In combat sports where champions are decided by a challenge, the lineal championship of a weight class is a world championship title held initially by an undisputed champion and subsequently by a fighter who defeats the reigning champion in a match at that weight class. In professional boxing, the lineal champion is informally called "the man who beat the man".
A break in the direct continuity of a lineal championship can occur when a reigning champion retires or moves to another weight class. Opinions conflict as to what to do when such a breach of continuity occurs. Some require that top "contenders for the title" must fight to become the next lineal champion, while others require a new undisputed champion before the lineage can continue. However, there is no single canonical list of lineal champions at any weight class, because there is no agreed-upon method of determining the starting point for each lineage. There is agreement to discount the sanctioning bodies (such as the WBA, WBC or UFC) stripping a title.
The concept of a lineal champion was developed by boxing fans dissatisfied by the tendency of each of the various sanctioning bodies (WBC, WBA, IBF, etc.) to recognize different champions, and in particular to strip a champion of his title for refusing to fight its top-ranked contender. Prior to the 1970s, this rarely happened; the National Boxing Association (NBA) and the New York State Athletic Commission (NYSAC) sometimes recognized different champions, but there was usually only a short interval before one champion defeated the other. In this era, a title vacancy was generally filled by having a single-elimination tournament box-off between two or more top-ranked contenders. The lineal championship is intended as a return to that era. Several top boxers have specified holding the lineal championship as a personal accomplishment (e.g. Lennox Lewis) or goal (e.g., Nate Campbell). Many boxing experts view the lineal championship as a prestigious status which trumps the world titles being issued by the sanctioning bodies (e.g. Steve Farhood).
Mixed martial artsEdit
In mixed martial arts (MMA), the lineal championship is of particular relevance because until the mid-2000s, the top-ranked fighters were spread out among a number of mixed martial arts promotions across the globe. This included Japanese promotions such as Pride Fighting Championships, Pancrase, and Dream, as well as US-based promotions such as the Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC), World Extreme Cage Fighting (WEC), and Strikeforce. The UFC eventually purchased most of the major promotions and, as a result, all of the lineal champions are currently signed with the promotion. Former UFC champion Jon Jones was suspended and stripped of the title for reasons resulting from an alleged hit-and-run felony charge. Daniel Cormier, whom Jones had just defeated, subsequently won the vacant UFC title.
An issue in the implementation of a lineal championship is what to do if the lineal champion retires, dies, or moves to a different weight class. Different ways of resolving this vacancy mean the lineal championship may be subject to dispute. Since the modern lineal championship is a notional title tracked by fans, there is no money or organization to arrange a box-off to fill a vacant title, and there may not be consensus on who the top contenders are – this is true both for boxing and MMA. One example given by Cliff Rold, writing for Cyber Boxing Zone, is the light heavyweight title, considered vacant from the time Michael Spinks moved up to heavyweight in 1985 until 1996. While Rold considers Virgil Hill's defeat of Henry Maske as the beginning of the next line of succession, as does Cyber Boxing Zone, Ring magazine controversially traces the title through Roy Jones Jr.
Another criticism of the lineal championship is that a fighter may defend it against inferior opponents. For example, George Foreman was considered lineal champion from 1994 until 1997, when Shannon Briggs beat him. After the WBA and IBF stripped him of their titles in 1995, Foreman fought only two, low-ranked opponents before Briggs. The lineal champion is not necessarily the boxer viewed as the best. Cyber Boxing Zone and BoxingScene considered Zsolt Erdei the lineal light-heavyweight champion from his 2004 defeat of Julio César González until 2009, when he vacated his title and moved up to cruiserweight; as he had not fought the highest-ranked opponents in the interim, Cliff Rold conceded, "while the concept of a champion needing to lose a title in the ring is solid, the practice is sometimes highly flawed".
In mixed martial arts, most controversy centers on the proper method for determining the first lineal MMA champion within each weight class. Early fights did not follow the currently agreed upon weight classes determined by the Unified Rules of Mixed Martial Arts, a rule set that was not finalized until the year 2000. For example: Some consider Mark Coleman's victory in 1997, when he became the first UFC Heavyweight champion, to be the beginning of the Heavyweight lineage. Others argue that Royce Gracie's victory at UFC 1 in 1993 is the true heavyweight starting point due to the Open-weight nature of the tournament. In this case, however, the lineal titles converge and unify with the current UFC Heavyweight title, so the champion remains the same regardless of which lineage one chooses to follow.
The boxing magazine The Ring has its own lineal championship. The original sequence was from its first publication in the 1920s until its hiatus in 1989, continuing as late as 1992 in some divisions. When it started awarding titles again in 2001, it did not calculate retrospective lineages to fill in the gap years, instead nominating a new champion. CBZ commented in 2004, "The Ring has forfeited its credibility by pulling names out of its ass to name fighters as champions". In 2007, The Ring was acquired by the owners of fight promoter Golden Boy Promotions, which has publicized The Ring's world championship when this is at stake in fights it promotes (such as Joe Calzaghe vs. Roy Jones, Jr. in 2008). Since 2012, to reduce the number of vacant titles, The Ring allows fights between a #1 or #2 contender and a #3, #4, or #5 contender to fill a vacant title. This has prompted further doubts about its credibility. Sports Illustrated used The Ring lineages for galleries of lineal heavyweight and middleweight champions.
Cyber Boxing ZoneEdit
The Cyber Boxing Zone (CBZ) website maintains lists of lineal champions, with input from boxing historian Tracy Callis of the International Boxing Research Organization. These were first published in 1994, and are retrospective to the introduction of Marquess of Queensberry Rules in 1885. The historical lists have sometimes been updated when new information about old fights comes to light. If its lineal champion at one weight class moves to another class, CBZ does not automatically vacate his title.
BoxingScene.com disagrees with the lineages given by The Ring and by CBZ, especially in lower weight divisions with a higher rate of champions changing division. BoxingScene has traced its own most recent lineages, generally back to the 1990s.
Transnational Boxing Rankings BoardEdit
The Transnational Boxing Rankings Board (TBRB) was formed in October 2012 as a volunteer initiative to provide boxing with authoritative top-ten rankings, identify the singular world champion of every division by strict reasoning and common sense, and to insist on the sport's reform. Board membership includes fifty respected boxing journalists and record keepers from around the world who are uncompromised by sanctioning bodies and promoters. The board was formed to continue where The Ring "left off" in the aftermath of its purchase by Golden Boy Promotions in 2007 and the following dismissal of the editorial board headed by Nigel Collins.
After the new editors of The Ring announced a controversial new championship policy in May 2012, three prominent members of the Ring Advisory Panel resigned. These three members (Springs Toledo, Cliff Rold and Tim Starks) became the founding members of the Transnational Boxing Rankings Board, which was formed over the summer of 2012 with the assistance of Stewart Howe of England. The board only awards vacant championships when the two top-ranked fighters in any division meet, and currently recognizes legitimate world champions or "true champions" each weight classes.
Lineal Boxing ChampionEdit
Since April 6, 2019, LinealBoxingChampion.com (LBC) has been producing monthly, non-computerized divisional rankings for women's professional boxing. Prior to this, no such impartial, independent rankings existed. The rankings are compiled by an international team of ten boxing experts, which includes site editor and member of the International Boxing Research Organization, Adam McMeeking (from the UK), International Women's Boxing Hall of Fame 2019 inductee, David Avila (from the U.S.), Max Boxing journalist and former Boxing Monthly contributor, Anthony Cocks (from Australia)  and Ring Magazine contributor, Yuriko Miyata (from Japan). In keeping with the tradition, the lineal champion status is awarded to the winner of a fight between the number one and number two ranked contenders. Currently LBC recognizes four true Lineal Champions in women's boxing: Katie Taylor at Lightweight, Jessica McCaskill at Welterweight, and Claressa Shields (at Middleweight and Junior Middleweight). Due to its limited number of competitors LBC does not recognize the light heavyweight division.
Current lineal boxing champions (men)Edit
|Weight class||Champion||Reign||Previous holder|
|Heavyweight||Tyson Fury (def. Deontay Wilder)||22 February 2020 – present||Tyson Fury (def. Wladimir Klitschko)|
|Cruiserweight||Mairis Briedis (def. Yuniel Dorticos)||26 September 2020 – present||Oleksandr Usyk (def. Murat Gassiev)|
|Light heavyweight||Artur Beterbiev (def. Oleksandr Gvozdyk)||18 October 2019 – present||Oleksandr Gvozdyk (def. Adonis Stevenson)|
|Super middleweight||N/A||Vacant (since 16 March 2016)||Andre Ward (def. Carl Froch)|
|Middleweight||N/A||Vacant (since 1 January 2021)||Canelo Álvarez (def. Gennady Golovkin)|
|Junior middleweight||N/A||Vacant (since 21 September 2015)||Floyd Mayweather Jr. (def. Canelo Álvarez)|
|Welterweight||N/A||Vacant (since 19 April 2016)||Manny Pacquiao (def. Timothy Bradley)|
|Junior welterweight||Josh Taylor (def. José Ramírez)||22 May 2021 – present||Mikey Garcia (def. Sergey Lipinets)|
|Lightweight||Teófimo López (def. Vasyl Lomachenko)||17 October 2020 – present||Terence Crawford (def. Raymundo Beltran)|
|Super featherweight||N/A||Vacant (since 28 June 2008)||Manny Pacquiao (def. Juan Manuel Márquez)|
|Featherweight||N/A||Vacant (since 19 March 2005)||Manny Pacquiao (def. Marco Antonio Barrera)|
|Super bantamweight||Guillermo Rigondeaux (def. Nonito Donaire)||13 April 2013 – present||Nonito Donaire (def. Toshiaki Nishioka)|
|Bantamweight||N/A||Vacant (since 29 March 1987)||Bernardo Piñango (def. Gaby Canizales)|
|Super flyweight||Juan Francisco Estrada (def. Srisaket Sor Rungvisai)||26 April 2019 – present||Srisaket Sor Rungvisai (def. Juan Francisco Estrada)|
|Flyweight||N/A||Vacant (since 4 October 2016)||Román González (def. Akira Yaegashi)|
|Junior flyweight||N/A||Vacant (since 19 September 2011)||Giovani Segura (def. Iván Calderón)|
|Strawweight||N/A||Vacant (since 1 September 1999)||Ricardo López (def. Hideyuki Ohashi)|
Current lineal boxing champions (women)Edit
These are the current lineal champions recognized by Lineal Boxing Champion.
|Weight class||Champion||Reign||Previous holder|
|Heavyweight||N/A||Vacant (since 25 January 2021)||Geovana Peres (def. Claire Hafner)|
|Middleweight||Claressa Shields (def. Christina Hammer)||13 April 2019 – present||Inaugural champion|
|Junior middleweight||Claressa Shields (def. Marie-Eve Dicaire)||5 March 2021 – present||Inaugural champion|
|Welterweight||Jessica McCaskill (def. Cecilia Braekhus)||13 March 2021 – present||Inaugural champion|
|Junior Welterweight||N/A||Vacant (since 13 April 2021)||Jessica McCaskill (def. Erica Farias)|
|Lightweight||Katie Taylor (def. Delfine Persoon)||1 June 2019 – present||Inaugural champion|
- Muhammad Ali is the only three-time lineal heavyweight boxing champion. He beat Sonny Liston in 1964, George Foreman in 1974, and Leon Spinks in 1978.
- Manny Pacquiao is the first and only fighter in the history of boxing who is credited with lineal championships in five different weight classes (flyweight, featherweight, super featherweight, light welterweight and welterweight) by Cyber Boxing Zone, TBRB and BoxingScene.com. This has been reported by ESPN, CNN Sports Illustrated, The Ring, Yahoo! Sports and many boxing websites. He is also the third fighter in boxing history to win lineal world titles in three of the original eight weight divisions of boxing also known as the "glamour divisions" (flyweight, featherweight, and welterweight), joining the exclusive group of Bob Fitzsimmons and Henry Armstrong. Additionally, Pacquiao has held three Ring titles in three different weight classes (featherweight, super featherweight, and light welterweight).
- Peter Aerts is the only five-time lineal heavyweight kickboxing champion. He beat Patrick Smith in 1994, Andy Hug in 1997, Ernesto Hoost in 1998, Andy Hug in 1998, and Semmy Schilt in 2010.
- Fedor Emelianenko, heavyweight mixed martial artist, held the lineal title for longer than any fighter in history. Fedor won the title from Antônio Rodrigo Nogueira in 2003 and defended it 18 times before eventually losing it to Fabricio Werdum in 2010.
- Claressa Shields and Jessica McCaskill are the only women to be recognized as two-weight lineal champions.
- Raskin, Eric (2008-03-24). "In an ideal world, Casamayor fights the 'Galaxxy Warrior' next". ESPN. Archived from the original on 2015-11-17. Retrieved 2008-11-20.
- Castellano, Daniel J. (2005). "Critique of "Lineal" Boxing Championships". Repository of Arcane Knowledge. Archived from the original on 2020-11-12. Retrieved 2008-11-19.
- Rafael, Dan (2004-02-08). "Lewis retires, saying he has nothing left to prove". USA Today. Archived from the original on 2009-05-03. Retrieved 2008-11-20.
The mission I set out on in the beginning – to become heavyweight champion of the world, undisputed, lineal champion – you could say that mission is complete.
- Jena J. (2018-12-20). "SHO's Farhood: To Me, Fury Lost Lineal Title When He Retired". On The Ropes Boxing. Archived from the original on 2018-12-24. Retrieved 2018-12-22.
I don't want to give the alphabets too much credit and Wilder is obviously an alphabet champion with the WBC, but there's something to be said about lineal titles. It kind of overrides the alphabets at times because we know the alphabets can be nonsensical in who they choose to be champions and who they give title fights to. To me, Fury lost the lineal title when he retired for personal reasons.
- "UFC purchases Strikeforce; UFC boss says organizations to operate independently". Mmajunkie.com. 12 March 2011. Archived from the original on 2016-10-17. Retrieved 2016-10-24.
- "Jon Jones stripped of UFC light heavyweight title, suspended indefinitely". FOX Sports. Archived from the original on 2015-11-28. Retrieved 2015-11-26.
- "The Cyber Boxing Zone". Cyberboxingzone.com. Archived from the original on 2016-12-25. Retrieved 2016-10-24.
- Rold, Cliff. "Boxing's Lineal Mathematics: Champion Versus Champion II". Wail!. CBZ. Archived from the original on 2011-08-09. Retrieved 2010-01-29.
- Rold, Cliff (2009-11-14). "Erdei Vacates: Ding-Dong, the Lineage Argument is Dead". BoxingScene. Archived from the original on 2021-10-17. Retrieved 2010-01-29.
- "WILLIAMS: Why the lightweight division's lineal championship may be the last remaining outside of the UFC". Mmatorch.com. Archived from the original on 2016-08-03. Retrieved 2016-10-24.
- "Boxing News : The Disputed Light Heavyweight Champion of the World". Archived from the original on 2004-10-15. Retrieved 2016-10-24.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
- DeLisa, Mike (August 2004). "What the CBZ Means When it Refers to "Lineal Championships"". The CBZ Journal. cyberboxingzone. Archived from the original on 6 November 2013. Retrieved 12 August 2013.
- "Golden Boy Enterprises' Subsidiary, Sports and Entertainment Publications, LLC, Acquires The Ring Magazine, KO, World Boxing and Pro Wrestling Illustrated". Golden Boy Promotions. 2007-09-12. Archived from the original on 2008-11-19. Retrieved 2008-11-20.
- Kimball, George (2008-04-27). "Calzaghe claim far from undisputed". Boston Herald. Archived from the original on 2012-10-22. Retrieved 2008-11-14.
- "Chat: Chat with Dan Rafael - SportsNation - ESPN". Espn.go.com. Retrieved 2016-10-24.
- "The Horrible New Ring Magazine Championship Policy". Queensberry Rules. 2012-05-04. Archived from the original on 2012-05-07. Retrieved 2016-10-24.
- Magno, Paul (4 May 2012). "Ring Magazine's pretend rankings upgrade 'championship' policy". Theboxingtribune.com. Archived from the original on 2016-03-16. Retrieved 2016-10-24.
- "Lineal Heavyweight Champions - Photos". SI.com. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 12 August 2013.
- "Lineal Middleweight Champs Since 1941 - Photos". SI.com. Archived from the original on 21 May 2013. Retrieved 12 August 2013.
- "The Cyber Boxing Zone Lineal World Champions". Cyber Boxing Zone. Archived from the original on 2018-08-05. Retrieved 2008-11-20.
- "Lineal Boxing World Champions". Cyber Boxing Zone. Archived from the original on 5 August 2018. Retrieved 12 August 2013.
- "New Lineal Bantamweight Championship Title Claimant!". CBZ Historical News. Cyber Boxing Zone. Archived from the original on 6 November 2013. Retrieved 12 August 2013.
- Greisman, David P. (20 September 2010). ""Fighting Words" – Mosley vs Mora Debacle: Caveat Empty". Archived from the original on 17 October 2021. Retrieved 17 August 2013.
- Donovan, Jake (2009-02-16). "Crowning And Recognizing A Lineal Champion – Part I". BoxingScene. Archived from the original on 2021-10-17. Retrieved 2010-01-29.
- Donovan, Jake (2009-02-17). "Crowning And Recognizing A Lineal Champion – Part II". BoxingScene. Archived from the original on 2021-10-17. Retrieved 2010-01-29.
- Donovan, Jake (2009-02-19). "Crowning And Recognizing A Lineal Champion – Part III". BoxingScene. Archived from the original on 2021-10-17. Retrieved 2010-01-29.
- Donovan, Jake (20 February 2009). "Crowning And Recognizing A Lineal Champion – Part IV". Boxingscene.com. boxingscene. Archived from the original on 17 October 2021. Retrieved 12 August 2013.
- "The Transnational Boxing Rankings Board: More Support is Needed - Boxing News". Boxing News 24/7. 2015-07-19. Archived from the original on 2016-10-24. Retrieved 2016-10-24.
- Raskin, Eric (2013-04-02). "TBRB: A viable alphabet alternative?". ESPN. Archived from the original on 2016-04-25. Retrieved 2016-04-24.
- Tim Starks (September 9, 2011). "The Ring Magazine Shakes Up Its Leadership, Threatens Its Credibility". The Queensberry Rules. Archived from the original on May 5, 2016. Retrieved April 19, 2016.
- The Ring updates championship policy
- Gibson, Paul (2 February 2015). "Boxing loses credibility with every new champion. Can the sport be saved?". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 3 January 2017. Retrieved 15 December 2016.
- "What if boxing had one champion for every weight division?". The guardian. October 15, 2013. Archived from the original on May 4, 2016. Retrieved May 27, 2016.
- "LinealBoxingChampion.com: The Record Keeper of Boxing's Lineal Title". Lineal Boxing Champion. Archived from the original on 17 October 2021. Retrieved 26 August 2020.
- "LinealBoxingChampion.com: The Record Keeper of Boxing's Lineal Title". Lineal Boxing Champion. Archived from the original on 2019-11-30. Retrieved 2020-08-26.
- "Member List". 2 August 2019. Archived from the original on 20 November 2020. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
- "Latest News Story on WBAN". womenboxing.com. Archived from the original on 2020-05-18. Retrieved 2020-08-26.
- "Authors". Archived from the original on 2020-09-22. Retrieved 2020-09-19.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2017-11-06. Retrieved 2020-09-19.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Kosei Tanaka-Jonathan Gonzalez WBO flyweight title bout to be streamed live on RingTV.com". The Ring. 22 August 2019. Archived from the original on 17 October 2021. Retrieved 26 August 2020.
- "Fury's lineal championship: To be the man, you have to beat the man". ESPN.com. 12 September 2019. Archived from the original on 22 December 2019. Retrieved 26 August 2020.
- "LinealBoxingChampion.com: The Record Keeper of Boxing's Lineal Title". Lineal Boxing Champion. Archived from the original on 2021-04-12. Retrieved 2020-08-26.
- "Successions | Transnational Boxing Rankings Board". Archived from the original on 2020-04-14. Retrieved 2020-02-23.
- "LinealBoxingChampion.com: The Record Keeper of Boxing's Lineal Title". Lineal Boxing Champion. Archived from the original on 2021-04-12. Retrieved 2021-03-17.
- "Muhammad Ali's victory against Liston went beyond boxing and was a hi-viz jacket for civil liberties, a giant step for mankind". Mirror.co.uk. 25 February 2014. Archived from the original on 19 August 2017. Retrieved 4 April 2018.
- "Ali Regains Title, Flooring Foreman". New York Times. October 30, 1974. Archived from the original on March 12, 2017. Retrieved March 2, 2017.
- "Pacquiao Rebounds, Decisions Bradley". Thecomeback.com. 2016-04-10. Archived from the original on 2016-07-01. Retrieved 2016-10-24.
- "Lineal flyweight boxing champions". The Cyber Boxing Zone Encyclopedia. Cyber Boxing Zone. 2009. Archived from the original on 2000-10-26. Retrieved 2010-01-29.
- "The Lineal Welterweight Champs". The Cyber Boxing Zone Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on March 11, 2019. Retrieved April 15, 2016.
The following list gives credit to "The Man Who Beat The Man." As always ludicrous decisions of "sanctioning bodies" are ignored. Explore our On-Line Boxing Encyclopedia for more info.
- "TBRB on Twitter: 'Jim Lampley and Max Kellerman of @HBOboxing on and Manny's record after #PacquiaoBradley:'". Twitter. 2016-04-09. Archived from the original on 2019-11-10. Retrieved 2016-10-24.
- "MGM Grand Results – Pacquiao Outclasses Bradley in Trilogy Closer". The Sweet Science. 2016-04-09. Archived from the original on 2016-08-28. Retrieved 2016-08-11.
- "Welterweight: Filling the void when championship becomes vacant". Lineal Champs. Archived from the original on 2016-06-24. Retrieved 2016-08-13.
- "Boxing Ratings". Boxingscene.com. Archived from the original on 2021-10-17. Retrieved 2016-10-24.
- "Manny Pacquiao-Timothy Bradley III: Post-Fight Report Card". Boxing Scene. April 11, 2016. Archived from the original on October 17, 2021. Retrieved May 27, 2016.
- Rafael, Dan (2009-05-01). "Pacquiao chases sixth title, history". ESPN. Archived from the original on 2009-05-04. Retrieved 2010-01-25.
- Graham, Bryan Armen (2009-05-04). "Beatdown of Hatton lifts Pacquiao into pantheon of all-time greats". Inside Boxing. CNN/SI. Archived from the original on 2013-07-23. Retrieved 2010-01-30.
- Rosenthal, Michael (2009-10-28). "Pacquiao seeking title in record seventh division". The Ring blog. Archived from the original on 2009-11-01. Retrieved 2010-01-29.
Pacquiao has won titles as a flyweight (1998), junior featherweight (2001), featherweight (2003, The Ring), junior lightweight (2008), lightweight (2008) and junior welterweight (2009, The Ring), which equals Oscar De La Hoya's six-division record. And boxing historian Cliff Rold pointed out that Pacquiao is the only fighter in history to win four lineal titles (112 pounds, 126, 130, and 140)
- Kevin Iole (2016-06-29). "Bob Arum believes Manny Pacquiao 'wants to return'". Yahoo! Sports. Archived from the original on 2016-06-30. Retrieved June 29, 2016.
- Chandler, Michael J. (2016-04-10). "Pacquiao tops Bradley by UD in vintage display". The Score. Retrieved April 10, 2016.
Still the only Eight-Division world champion, Pacquiao's 10 titles paired with the honor of being the first to capture the lineal championship in five different weight classes sets him apart.
- Hogg, Dave (2016-04-10). "Manny Pacquiao makes history in retirement bout". TodaysKnockout.com. Archived from the original on 2016-06-30. Retrieved May 27, 2016.
Manny Pacquiao never got his rematch with Floyd Mayweather Jr., but on Saturday night, he did something that Mayweather never accomplished. By beating Timothy Bradley in his last fight, Pacquaio claimed the vacant linear welterweight title and became the first boxer to win the true championship in five different weight classes. Fittingly, he ended his career by breaking the record he shared with Mayweather.
- "History of the Lineal World Championships". The Lineal Champs. Archived from the original on August 26, 2018. Retrieved April 27, 2016.
- Coffeen, Fraser (2015-02-06). "Kickboxing lineal title history: Lineal Heavyweight gold on the line at Glory 19". Bloody Elbow. Archived from the original on 2016-04-25. Retrieved 2016-10-24.
- "A Lineal Title Supported Argument for the GOAT in MMA". Bloody Elbow. 2015-01-29. Archived from the original on 2016-10-24. Retrieved 2016-10-24.
- Savage, Greg (2010-06-26). "Fedor Loses: Werdum Shocks the World". Sherdog.com. Archived from the original on 2010-06-29. Retrieved 2016-10-24.
- "LinealBoxingChampion.com: The Record Keeper of Boxing's Lineal Title". Lineal Boxing Champion. Retrieved 2021-03-17.