1904   Arbelten Hall, Saginaw, Michigan, U.S.
171 Win 139–9–17 (6)   Jack Blackburn PTS 15 Mar 25, 1904   Germania Maennerchor Hall, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
170 Win 138–9–17 (6)   Mike Ward TKO 10 (10) Feb 02, 1904   Light Guard Armory, Detroit, Michigan, U.S.
169 Win 137–9–17 (6)   Joe Grim PTS 10 Jan 22, 1904   Shlegel's Hall, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
168 Win 136–9–17 (6)   Clarence Connors TKO 2 (6) Jan 19, 1904   Mount Clemens, Michigan, U.S.
167 Win 135–9–17 (6)   Willie Fitzgerald PTS 10 Jan 12, 1904   Light Guard Armory, Detroit, Michigan, U.S. Retained world lightweight title
166 Loss 134–9–17 (6)   Sam Langford PTS 15 Dec 08, 1903   Criterion A.C., Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.
165 Win 134–8–17 (6)   Dave Holly NWS 6 Dec 07, 1903   Washington S.C., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
164 Loss 133–8–17 (6)   Jack Blackburn NWS 6 Nov 02, 1903   Washington S.C., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
163 Draw 133–7–17 (6)   Dave Holly NWS 6 Oct 23, 1903   State A.C., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
162 Win 133–7–16 (6)   Eddie Kennedy NWS 6 Oct 20, 1903   Southern A.C., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
161 Win 132–7–16 (6)   Joe Grim NWS 6 Oct 19, 1903   Washington S.C., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
160 Win 131–7–16 (6)   Buddy King KO 5 (20) Jul 04, 1903   Old Baseball Park, Butte, Montana, U.S.
159 Win 130–7–16 (6)   Willie Fitzgerald KO 10 (20) May 29, 1903   Mechanic's Pavilion, San Francisco, California, U.S.
158 Win 129–7–16 (6)   Tom Tracey TKO 9 (20) May 13, 1903   Pastime A.C., Portland, Oregon, U.S.
157 Win 128–7–16 (6)   Jack Bennett KO 5 (10) Mar 23, 1903   Masonic Hall, Allegheny, Pennsylvania, U.S.
156 Win 127–7–16 (6)   Steve Crosby TKO 11 (20) Mar 11, 1903   Whittington Park, Hot Springs, Arkansas, U.S. Retained world lightweight title
155 Win 126–7–16 (6)   Gus Gardner DQ 11 (20) Jan 01, 1903   Casino, New Britain, Connecticut, U.S. Retained world lightweight title
154 Draw 125–7–16 (6)   Charley Sieger PTS 10 Dec 31, 1902   Criterion A.C., Boston, Massachusetts, U.S. Pre-arranged draw if lasting the distance.
153 Win 125–7–15 (6)   Howard Wilson TKO 3 (20) Dec 19, 1902   Scituate Athletic Club, Scituate, Rhode Island, U.S.
152 Win 124–7–15 (6)   Charley Sieger TKO 14 (20) Nov 14, 1902   Germania Maennerchor Hall, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S. Retained world lightweight title
151 Win 123–7–15 (6)   Dave Holly NWS 10 Oct 14, 1902   Maennerchor Hall, Lancaster, Pennsylvania, U.S.
150 Win 122–7–15 (6)   Kid McPartland KO 5 (20) Oct 13, 1902   International A.C., Fort Erie, Ontario, Canada Retained world lightweight title
149 Win 121–7–15 (6)   Jack Bennett KO 2 (6) Sep 22, 1902   Golden Gate A.C., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
148 Win 120–7–15 (6)   Gus Gardner KO 5 (20) Sep 17, 1902   Music Hall, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
147 Win 119–7–15 (6)   Rufe Turner TKO 15 (15) Jul 24, 1902   Acme A.C., Oakland, California, U.S. Retained world lightweight title
146 Win 118–7–15 (6)   George "Elbows" McFadden TKO 3 (20) Jun 27, 1902   Woodward's Pavilion, San Francisco, California, U.S. Retained world lightweight title
145 Win 117–7–15 (6)   St Mary's County Bully DQ 3 (4) May 29, 1902   Monumental Theater, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
144 Win 116–7–15 (6)   Charles Boyer TKO 2 (4) May 28, 1902   Monumental Theater, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
143 Win 115–7–15 (6)   Edward Snowden KO 2 (4) May 28, 1902   Monumental Theater, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
142 Win 114–7–15 (6)   Joe Burke RTD 2 (4) May 27, 1902   Monumental Theater, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
141 Win 113–7–15 (6)   Frank Erne KO 1 (20) May 12, 1902   International A.C., Fort Erie, Ontario, Canada Won world lightweight title
140 Win 112–7–15 (6)   Jack Bennett KO 5 (20) Mar 27, 1902   Ford Opera House, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
139 Win 111–7–15 (6)   Jack Ryan TKO 4 (15) Mar 07, 1902   Keystone A.C., Allentown, Pennsylvania, U.S.
138 Win 110–7–15 (6)   George "Elbows" McFadden NWS 6 Feb 17, 1902   Penn Art Club, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
137 Win 109–7–15 (6)   Eddie Connolly DQ 5 (6) Jan 06, 1902   Washington S.C., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
136 Win 108–7–15 (6)   Tom Broderick KO 6 (20) Jan 01, 1902   Germania Maennerchor Hall, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
135 Win 107–7–15 (6)   Joe Youngs TKO 4 (6) Dec 30, 1901   Washington S.C., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
134 Win 106–7–15 (6)   Bobby Dobbs TKO 14 (20) Dec 13, 1901   Germania Maennerchor Hall, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
133 Win 105–7–15 (6)   Billy Moore KO 3 (20) Nov 22, 1901   Eureka Athletic Club, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
132 Win 104–7–15 (6)   Jack Hanlon KO 2 (20) Nov 15, 1901   Germania Maennerchor Hall, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
131 Win 103–7–15 (6)   Dan McConnell KO 3 (8) Oct 04, 1901   Germania Maennerchor Hall, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
130 Win 102–7–15 (6)   Joe Handler TKO 1 (20) Sep 30, 1901   Trenton A.C., Trenton, New Jersey, U.S.
129 Win 101–7–15 (6)   Steve Crosby TKO 12 (20) Sep 20, 1901   Germania Maennerchor Hall, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
128 Draw 100–7–15 (6)   Steve Crosby PTS 20 Aug 23, 1901   Music Hall, Louisville, Kentucky, U.S. For world colored lightweight title
127 Win 100–7–14 (6)   Harry Berger NWS 6 Jul 15, 1901   Ford Opera House, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
126 Win 99–7–14 (6)   Kid Thomas NWS 6 Jul 15, 1901   Ford Opera House, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
125 Win 98–7–14 (6)   Jack Donahue TKO 2 (6) Jul 15, 1901   Ford Opera House, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
124 Win 97–7–14 (6)   Bobby Dobbs KO 7 (20) May 01, 1901   Eureka Athletic Club, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
123 Win 96–7–14 (6)   Martin Flaherty TKO 4 (20) Apr 01, 1901   Ford's Theater, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
122 Win 95–7–14 (6)   Wilmington Jack Daly DQ 5 (20) Feb 13, 1901   Music Hall, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
121 Loss 94–7–14 (6)   Terry McGovern KO 2 (6) Dec 13, 1900   Tattersall's, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
120 Win 94–6–14 (6)   Kid Parker KO 4 (10) Nov 16, 1900   Colorado A.C., Denver, Colorado, U.S.
119 Win 93–6–14 (6)   Jimmy Kelly TKO 8 (10) Oct 19, 1900   Colorado A.C., Denver, Colorado, U.S.
118 Win 92–6–14 (6)   Otto Sieloff KO 9 (10) Oct 16, 1900   Olympic A.C., Denver, Colorado, U.S.
117 Win 91–6–14 (6)   Alec Johnson KO 1 (5) Oct 11, 1900   Leadville Athletic Club, Leadville, Colorado, U.S.
116 Win 90–6–14 (6)   Bird Leg Collins TKO 4 (5) Oct 11, 1900   Leadville Athletic Club, Leadville, Colorado, U.S.
115 Win 89–6–14 (6)   Joe Youngs PTS 10 Oct 05, 1900   Colorado A.A., Denver, Colorado, U.S.
114 Draw 88–6–14 (6)   George "Elbows" McFadden PTS 10 Oct 02, 1900   Olympic A.C., Denver, Colorado, U.S.
113 Win 88–6–13 (6)   George "Elbows" McFadden NWS 6 Sep 07, 1900   Penn Art Club, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
112 Win 87–6–13 (6)   Dal Hawkins KO 3 (25) Aug 31, 1900   Broadway A.C., New York City, New York, U.S.
111 Win 86–6–13 (6)   Whitey Lester KO 4 (20) Jul 12, 1900   Ford Opera House, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
110 Win 85–6–13 (6)   Young Griffo TKO 8 (25) Jul 10, 1900   Seaside A.C., Coney Island, New York, U.S.
109 Win 84–6–13 (6)   Barney Furey KO 9 (15) Jun 26, 1900   People's Theater, Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.
108 Win 83–6–13 (6)   Dal Hawkins KO 2 (25) May 25, 1900   Broadway A.C., New York City, New York, U.S.
107 Win 82–6–13 (6)   Chicago Jack Daly TKO 5 (6) Apr 01, 1900   Broadway A.C., Brooklyn, New York City, New York, U.S.
106 Loss 81–6–13 (6)   Frank Erne TKO 12 (25) Mar 23, 1900   Broadway A.C., Brooklyn, New York City, New York, U.S. For world lightweight title;
Gans asked to have the bout stopped after being cut by an accidental head-butt.
105 Win 81–5–13 (6)   Spike Sullivan TKO 14 (25) Feb 09, 1900   Broadway A.C., Brooklyn, New York City, New York, U.S.
104 Draw 80–5–13 (6)   Kid McPartland PTS 6 Dec 22, 1899   Star Theatre, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
103 Win 80–5–12 (6)   Kid Ash PTS 15 Dec 11, 1899   Robinson Opera House, Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.
102 Win 79–5–12 (6)   Steve Crosby PTS 6 Nov 11, 1899   Star Theatre, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
101 Win 78–5–12 (6)   George "Elbows" McFadden PTS 25 Oct 31, 1899   Broadway A.C., Brooklyn, New York City, New York, U.S.
100 Win 77–5–12 (6)   Martin Judge PTS 25 Oct 11, 1899   Germania Maennerchor Hall, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
99 Draw 76–5–12 (6)   Wilmington Jack Daly NWS 6 Oct 07, 1899   Nonpareil A.C., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
98 Win 76–5–11 (6)   Jimmy Kelly PTS 25 Oct 03, 1899   Lenox A.C., New York City, New York, U.S.
97 Win 75–5–11 (6)   Martin Judge PTS 12 (20) Sep 15, 1899   Music Hall, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S. Police stopped the fight at the end of the 12th round on account of foul work in the clinches.
96 Win 74–5–11 (6)   Eugene Bezenah KO 10 (25) Sep 01, 1899   Broadway A.C., Brooklyn, New York City, New York, U.S.
95 Draw 73–5–11 (6)   George "Elbows" McFadden PTS 25 Jul 28, 1899   Broadway A.C., Brooklyn, New York City, New York, U.S.
94 Win 73–5–10 (6)   Jack Dobbs TKO 4 (25) Jul 24, 1899   Seabright Casino, Ocean City, Maryland, U.S.
93 Loss 72–5–10 (6)   George "Elbows" McFadden KO 23 (25) Apr 14, 1899   Broadway A.C., Brooklyn, New York City, New York, U.S.
92 Win 72–4–10 (6)   Billy Ernst DQ 10 (20) Feb 06, 1899   Olympic A.C., Buffalo, New York, U.S.
91 Win 71–4–10 (6)   Martin Judge PTS 20 Jan 28, 1899   Crescent A.C., Toronto, Ontario, Canada
90 Win 70–4–10 (6)   Young Smyrna KO 2 (25) Jan 13, 1899   Germania Maennerchor Hall, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
89 Win 69–4–10 (6)   Wilmington Jack Daly PTS 25 Dec 27, 1898   Lenox A.C., New York City, New York, U.S.
88 Win 68–4–10 (6)   Kid McPartland PTS 25 Nov 04, 1898   Lenox A.C., New York City, New York, U.S.
87 Win 67–4–10 (6)   William Duke PTS 4 Sep 30, 1898   Monumental Amphitheatre, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
86 Win 66–4–10 (6)   Fred Sweigert PTS 4 Sep 29, 1898   Monumental Amphitheatre, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
85 Win 65–4–10 (6)   James Martin TKO 4 (4) Sep 28, 1898   Monumental Amphitheatre, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
84 Win 64–4–10 (6)   Buck Baynor TKO 3 (4) Sep 27, 1898   Monumental Amphitheatre, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
83 Win 63–4–10 (6)   William Hinton TKO 1 (4) Sep 27, 1898   Monumental Amphitheatre, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
82 Win 62–4–10 (6)   Joseph Smith TKO 1 (4) Sep 27, 1898   Monumental Amphitheatre, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
81 Win 61–4–10 (6)   Herman Miller PTS 4 Sep 26, 1898   Monumental Amphitheatre, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
80 Win 60–4–10 (6)   Thomas Jackson KO 3 (25) Sep 01, 1898   Talbot county fair, Easton, Maryland, U.S.
79 Win 59–4–10 (6)   Young Smyrna TKO 15 (25) Aug 26, 1898   Ford Opera House, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
78 Win 58–4–10 (6)   Billy Ernst KO 11 (25) Aug 08, 1898   Greater New York A.C., Brooklyn, New York City, New York, U.S.
77 Win 57–4–10 (6)   George Brown TKO 6 (10) Jul 01, 1898   Ford Opera House, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
76 Win 56–4–10 (6)   Joe Kid Robinson PTS 6 Jun 03, 1898   Tattersall's, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
75 NC 55–4–10 (6)   Joe Kid Robinson NC 3 (6) Jun 02, 1898   Tattersall's, Chicago, Illinois, U.S. The lights went out in the building, and the show had to be called off until next day.
74 Win 55–4–10 (5)   Steve Crosby RTD 6 (20) May 11, 1898   Music Hall, Louisville, Kentucky, U.S.
73 Win 54–4–10 (5)   Young Starlight TKO 3 (3) Apr 11, 1898   Music Hall, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
72 Win 53–4–10 (5)   Young Smyrna TKO 3 (3) Apr 11, 1898   Music Hall, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S. Police stopped the fight.
71 Win 52–4–10 (5)   Tommy Shortell TKO 6 (8) Mar 11, 1898   Academy Music Hall, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
70 Win 51–4–10 (5)   Frank Garrard TKO 15 (20) Jan 17, 1898   Central Armory, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.
69 Win 50–4–10 (5)   Billy Young TKO 2 (8) Jan 03, 1898   Eureka Athletic Club, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
68 Win 49–4–10 (5)   Stanton Abbott TKO 5 (8) Nov 29, 1897   Academy of Music, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
67 Draw 48–4–10 (5)   Wilmington Jack Daly NWS 6 Nov 06, 1897   Arena, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
66 Loss 48–4–9 (5)   Bobby Dobbs PTS 20 Sep 27, 1897   Greenpoint S.C., Brooklyn, New York City, New York, U.S. For world colored lightweight title
65 Draw 48–3–9 (5)   Young Griffo PTS 15 Sep 21, 1897   Olympic A.C., Athens, Pennsylvania, U.S.
64 Win 48–3–8 (5)   Izzy Strauss KO 5 (15) Aug 30, 1897   Eureka Athletic Club, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
63 Win 47–3–8 (5)   Jack McCue TKO 6 (?) Aug 24, 1897   Shell road, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
62 Win 46–3–8 (5)   John Coates TKO 5 (?) Aug 24, 1897   Shell road, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
61 Win 45–3–8 (5)   Jerry Marshall TKO 8 (?) Aug 24, 1897   Shell road, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
60 Win 44–3–8 (5)   George Thomas TKO 3 (?) Aug 24, 1897   Shell road, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
59 Win 43–3–8 (5)   August Stenzie TKO 3 (?) Aug 24, 1897   Shell road, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
58 Win 42–3–8 (5)   Mike Leonard PTS 20 May 18, 1897   Olympic A.C., San Francisco, California, U.S.
57 Win 41–3–8 (5)   Howard Wilson KO 9 (20) Apr 03, 1897   Polo A.C., New York City, New York, U.S.
56 Win 40–3–8 (5)   Charles Rochette RTD 4 (10) Dec 14, 1896   Woodward's Pavilion, San Francisco, California, U.S.
55 Win 39–3–8 (5)   Jerry Marshall PTS 20 Nov 12, 1896   Eureka Athletic Club, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
54 Win 38–3–8 (5)   Jack Williams TKO 3 (8) Oct 19, 1896   Eureka Athletic Club, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S. Police stopped the fight.
53 Loss 37–3–8 (5)   Dal Hawkins PTS 15 Oct 06, 1896   Bohemian Sporting Club, New York City, New York, U.S.
52 Win 37–2–8 (5)   John Ball PTS 4 Sep 28, 1896   East Side A.C., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
51 Draw 36–2–8 (5)   Danny McBride PTS 20 Aug 31, 1896   Eureka Athletic Club, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
50 Win 36–2–7 (5)   Jack Williams TKO 2 (?) Aug 20, 1896   Eureka Athletic Club, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
49 Win 35–2–7 (5)   Tommy Butler PTS 12 Jun 29, 1896   South Brooklyn A.C., Brooklyn, New York City, New York, U.S.
48 Win 34–2–7 (5)   Jimmy Watson PTS 10 Jun 08, 1896   Bijou Theater, Paterson, New Jersey, U.S.
47 Win 33–2–7 (5)   Jimmy Kennard TKO 6 (12) Feb 22, 1896   West Newton Street Armory, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.
46 Win 32–2–7 (5)   Joe Elliott KO 7 (8) Jan 17, 1896   Eureka Athletic Club, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
45 Win 31–2–7 (5)   Benny Peterson PTS 4 Jan 11, 1896   Ariel A.C., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
44 Win 30–2–7 (5)   George Siddons KO 7 (25) Nov 28, 1895   Eureka Athletic Club, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
43 Draw 29–2–7 (5)   Young Griffo PTS 10 Nov 18, 1895   Front Street Theater, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S. Pre-arranged draw if lasting full distance.
42 Win 29–2–6 (5)   Joe Elliott KO 9 (25) Oct 21, 1895   Eureka Athletic Club, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
41 Draw 28–2–6 (5)   George Siddons PTS 20 Jul 15, 1895   Eureka Athletic Club, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
40 Win 28–2–5 (5)   Howard Wilson PTS 10 May 28, 1895   Kernan's Theatre, Washington, D.C., U.S.
39 Win 27–2–5 (5)   Benny Peterson KO 17 (20) May 20, 1895   Riverside Athletic Club, Brooklyn, New York City, New York, U.S.
38 Win 26–2–5 (5)   George Willis KO 4 (10) May 14, 1895   Monumental Amphitheatre, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
37 Draw 25–2–5 (5)   Howard Wilson PTS 6 May 09, 1895   Monumental Amphitheatre, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
36 Win 25–2–4 (5)   Frank Peabody TKO 3 (8) May 04, 1895   Monumental Amphitheatre, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
35 Win 24–2–4 (5)   Kentucky Rosebud TKO 8 (8) Apr 25, 1895   Front Street Theater, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
34 Win 23–2–4 (5)   David Armstrong TKO 3 (6) Apr 18, 1895   Monumental Amphitheatre, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
33 Loss 22–2–4 (5)   Johnny Van Heest PTS 9 (8) Apr 13, 1895   Monumental Amphitheatre, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
32 Win 22–1–4 (5)   Kentucky Rosebud NWS 6 Apr 01, 1895   Monumental Amphitheater, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
31 Win 21–1–4 (5)   Paul Johnson PTS 6 Mar 22, 1895   Monumental Theatre, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
30 Win 20–1–4 (5)   Harry Hunt TKO 4 (?) Mar 20, 1895   Monumental Theatre, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
29 Draw 19–1–4 (5)   Howard Wilson PTS 10 Mar 18, 1895   Monumental Theatre, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
28 Draw 19–1–3 (5)   Fred Sweigert PTS 10 Mar 07, 1895   Monumental Theatre, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
27 Win 19–1–2 (5)   Solomon English TKO 10 (10) Mar 06, 1895   Monumental Theatre, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S. Police interfered.
26 Win 18–1–2 (5)   Max Wirsing TKO 3 (?) Mar 04, 1895   Monumental Theatre, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
25 Draw 17–1–2 (5)   James Daly PTS 11 (10) Feb 16, 1895   Monumental Theatre, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S. An extra-round was fought.
24 Win 17–1–1 (5)   John Coates PTS 11 (10) Feb 11, 1895   Monumental Theatre, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S. An additional round was fought to decide the winner.
23 Win 16–1–1 (5)   Samuel Young KO 3 (?) Feb 07, 1895   Monumental Theatre, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
22 Win 15–1–1 (5)   Fred Sweigert PTS 10 Feb 06, 1895   Monumental Theatre, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
21 Draw 14–1–1 (5)   Dave Horn PTS 10 Jan 23, 1895   Monumental Theatre, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
20 Win 14–1 (5)   George Brummell TKO 5 (?) Jan 19, 1895   Monumental Theatre, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
19 Win 13–1 (5)   Paul Johnson PTS 10 Jan 11, 1895   Monumental Theatre, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
18 Win 12–1 (5)   Bud Brown PTS 10 Jan 07, 1895   Monumental Theatre, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
17 Win 11–1 (5)   Samuel Allen KO 3 (?) Jan 07, 1895   Monumental Theatre, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
16 Win 10–1 (5)   Fred Sweigert PTS ? Jan 01, 1895   Monumental Theatre, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
15 Win 9–1 (5)   Jack McDonald TKO 8 (?) Dec 28, 1894   Monumental Theatre, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
14 Win 8–1 (5)   John Coates PTS 10 Dec 27, 1894   Monumental A.C., Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
13 Win 7–1 (5)   Fred Sweigert NWS 10 Dec 21, 1894   Monumental A.C., Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
12 Win 6–1 (5)   Travis Brown PTS 6 Dec 17, 1894   Avon Club, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
11 ND 5–1 (5)   Bud Young ND 4 Nov 27, 1894   Canton Academy, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
10 ND 5–1 (4)   Paul Johnson ND 3 (?) Nov 12, 1894   Grand Army Hall, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
9 Win 5–1 (3)   Jackson TKO 3 (4) Jul 10, 1894   Kernan's Theatre, Washington, D.C., U.S.
8 Loss 4–1 (3)   Paul Johnson PTS 5 Jun 27, 1894   Monumental Theatre, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
7 Win 4–0 (3)   Gustav Wilkie PTS 4 Jun 26, 1894   Monumental Theatre, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
6 ND 3–0 (3)   Robert Cook ND ? (?) May 21, 1894   M F Conklin`s Hall, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
5 Win 3–0 (2)   Harry Brian PTS ? (?) Apr 25, 1894   Allerino Gannic Casino, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
4 ND 2–0 (2)   Dave Horn ND 3 (?) Apr 19, 1894   Beach's Hall, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
3 Win 2–0 (1)   William Jones KO 4 (?) Feb 12, 1894   Avon Club, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
2 Win 1–0 (1)   William Jones RTD 6 (?) Nov 27, 1893   Avon Club, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
1 ND 0–0 (1)   Buck Myers ND ? (?) Oct 23, 1893   Avon Club, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.


Official Professional boxing recordEdit

Professional record summary
197 fights 145 wins 10 losses
By knockout 100 5
By decision 38 5
By disqualification 7 0
Draws 16
No contests 6
Newspaper decisions/draws 20
All Newspaper decisions are regarded as “no decision” bouts as they have “resulted in neither boxer winning or losing, and would therefore not count as part of their official fight record."
No. Result Record Opponent Type Round Date Location Notes
197 Win 145–10–16 (26)   Jabez White NWS 10 Mar 12, 1909   National S.C., New York City, New York, U.S.
196 Loss 145–10–16 (25)   Battling Nelson KO 21 (45) Sep 09, 1908   Mission Street Arena, Colma, California, U.S. For world lightweight title
195 Loss 145–9–16 (25)   Battling Nelson KO 17 (45) Jul 04, 1908   Mission Street Arena, Colma, California, U.S. Lost world lightweight title
194 Win 145–8–16 (25)   Rudy Unholz TKO 11 (20) May 14, 1908   Coliseum, San Francisco, California, U.S. Retained world lightweight title
193 Win 144–8–16 (25)   Frank Robson TKO 3 (6) Apr 01, 1908   National A.C., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
192 Win 143–8–16 (25)   Bob Blackburn KO 3 (5) Jan 01, 1908   Germania Maennerchor Hall, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
191 Win 142–8–16 (25)   George Memsic PTS 20 Sep 27, 1907   Naud Junction Pavilion, Los Angeles, California, U.S. Retained world lightweight title
190 Win 141–8–16 (25)   Jimmy Britt TKO 6 (20) Sep 09, 1907   Recreation Park, San Francisco, California, U.S. Retained world lightweight title
189 Win 140–8–16 (25)   Kid Herman TKO 8 (?) Jan 01, 1907   Casino A.C. Arena, Tonopah, California, U.S. Retained world lightweight title
188 Win 139–8–16 (25)   Battling Nelson DQ 42 (?) Sep 03, 1906   Casino Amphitheatre, Goldfield, Nevada, U.S. Retained world lightweight title
187 Win 138–8–16 (25)   Dave Holly PTS 20 Jul 23, 1906   Pleasant Beach, Bainbridge Island, Washington, U.S. Retained world lightweight title
186 Draw 137–8–16 (25)   Jack Blackburn NWS 6 Jun 29, 1906   National A.C., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
185 Draw 137–8–16 (24)   Harry Lewis NWS 6 Jun 15, 1906   National A.C., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
184 Loss 137–8–16 (23)   Willie Lewis NWS 6 May 18, 1906   Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
183 Win 137–8–16 (22)   Mike "Twin" Sullivan TKO 10 (20) Mar 17, 1906   Chutes Park, Los Angeles, California, U.S. Retained world welterweight title claim at 142 lbs;
Police ordered the ref to stop the fight in the 10th
182 Win 136–8–16 (22)   Mike "Twin" Sullivan KO 15 (20) Jan 19, 1906   Woodward's Pavilion, San Francisco, California, U.S. Makes world welterweight title claim at 142lbs
181 Draw 135–8–16 (22)   Mike "Twin" Sullivan PTS 15 Sep 15, 1905   Lyric Theater, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S. Retained world lightweight title
180 Win 135–8–15 (22)   Rufe Turner NWS 6 Mar 27, 1905   Washington S.C., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
179 Win 135–8–15 (21)   Jimmy Britt DQ 5 (20) Oct 01, 1904   Mechanic's Pavilion, San Francisco, California, U.S. Retained world lightweight title
178 Draw 134–8–15 (21)   Barbados Joe Walcott PTS 20 Sep 30, 1904   Woodward's Pavilion, San Francisco, California, U.S.
177 Draw 134–8–14 (21)   Dave Holly NWS 6 Jun 27, 1904   National A.C., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
176 Win 134–8–14 (20)   Sammy Smith TKO 4 (6) Jun 13, 1904   National A.C., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
175 Win 133–8–14 (20)   Kid Griffo TKO 7 (15) Jun 03, 1904   Germania Maennerchor Hall, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
174 Win 132–8–14 (20)   Jewey Cook RTD 7 (10) May 27, 1904   Germania Maennerchor Hall, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
173 Win 131–8–14 (20)   Sam Bolen PTS 15 Apr 21, 1904   Germania Maennerchor Hall, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
172 Win 130–8–14 (20)   Gus Gardner PTS 10 Mar 28, 1904   Arbelten Hall, Saginaw, Michigan, U.S.
171 Win 129–8–14 (20)   Jack Blackburn PTS 15 Mar 25, 1904   Germania Maennerchor Hall, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
170 Win 128–8–14 (20)   Mike Ward TKO 10 (10) Feb 02, 1904   Light Guard Armory, Detroit, Michigan, U.S.
169 Win 127–8–14 (20)   Joe Grim PTS 10 Jan 22, 1904   Shlegel's Hall, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
168 Win 126–8–14 (20)   Clarence Connors TKO 2 (6) Jan 19, 1904   Mount Clemens, Michigan, U.S.
167 Win 125–8–14 20)   Willie Fitzgerald PTS 10 Jan 12, 1904   Light Guard Armory, Detroit, Michigan, U.S. Retained world lightweight title
166 Loss 124–8–14 (20)   Sam Langford PTS 15 Dec 08, 1903   Criterion A.C., Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.
165 Win 124–7–14 (20)   Dave Holly NWS 6 Dec 07, 1903   Washington S.C., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
164 Loss 124–7–14 (19)   Jack Blackburn NWS 6 Nov 02, 1903   Washington S.C., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
163 Draw 124–7–14 (18)   Dave Holly NWS 6 Oct 23, 1903   State A.C., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
162 Win 124–7–14 (17)   Eddie Kennedy NWS 6 Oct 20, 1903   Southern A.C., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
161 Win 124–7–14 (16)   Joe Grim NWS 6 Oct 19, 1903   Washington S.C., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
160 Win 124–7–14 (15)   Buddy King KO 5 (20) Jul 04, 1903   Old Baseball Park, Butte, Montana, U.S.
159 Win 123–7–14 (15)   Willie Fitzgerald KO 10 (20) May 29, 1903   Mechanic's Pavilion, San Francisco, California, U.S.
158 Win 122–7–14 (15)   Tom Tracey TKO 9 (20) May 13, 1903   Pastime A.C., Portland, Oregon, U.S.
157 Win 121–7–14 (15)   Jack Bennett KO 5 (10) Mar 23, 1903   Masonic Hall, Allegheny, Pennsylvania, U.S.
156 Win 120–7–14 (15)   Steve Crosby TKO 11 (20) Mar 11, 1903   Whittington Park, Hot Springs, Arkansas, U.S. Retained world lightweight title
155 Win 119–7–14 (15)   Gus Gardner DQ 11 (20) Jan 01, 1903   Casino, New Britain, Connecticut, U.S. Retained world lightweight title
154 Draw 118–7–14 (15)   Charley Sieger PTS 10 Dec 31, 1902   Criterion A.C., Boston, Massachusetts, U.S. Pre-arranged draw if lasting the distance.
153 Win 118–7–13 (15)   Howard Wilson TKO 3 (20) Dec 19, 1902   Scituate Athletic Club, Scituate, Rhode Island, U.S.
152 Win 117–7–13 (15)   Charley Sieger TKO 14 (20) Nov 14, 1902   Germania Maennerchor Hall, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S. Retained world lightweight title
151 Win 116–7–13 (15)   Dave Holly NWS 10 Oct 14, 1902   Maennerchor Hall, Lancaster, Pennsylvania, U.S.
150 Win 116–7–13 (14)   Kid McPartland KO 5 (20) Oct 13, 1902   International A.C., Fort Erie, Ontario, Canada Retained world lightweight title
149 Win 115–7–13 (14)   Jack Bennett KO 2 (6) Sep 22, 1902   Golden Gate A.C., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
148 Win 114–7–13 (14)   Gus Gardner KO 5 (20) Sep 17, 1902   Music Hall, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
147 Win 113–7–13 (14)   Rufe Turner TKO 15 (15) Jul 24, 1902   Acme A.C., Oakland, California, U.S. Retained world lightweight title
146 Win 112–7–13 (14)   George "Elbows" McFadden TKO 3 (20) Jun 27, 1902   Woodward's Pavilion, San Francisco, California, U.S. Retained world lightweight title
145 Win 111–7–13 (14)   St Mary's County Bully DQ 3 (4) May 29, 1902   Monumental Theater, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
144 Win 110–7–13 (14)   Charles Boyer TKO 2 (4) May 28, 1902   Monumental Theater, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
143 Win 109–7–13 (14)   Edward Snowden KO 2 (4) May 28, 1902   Monumental Theater, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
142 Win 108–7–13 (14)   Joe Burke RTD 2 (4) May 27, 1902   Monumental Theater, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
141 Win 107–7–13 (14)   Frank Erne KO 1 (20) May 12, 1902   International A.C., Fort Erie, Ontario, Canada Won world lightweight title
140 Win 106–7–13 (14)   Jack Bennett KO 5 (20) Mar 27, 1902   Ford Opera House, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
139 Win 105–7–13 (14)   Jack Ryan TKO 4 (15) Mar 07, 1902   Keystone A.C., Allentown, Pennsylvania, U.S.
138 Win 104–7–13 (14)   George "Elbows" McFadden NWS 6 Feb 17, 1902   Penn Art Club, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
137 Win 104–7–13 (13)   Eddie Connolly DQ 5 (6) Jan 06, 1902   Washington S.C., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
136 Win 103–7–13 (13)   Tom Broderick KO 6 (20) Jan 01, 1902   Germania Maennerchor Hall, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
135 Win 102–7–13 (13)   Joe Youngs TKO 4 (6) Dec 30, 1901   Washington S.C., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
134 Win 101–7–13 (13)   Bobby Dobbs TKO 14 (20) Dec 13, 1901   Germania Maennerchor Hall, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
133 Win 100–7–13 (13)   Billy Moore KO 3 (20) Nov 22, 1901   Eureka Athletic Club, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
132 Win 99–7–13 (13)   Jack Hanlon KO 2 (20) Nov 15, 1901   Germania Maennerchor Hall, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
131 Win 98–7–13 (13)   Dan McConnell KO 3 (8) Oct 04, 1901   Germania Maennerchor Hall, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
130 Win 97–7–13 (13)   Joe Handler TKO 1 (20) Sep 30, 1901   Trenton A.C., Trenton, New Jersey, U.S.
129 Win 96–7–13 (13)   Steve Crosby TKO 12 (20) Sep 20, 1901   Germania Maennerchor Hall, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
128 Draw 95–7–13 (13)   Steve Crosby PTS 20 Aug 23, 1901   Music Hall, Louisville, Kentucky, U.S. For world colored lightweight title
127 Win 95–7–12 (13)   Harry Berger NWS 6 Jul 15, 1901   Ford Opera House, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
126 Win 95–7–12 (12)   Kid Thomas NWS 6 Jul 15, 1901   Ford Opera House, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
125 Win 95–7–12 (11)   Jack Donahue TKO 2 (6) Jul 15, 1901   Ford Opera House, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
124 Win 94–7–12 (11)   Bobby Dobbs KO 7 (20) May 01, 1901   Eureka Athletic Club, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
123 Win 93–7–12 (11)   Martin Flaherty TKO 4 (20) Apr 01, 1901   Ford's Theater, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
122 Win 92–7–12 (11)   Wilmington Jack Daly DQ 5 (20) Feb 13, 1901   Music Hall, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
121 Loss 91–7–12 (11)   Terry McGovern KO 2 (6) Dec 13, 1900   Tattersall's, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
120 Win 91–6–12 (11)   Kid Parker KO 4 (10) Nov 16, 1900   Colorado A.C., Denver, Colorado, U.S.
119 Win 90–6–12 (11)   Jimmy Kelly TKO 8 (10) Oct 19, 1900   Colorado A.C., Denver, Colorado, U.S.
118 Win 89–6–12 (11)   Otto Sieloff KO 9 (10) Oct 16, 1900   Olympic A.C., Denver, Colorado, U.S.
117 Win 88–6–12 (11)   Alec Johnson KO 1 (5) Oct 11, 1900   Leadville Athletic Club, Leadville, Colorado, U.S.
116 Win 87–6–12 (11)   Bird Leg Collins TKO 4 (5) Oct 11, 1900   Leadville Athletic Club, Leadville, Colorado, U.S.
115 Win 86–6–12 (11)   Joe Youngs PTS 10 Oct 05, 1900   Colorado A.A., Denver, Colorado, U.S.
114 Draw 85–6–12 (11)   George "Elbows" McFadden PTS 10 Oct 02, 1900   Olympic A.C., Denver, Colorado, U.S.
113 Win 85–6–11 (11)   George "Elbows" McFadden NWS 6 Sep 07, 1900   Penn Art Club, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
112 Win 85–6–11 (10)   Dal Hawkins KO 3 (25) Aug 31, 1900   Broadway A.C., New York City, New York, U.S.
111 Win 84–6–11 (10)   Whitey Lester KO 4 (20) Jul 12, 1900   Ford Opera House, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
110 Win 83–6–11 (10)   Young Griffo TKO 8 (25) Jul 10, 1900   Seaside A.C., Coney Island, New York, U.S.
109 Win 82–6–11 (10)   Barney Furey KO 9 (15) Jun 26, 1900   People's Theater, Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.
108 Win 81–6–11 (10)   Dal Hawkins KO 2 (25) May 25, 1900   Broadway A.C., New York City, New York, U.S.
107 Win 80–6–11 (10)   Chicago Jack Daly TKO 5 (6) Apr 01, 1900   Broadway A.C., Brooklyn, New York City, New York, U.S.
106 Loss 79–6–11 (10)   Frank Erne TKO 12 (25) Mar 23, 1900   Broadway A.C., Brooklyn, New York City, New York, U.S. For world lightweight title;
Gans asked to have the bout stopped after being cut by an accidental head-butt.
105 Win 79–5–11 (10)   Spike Sullivan TKO 14 (25) Feb 09, 1900   Broadway A.C., Brooklyn, New York City, New York, U.S.
104 Draw 78–5–11 (10)   Kid McPartland PTS 6 Dec 22, 1899   Star Theatre, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
103 Win 78–5–10 (10)   Kid Ash PTS 15 Dec 11, 1899   Robinson Opera House, Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.
102 Win 77–5–10 (10)   Steve Crosby PTS 6 Nov 11, 1899   Star Theatre, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
101 Win 76–5–10 (10)   George "Elbows" McFadden PTS 25 Oct 31, 1899   Broadway A.C., Brooklyn, New York City, New York, U.S.
100 Win 75–5–10 (10)   Martin Judge PTS 25 Oct 11, 1899   Germania Maennerchor Hall, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
99 Draw 74–5–10 (10)   Wilmington Jack Daly NWS 6 Oct 07, 1899   Nonpareil A.C., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
98 Win 74–5–10 (9)   Jimmy Kelly PTS 25 Oct 03, 1899   Lenox A.C., New York City, New York, U.S.
97 Win 73–5–10 (9)   Martin Judge PTS 12 (20) Sep 15, 1899   Music Hall, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S. Police stopped the fight at the end of the 12th round on account of foul work in the clinches.
96 Win 72–5–10 (9)   Eugene Bezenah KO 10 (25) Sep 01, 1899   Broadway A.C., Brooklyn, New York City, New York, U.S.
95 Draw 71–5–10 (9)   George "Elbows" McFadden PTS 25 Jul 28, 1899   Broadway A.C., Brooklyn, New York City, New York, U.S.
94 Win 71–5–9 (9)   Jack Dobbs TKO 4 (25) Jul 24, 1899   Seabright Casino, Ocean City, Maryland, U.S.
93 Loss 70–5–9 (9)   George "Elbows" McFadden KO 23 (25) Apr 14, 1899   Broadway A.C., Brooklyn, New York City, New York, U.S.
92 Win 70–4–9 (9)   Billy Ernst DQ 10 (20) Feb 06, 1899   Olympic A.C., Buffalo, New York, U.S.
91 Win 69–4–9 (9)   Martin Judge PTS 20 Jan 28, 1899   Crescent A.C., Toronto, Ontario, Canada
90 Win 68–4–9 (9)   Young Smyrna KO 2 (25) Jan 13, 1899   Germania Maennerchor Hall, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
89 Win 67–4–9 (9)   Wilmington Jack Daly PTS 25 Dec 27, 1898   Lenox A.C., New York City, New York, U.S.
88 Win 66–4–9 (9)   Kid McPartland PTS 25 Nov 04, 1898   Lenox A.C., New York City, New York, U.S.
87 Win 65–4–9 (9)   William Duke PTS 4 Sep 30, 1898   Monumental Amphitheatre, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
86 Win 64–4–9 (9)   Fred Sweigert PTS 4 Sep 29, 1898   Monumental Amphitheatre, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
85 Win 63–4–9 (9)   James Martin TKO 4 (4) Sep 28, 1898   Monumental Amphitheatre, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
84 Win 62–4–9 (9)   Buck Baynor TKO 3 (4) Sep 27, 1898   Monumental Amphitheatre, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
83 Win 61–4–9 (9)   William Hinton TKO 1 (4) Sep 27, 1898   Monumental Amphitheatre, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
82 Win 60–4–9 (9)   Joseph Smith TKO 1 (4) Sep 27, 1898   Monumental Amphitheatre, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
81 Win 59–4–9 (9)   Herman Miller PTS 4 Sep 26, 1898   Monumental Amphitheatre, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
80 Win 58–4–9 (9)   Thomas Jackson KO 3 (25) Sep 01, 1898   Talbot county fair, Easton, Maryland, U.S.
79 Win 57–4–9 (9)   Young Smyrna TKO 15 (25) Aug 26, 1898   Ford Opera House, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
78 Win 56–4–9 (9)   Billy Ernst KO 11 (25) Aug 08, 1898   Greater New York A.C., Brooklyn, New York City, New York, U.S.
77 Win 55–4–9 (9)   George Brown TKO 6 (10) Jul 01, 1898   Ford Opera House, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
76 Win 54–4–9 (9)   Joe Kid Robinson PTS 6 Jun 03, 1898   Tattersall's, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
75 NC 53–4–9 (9)   Joe Kid Robinson NC 3 (6) Jun 02, 1898   Tattersall's, Chicago, Illinois, U.S. The lights went out in the building, and the show had to be called off until next day.
74 Win 53–4–9 (8)   Steve Crosby RTD 6 (20) May 11, 1898   Music Hall, Louisville, Kentucky, U.S.
73 Win 52–4–9 (8)   Young Starlight TKO 3 (3) Apr 11, 1898   Music Hall, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
72 Win 51–4–9 (8)   Young Smyrna TKO 3 (3) Apr 11, 1898   Music Hall, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S. Police stopped the fight.
71 Win 50–4–9 (8)   Tommy Shortell TKO 6 (8) Mar 11, 1898   Academy Music Hall, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
70 Win 49–4–9 (8)   Frank Garrard TKO 15 (20) Jan 17, 1898   Central Armory, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.
69 Win 48–4–9 (9)   Billy Young TKO 2 (8) Jan 03, 1898   Eureka Athletic Club, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
68 Win 47–4–9 (8)   Stanton Abbott TKO 5 (8) Nov 29, 1897   Academy of Music, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
67 Draw 46–4–9 (8)   Wilmington Jack Daly NWS 6 Nov 06, 1897   Arena, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
66 Loss 46–4–9 (7)   Bobby Dobbs PTS 20 Sep 27, 1897   Greenpoint S.C., Brooklyn, New York City, New York, U.S. For world colored lightweight title
65 Draw 46–3–9 (7)   Young Griffo PTS 15 Sep 21, 1897   Olympic A.C., Athens, Pennsylvania, U.S.
64 Win 46–3–8 (7)   Izzy Strauss KO 5 (15) Aug 30, 1897   Eureka Athletic Club, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
63 Win 45–3–8 (7)   Jack McCue TKO 6 (?) Aug 24, 1897   Shell road, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
62 Win 44–3–8 (7)   John Coates TKO 5 (?) Aug 24, 1897   Shell road, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
61 Win 43–3–8 (7)   Jerry Marshall TKO 8 (?) Aug 24, 1897   Shell road, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
60 Win 42–3–8 (7)   George Thomas TKO 3 (?) Aug 24, 1897   Shell road, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
59 Win 41–3–8 (7)   August Stenzie TKO 3 (?) Aug 24, 1897   Shell road, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
58 Win 40–3–8 (7)   Mike Leonard PTS 20 May 18, 1897   Olympic A.C., San Francisco, California, U.S.
57 Win 39–3–8 (7)   Howard Wilson KO 9 (20) Apr 03, 1897   Polo A.C., New York City, New York, U.S.
56 Win 38–3–8 (7)   Charles Rochette RTD 4 (10) Dec 14, 1896   Woodward's Pavilion, San Francisco, California, U.S.
55 Win 37–3–8 (7)   Jerry Marshall PTS 20 Nov 12, 1896   Eureka Athletic Club, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
54 Win 36–3–8 (7)   Jack Williams TKO 3 (8) Oct 19, 1896   Eureka Athletic Club, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S. Police stopped the fight.
53 Loss 35–3–8 (7)   Dal Hawkins PTS 15 Oct 06, 1896   Bohemian Sporting Club, New York City, New York, U.S.
52 Win 35–2–8 (7)   John Ball PTS 4 Sep 28, 1896   East Side A.C., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
51 Draw 34–2–8 (7)   Danny McBride PTS 20 Aug 31, 1896   Eureka Athletic Club, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
50 Win 34–2–7 (7)   Jack Williams TKO 2 (?) Aug 20, 1896   Eureka Athletic Club, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
49 Win 33–2–7 (7)   Tommy Butler PTS 12 Jun 29, 1896   South Brooklyn A.C., Brooklyn, New York City, New York, U.S.
48 Win 32–2–7 (7)   Jimmy Watson PTS 10 Jun 08, 1896   Bijou Theater, Paterson, New Jersey, U.S.
47 Win 31–2–7 (7)   Jimmy Kennard TKO 6 (12) Feb 22, 1896   West Newton Street Armory, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.
46 Win 30–2–7 (7)   Joe Elliott KO 7 (8) Jan 17, 1896   Eureka Athletic Club, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
45 Win 29–2–7 (7)   Benny Peterson PTS 4 Jan 11, 1896   Ariel A.C., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
44 Win 28–2–7 (7)   George Siddons KO 7 (25) Nov 28, 1895   Eureka Athletic Club, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
43 Draw 27–2–7 (7)   Young Griffo PTS 10 Nov 18, 1895   Front Street Theater, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S. Pre-arranged draw if lasting full distance.
42 Win 27–2–6 (7)   Joe Elliott KO 9 (25) Oct 21, 1895   Eureka Athletic Club, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
41 Draw 26–2–6 (7)   George Siddons PTS 20 Jul 15, 1895   Eureka Athletic Club, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
40 Win 26–2–5 (7)   Howard Wilson PTS 10 May 28, 1895   Kernan's Theatre, Washington, D.C., U.S.
39 Win 25–2–5 (7)   Benny Peterson KO 17 (20) May 20, 1895   Riverside Athletic Club, Brooklyn, New York City, New York, U.S.
38 Win 24–2–5 (7)   George Willis KO 4 (10) May 14, 1895   Monumental Amphitheatre, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
37 Draw 23–2–5 (7)   Howard Wilson PTS 6 May 09, 1895   Monumental Amphitheatre, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
36 Win 23–2–4 (7)   Frank Peabody TKO 3 (8) May 04, 1895   Monumental Amphitheatre, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
35 Win 22–2–4 (7)   Kentucky Rosebud TKO 8 (8) Apr 25, 1895   Front Street Theater, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
34 Win 21–2–4 (7)   David Armstrong TKO 3 (6) Apr 18, 1895   Monumental Amphitheatre, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
33 Loss 20–2–4 (7)   Johnny Van Heest PTS 9 (8) Apr 13, 1895   Monumental Amphitheatre, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
32 Win 20–1–4 (7)   Kentucky Rosebud NWS 6 Apr 01, 1895   Monumental Amphitheater, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
31 Win 20–1–4 (6)   Paul Johnson PTS 6 Mar 22, 1895   Monumental Theatre, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
30 Win 19–1–4 (6)   Harry Hunt TKO 4 (?) Mar 20, 1895   Monumental Theatre, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
29 Draw 18–1–4 (6)   Howard Wilson PTS 10 Mar 18, 1895   Monumental Theatre, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
28 Draw 18–1–3 (6)   Fred Sweigert PTS 10 Mar 07, 1895   Monumental Theatre, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
27 Win 18–1–2 (6)   Solomon English TKO 10 (10) Mar 06, 1895   Monumental Theatre, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S. Police interfered.
26 Win 17–1–2 (6)   Max Wirsing TKO 3 (?) Mar 04, 1895   Monumental Theatre, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
25 Draw 16–1–2 (6)   James Daly PTS 11 (10) Feb 16, 1895   Monumental Theatre, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S. An extra-round was fought.
24 Win 16–1–1 (6)   John Coates PTS 11 (10) Feb 11, 1895   Monumental Theatre, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S. An additional round was fought to decide the winner.
23 Win 15–1–1 (6)   Samuel Young KO 3 (?) Feb 07, 1895   Monumental Theatre, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
22 Win 14–1–1 (6)   Fred Sweigert PTS 10 Feb 06, 1895   Monumental Theatre, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
21 Draw 13–1–1 (6)   Dave Horn PTS 10 Jan 23, 1895   Monumental Theatre, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
20 Win 13–1 (6)   George Brummell TKO 5 (?) Jan 19, 1895   Monumental Theatre, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
19 Win 12–1 (6)   Paul Johnson PTS 10 Jan 11, 1895   Monumental Theatre, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
18 Win 11–1 (6)   Bud Brown PTS 10 Jan 07, 1895   Monumental Theatre, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
17 Win 10–1 (6)   Samuel Allen KO 3 (?) Jan 07, 1895   Monumental Theatre, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
16 Win 9–1 (6)   Fred Sweigert PTS ? Jan 01, 1895   Monumental Theatre, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
15 Win 8–1 (6)   Jack McDonald TKO 8 (?) Dec 28, 1894   Monumental Theatre, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
14 Win 7–1 (6)   John Coates PTS 10 Dec 27, 1894   Monumental A.C., Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
13 Win 6–1 (6)   Fred Sweigert NWS 10 Dec 21, 1894   Monumental A.C., Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
12 Win 6–1 (5)   Travis Brown PTS 6 Dec 17, 1894   Avon Club, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
11 ND 5–1 (5)   Bud Young ND 4 Nov 27, 1894   Canton Academy, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
10 ND 5–1 (4)   Paul Johnson ND 3 (?) Nov 12, 1894   Grand Army Hall, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
9 Win 5–1 (3)   Jackson TKO 3 (4) Jul 10, 1894   Kernan's Theatre, Washington, D.C., U.S.
8 Loss 4–1 (3)   Paul Johnson PTS 5 Jun 27, 1894   Monumental Theatre, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
7 Win 4–0 (3)   Gustav Wilkie PTS 4 Jun 26, 1894   Monumental Theatre, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
6 ND 3–0 (3)   Robert Cook ND ? (?) May 21, 1894   M F Conklin`s Hall, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
5 Win 3–0 (2)   Harry Brian PTS ? (?) Apr 25, 1894   Allerino Gannic Casino, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
4 ND 2–0 (2)   Dave Horn ND 3 (?) Apr 19, 1894   Beach's Hall, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
3 Win 2–0 (1)   William Jones KO 4 (?) Feb 12, 1894   Avon Club, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
2 Win 1–0 (1)   William Jones RTD 6 (?) Nov 27, 1893   Avon Club, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
1 ND 0–0 (1)   Buck Myers ND ? (?) Oct 23, 1893   Avon Club, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.

Sports AchievementsEdit

Awards and achievements
Preceded by
Frank Erne
World Lightweight Champion
12 May 1902 – 4 July 1908
Succeeded by
Battling Nelson
Sporting positions
Preceded by
George Dixon
Latest Born World Champion to Die
August 10 – October 15, 1910
Succeeded by
Stanley Ketchel

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Joe Gans, p. 132" (pdf). The Boxing Register: International Boxing Hall Of Fame Official Record Book. International Boxing Hall Of Fame. Retrieved 26 May 2019.
  2. ^ Gildea, William (2012). Longest fight : in the ring with Joe Gans, boxing's first African American champion. Farrar, Straus and Giroux Publishing.
  3. ^ https://boxrec.com/en/proboxer/9026?offset=0
  4. ^ https://boxrec.com/en/proboxer/9026?offset=0
  5. ^ Aycock, Colleen (2008). Joe Gans: A Biography of the First African American World Boxing Champion. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland and Company. ISBN 978-0-7864-3994-2.
  6. ^ https://boxrec.com/en/proboxer/9026?offset=0
  7. ^ "George Dixon". Ibhof.com. Retrieved February 24, 2020.
  8. ^ "Joe Walcott - BoxRec". Boxrec.com. Retrieved February 24, 2020.
  9. ^ "Eddie Connolly Easy", The Scranton Republican, Scranton, Pennsylvania, pg. 1, 7 January 1902
  10. ^ a b "Joe Gans". BoxRec. Retrieved June 15, 2015.
  11. ^ https://boxrec.com/en/proboxer/9026?offset=0
  12. ^ Roberts, James B.; Skutt, Alexander G. (1990). "The Boxing Register". International Boxing Hall of Fame. Canastota, NV: McBooks Press. Retrieved June 29, 2015.
  13. ^ "Joe Gans Statue". About Travel. Retrieved June 28, 2015.
  14. ^ "Gans Memorial". BoxRec. Retrieved June 29, 2015.
  15. ^ The Longest Fight (2012). Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, New York, NY. 2012-06-19. ISBN 9780374280970. Retrieved June 28, 2015.
  16. ^ Aycock, Colleen (2008). Joe Gans: A Biography of the First African American World Boxing Champion. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland and Company. pp. 6. ISBN 978-0-7864-3994-2.
  17. ^ Lundin, Leigh (January 6, 2013). "Hemingway Punchline". A Matter of Colour. Durban: SleuthSayers.
  18. ^ Lundin, Leigh (December 23, 2012). "Literary Mystery". The Killers. Durban, SA: SleuthSayers. Retrieved June 29, 2015.

Further readingEdit

  • Miles, J.H., Davis, J.J., Ferguson-Roberts, S.E., and Giles, R.G. (2001). Almanac of African American Heritage. Paramus, NJ: Prentice Hall Press.
  • Potter, J. (2002). African American Firsts. New York, NY: Kensington Publishing Corp.
  • Aycock, Colleen and Mark Scott (2008), Joe Gans: A Biography of the First African American World Boxing Champion. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co.
  • The Longest Fight: In the Ring with Joe Gans, Boxing’s First African-American Champion. By William Gildea. Farrar, Straus & Giroux; 256 pages

External linksEdit