Eastern Ganga dynasty
The Eastern Ganga dynasty or Chodaganga dynasty was a medieval Indian dynasty that reigned from Kalinga from the 11th century to the early 15th century. Their rule consisted of the whole of the modern-day Indian state of Odisha as well as parts of West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh and Chhattisgarh. The early rulers of the dynasty ruled from Dantapura; the capital was later moved to Kalinganagara (modern Mukhalingam), and ultimately to Kataka (modern Cuttack). Today, they are most remembered as the builders of the Konark Sun Temple, a UNESCO World Heritage site at Konark, Odisha.
|Eastern Ganga Empire|
|•||1178–1198||Ananga Bhima Deva II|
|•||1238–1264||Narasimha Deva I|
|•||1414–1434||Bhanu Deva IV|
|Historical era||Classical India|
The dynasty was founded by King Anantavarman Chodaganga, descendants of the Western Ganga Dynasty that rule southern parts of modern Karnataka and the Chola dynasty. The Eastern Ganga rulers were matrimonially related to the Cholas and Eastern Chalukyas. Their currency was called Ganga fanams and was greatly influenced by the Cholas and Eastern Chalukyas of southern India. Anantavarman was a religious person as well as a patron of art and literature. He is credited for having built the famous Jagannath Temple of Puri in Odisha. King Anantavarman Chodagangadeva was succeeded by a long line of illustrious rulers such as Narasimha Deva I (1238–1264).
The rulers of Eastern Ganga dynasty defended their kingdom from the constant attacks of the Muslim rulers. This kingdom prospered through trade and commerce and the wealth was mostly used in the construction of temples. The rule of the dynasty came to an end under the reign of King Bhanudeva IV (1414–34), in the early 15th century.
After the fall of Mahameghavahana dynasty, Kalinga was divided into different kingdoms under feudatory chiefs. Each of these chiefs bore the title Kalingadhipathi (Lord of Kalinga). The beginnings of what became the Eastern Ganga dynasty came about when Indravarma I defeated the Vishnukundin king, Indrabhattaraka and established his rule over the region with Kalinganagara (or Mukhalingam) as his capital, and Dantapura as a secondary capital. The Ganga kings assumed various titles viz. Trikalingadhipathi or Sakala Kalingadhipathi (Lord of three Kalinga or all three Kalingas namely Kalinga proper (South), Utkal (North), and Kosal (West)).
After the decline of the early Eastern Gangas reign, the Chalukyas of Vengi took control of the region. Vajrahastha I, a descendant of the early Eastern Ganga dynasty took advantage of the internal strife and revived the power of the Ganga dynasty. It was during their rule that Shaivism took precedence over Buddhism and Jainism. The magnificent Srimukhalingam Temple at Mukhalingam was built during this period.
The dynastic founding started with Anantavarman Chodaganga. He is believed to have ruled from the Ganges River in the north to the Godavari River in the south. This laying the foundation of the Eastern Ganga Dynasty. Also during his rule, the great Jagannath Temple at Puri was being built. He assumed the title of Trikalingadhipathi (ruler of the three Kalingas which comprise Kalinga proper, Utkal north and Koshal west) in 1076. Resulting in him being the first to rule all three divisions of Kalinga.
Rajaraja III ascended the throne in 1198 and did nothing to resist the Muslims of Bengal, who invaded Orissa in 1206. Rajaraja's son Anangabhima III, however, repulsed the Muslims and built the temple of Megheshvara at Bhuvaneshvara. Narasimhadeva I, the son of Anangabhima, invaded southern Bengal in 1243, defeated its Muslim ruler, captured the capital (Gauda), and built the Sun Temple at Konark to commemorate his victory. With the death of Narasimha in 1264, the Eastern Gangas began to decline; the sultan of Delhi invaded Odisha in 1324, and Musunuri Nayaks defeated the Odishan powers in 1356. Narasimha IV, the last known king of the Eastern Ganga dynasty, ruled until 1425. The "mad king," Bhanudeva IV, who succeeded him, left no inscriptions; his minister Kapilendra usurped the throne and founded the Suryavamsha dynasty in 1434–35.
- Indravarman (496–535)
- Devendravarman IV (893-?)
- Vajrahasta Anantavarman (1038-?)
- Rajaraja I (?-1078)
- Anantavarman Chodaganga (1078–1150)
- Ananga Bhima Deva II (1178–1198)
- Rajaraja II (1198–1211)
- Ananga Bhima Deva III (1211–1238)
- Narasimha Deva I (1238–1264)
- Bhanu Deva I (1264–1279)
- Narasimha Deva II (1279–1306)
- Bhanu Deva II (1306–1328)
- Narasimha Deva III (1328–1352)
- Bhanu Deva III (1352–1378)
- Narasimha Deva IV (1379–1424)
- Bhanu Deva IV (1424–1434)
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