Open main menu

Eastern Ganga dynasty

The Eastern Ganga dynasty or Chodaganga dynasty[1] was a medieval Indian dynasty that reigned from Kalinga from the 11th century to the early 15th century. The territory ruled by the dynasty consisted of the whole of the modern-day Indian state of Odisha as well as parts of West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh and Chhattisgarh.[2] The early rulers of the dynasty ruled from Dantapura; the capital was later moved to Kalinganagara (modern Mukhalingam), and ultimately to Kataka (modern Cuttack).[3] Today, they are most remembered as the builders of the Konark Sun Temple, a UNESCO World Heritage site at Konark, Odisha.

Eastern Ganga Empire
1078–1434
CapitalDantapura
Kalinganagara
Kataka
Religion Hinduism
GovernmentMonarchy
Tri-Kalingadhipati 
• 1078–1147
Anantavarman Chodagangadeva
• 1178–1198
Ananga Bhima Deva II
• 1238–1264
Narasimha Deva I
• 1414–1434
Bhanu Deva IV
Historical eraClassical India
• Established
1078
• Disestablished
1434
Succeeded by
Gajapati Kingdom

The dynasty was founded by King Anantavarman Chodaganga, son of Rajaraja Devendravarman and grandson of Vajrahasta of the Imperial Gangas of Kalinganagara.[4][5][6] His mother was princess Rajasundari of the Chola dynasty.[7] The Eastern Ganga rulers were matrimonially related to the Cholas and Eastern Chalukyas. Their currency was called Ganga fanams and was greatly influenced by the Cholas and Eastern Chalukyas of southern India.[8] Anantavarman was a religious person as well as a patron of art and literature. He is credited for having built the famous Jagannath Temple of Puri in Odisha.[9] King Anantavarman Chodagangadeva was succeeded by a long line of illustrious rulers such as Narasimha Deva I (1238–1264).

The rulers of Eastern Ganga dynasty defended their kingdom from the constant attacks of the Muslim rulers. This kingdom prospered through trade and commerce and the wealth was mostly used in the construction of temples. The rule of the dynasty came to an end under the reign of King Bhanudeva IV (1414–34), in the early 15th century.[10]

Contents

BackgroundEdit

After the fall of Mahameghavahana dynasty, Kalinga was divided into different kingdoms under feudatory chiefs. Each of these chiefs bore the title Kalingadhipathi (Lord of Kalinga). The beginnings of what became the Eastern Ganga dynasty came about when Indravarma I defeated the Vishnukundin king, Indrabhattaraka and established his rule over the region with Kalinganagara (or Mukhalingam) as his capital, and Dantapura as a secondary capital. The Ganga kings assumed various titles viz. Trikalingadhipathi or Sakala Kalingadhipathi (Lord of three Kalinga or all three Kalingas namely Kalinga proper (South), Utkala (North), and Kosala (West)).

Mukhalingam near Srikakulam of Andhra Pradesh bordering Odisha has been identified as Kalinganagara, the capital of the early Eastern Gangas.[11]

After the decline of the early Eastern Gangas reign, the Chalukyas of Vengi took control of the region. Vajrahastha I, a descendant of the early Eastern Ganga dynasty took advantage of the internal strife and revived the power of the Ganga dynasty. It was during their rule that Shaivism took precedence over Buddhism and Jainism. The magnificent Srimukhalingam Temple at Mukhalingam was built during this period.

In the 11th century, the Cholas brought the Ganga Kingdom under their rule.[11]

IntermarriageEdit

The Eastern Gangas were known to have intermarried with the Cholas as well as Chalukyas. The early state of the dynasty may have started from the early 8th century.

Anantavarman ChodagangaEdit

The dynasty was founded by Anantavarman Chodaganga. He is believed to have ruled from the Ganges River in the north to the Godavari River in the south, thus laying the foundation of the Eastern Ganga Dynasty. Also during his rule, the great Jagannath Temple at Puri was built.[11] He assumed the title of Trikalingadhipathi (ruler of the three Kalingas which comprise Kalinga proper, Utkala north and Koshala west) in 1076 CE, resulting in him being the first to rule all three divisions of Kalinga.[9]

IntrudesEdit

Rajaraja III ascended the throne in 1198 and did nothing to resist the Muslims of Bengal, who invaded Orissa in 1206. Rajaraja's son Anangabhima III, however, repulsed the Muslims and built the temple of Megheshvara at Bhuvaneshvara. Narasimhadeva I, the son of Anangabhima, invaded southern Bengal in 1243, defeated its Muslim ruler, captured the capital (Gauda), and built the Sun Temple at Konark to commemorate his victory. With the death of Narasimha in 1264, the Eastern Gangas began to decline; the sultan of Delhi invaded Odisha in 1324, and Musunuri Nayaks[citation needed] defeated the Odishan powers in 1356. Narasimha IV, the last known king of the Eastern Ganga dynasty, ruled until 1425. The "mad king," Bhanudeva IV, who succeeded him, left no inscriptions; his minister Kapilendra usurped the throne and founded the Suryavamsha dynasty in 1434–35.

LegacyEdit

The Eastern Gangas were great patrons of religion and the arts, and the temples of the Ganga period rank among the masterpieces of Hindu architecture.[12]

RulersEdit

  1. Indravarman (496–535)[11]
  2. Devendravarman IV (893-?)
  3. Vajrahasta Anantavarman (1038-?)
  4. Rajaraja I (?-1078)
  5. Anantavarman Chodaganga (1078–1150)[11]
  6. Ananga Bhima Deva II (1178–1198)
  7. Rajaraja II (1198–1211)
  8. Ananga Bhima Deva III (1211–1238)
  9. Narasimha Deva I (1238–1264)[11]
  10. Bhanu Deva I (1264–1279)
  11. Narasimha Deva II (1279–1306)[11]
  12. Bhanu Deva II (1306–1328)
  13. Narasimha Deva III (1328–1352)
  14. Bhanu Deva III (1352–1378)
  15. Narasimha Deva IV (1379–1424)[11]
  16. Bhanu Deva IV (1424–1434)

GalleryEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ The Second Pandyan empire, A.D. 1190–1312 by A.J. Thinakaran, 1987, p.63
  2. ^ Ganga Dynasty britannica.com. Archived November 10, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
  3. ^ B. Hemalatha (1991). Life in medieval northern Andhra. Navrang.
  4. ^ Itihas, Volumes 19-22. p. 14.
  5. ^ Andhra Historical Research Society, Rajahmundry, Madras. Journal of the Andhra Historical Society, Volumes 6-7. Andhra Historical Research Society., 1931. p. 200.
  6. ^ Indian Research Institute. Indian Culture: Journal of the Indian Research Institute, Volume 12. I.B. Corporation, 1984. p. 159.
  7. ^ Indian Research Institute. Indian Culture: Journal of the Indian Research Institute, Volume 12. I.B. Corporation, 1984. p. 160.
  8. ^ Patnaik, Nihar Ranjan (1 January 1997). Economic History of Orissa. Indus Publishing. p. 93. ISBN 978-81-7387-075-0. Retrieved 16 February 2015.
  9. ^ a b Eastern Ganga Dynasty in India. India9.com (2005-06-07). Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
  10. ^ [1] Archived April 10, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. pp. 36–37. ISBN 978-93-80607-34-4.
  12. ^ Ganga dynasty (Indian dynasties) - Encyclopædia Britannica. Britannica.com. Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
  13. ^ Michael Mitchiner (1979). Oriental Coins & Their Values : Non-Islamic States and Western Colonies A.D. 600-1979. Hawkins Publications. ISBN 978-0-904173-18-5.

External linksEdit