Soomra dynasty

The Soomra (or Soomro) dynasty (Sindhi: سومرن جو خاندان, romanizedsoomran jo Khaandan, lit. the family/dynasty of the Soomras) was a late medieval dynasty of Sindh, and at times adjacent regions, located in what is now Pakistan.[1]

Soomra dynasty
Sindhi: سومرن جو خاندان, romanizedsoomran jo Khaandan
1026–1356 (Continued in exile until 1440 in Umerkot)
CapitalThari (in present-day Badin District in Sindh)
Common languagesSindhi (native language)
Arabic (liturgical language)
Religion
Shia Ismaili
GovernmentMonarchy
History 
• Soomra dynasty begins
1026
• Soomra dynasty ends
1356 (Continued in exile until 1440 in Umerkot)
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Habbari dynasty
Samma dynasty
Today part ofSindh

Establishment

The Soomras established themselves as a regional power, shortly after Mahmud of Ghazni's invasion (1010/1025 AD) of Mansura, erstwhile capital of Sindh.[2][3]

The only contemporary source of this campaign is the Diwan-i Farruhi, written by one Abul-Hasan Ali in Persian — he describes the flight and eventual death by drowning of Hafif (var. Khafif) but does not specify whether he was the last Habbarid or first Soomra.[2] Later chroniclers like Ali ibn al-Athir (c. late 12th c.) and Ibn Khaldun (c. late 14th c.) attributed the fall of Habbarids to Mahmud of Ghazni, lending credence to the argument of Hafif being the last Habbarid.[2]

Territory

The Ghurids and Ghaznavids continued to rule parts of Sindh, across the eleventh and early twelfth century, alongside Soomrus.[2] The precise delineations are not yet known but Sommrus were probably centered in lower Sindh.[2]

History

Ahmad Hasan Dani as well as Annemarie Schimmel note the early history of Soomras to be sketchy; they have been retrospectively claimed to be Parmar Rajputs but without proof.[4] Some of them were adherents of Isma'ilism — Arab travelers hold them to be "Qarmatians" and correspondence with the Fatimid caliph, Al-Mustansir Billah have been located.[3][a] One of their kings Shimuddin Chamisar had submitted to Iltutmish, the Sultan of Delhi, and was allowed to continue on as a vassal.[5]

Notes

  1. ^ C. 1105, Isma'ilis of Multan had sought refuge in Masura during Ghazni's invasion of the city and reasons for his campaign(s) against Hafif are noted to be the flourishing river trade of Isma'ilis and his (Hafif's) alliance with Jats.

References

  1. ^ "The Arab Conquest". International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics, Volumes 36-37. XXXVI (1): 91. 2007. The Soomras are believed to be Parmar Rajputs found even today in Rajasthan, Saurashtra, Kutch and Sindh. The Cambridge History of India refers to the Soomras as "a Rajput dynasty the later members of which accepted Islam" (p. 54 ).
  2. ^ a b c d e Collinet, Annabelle (2008). "Chronology of Sehwan Sharif through Ceramics (The Islamic Period)". In Boivin, Michel (ed.). Sindh through history and representations : French contributions to Sindhi studies. Karachi: Oxford University Press. pp. 9, 11, 113 (note 43). ISBN 978-0-19-547503-6.
  3. ^ a b Boivin, Michel (2008). "Shivaite Cults And Sufi Centres: A Reappraisal Of The Medieval Legacy In Sindh". In Boivin, Michel (ed.). Sindh through history and representations : French contributions to Sindhi studies. Karachi: Oxford University Press. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-19-547503-6.
  4. ^ Dani, Ahmad Hasan (2007). History of Pakistan: Pakistan through ages. Sang-e Meel Publications. p. 218. ISBN 978-969-35-2020-0. But as many kings of the dynasty bore Hindu names, it is almost certain that the Soomras were of local origin. Sometimes they are connected with Paramara Rajputs, but of this there is no definite proof.
  5. ^ Aniruddha Ray (4 March 2019). The Sultanate of Delhi (1206-1526): Polity, Economy, Society and Culture. Taylor & Francis. pp. 43–. ISBN 978-1-00-000729-9.