Bhoi dynasty

The Bhoi dynasty[1][2][3] or the Yaduvamsa (IAST: Yaduvaṃśa) dynasty[4][5] was a mediaeval Hindu dynasty from the Indian subcontinent, which originated in the region of historical Odra (most of present-day Odisha, Northern districts of Andhra Pradesh and Southeastern parts of West Bengal) that reigned from 1541 to 1560 CE. Govinda Vidyadhara was the founder of Bhoi dynasty in Eastern India.[6] He seized the throne after killing Kakharua Deva, last ruler of Gajapati Empire. Bhoi rulers had a short - lived reign as ruling chiefs as the ensuing internal rivalries and constant threats of invasions rendered them weak and were eventually overthrown by Mukunda Deva of Chalukya dynasty in 1560.[7][8]

Bhoi dynasty
  • 1541–1560 (Odisha)
  • 1568–1804 (Khurda)
  • 1804–1947 (Puri)
Extent of the Khurda Kingdom in 18th century (c. 1720s-1740s)
Extent of the Khurda Kingdom in 18th century (c. 1720s-1740s)
CapitalCuttack (1541–1560)
Khurda (1568–1804)
Puri (1804-1947)
Common languagesOdia
Religion
Hinduism
GovernmentMonarchy
Gajapati 
• 1541-1548
Govinda Vidyadhara
• 1548-1557
Chakrapratapa
• 1557-1558
Narsimha Raya Jena
• 1558-1560
Raghuram Raya Chotaraya
Historical eraMedieval India
Early modern period
• Established
1541
• Disestablished
1804
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Gajapati Empire
Mughal Empire
Maratha Empire
British Empire
India
Today part ofOdisha, India

Under Ramachandra Deva I, the dynasty shifted its capital to Khurda as Mukunda Deva lost his throne in 1568 to the Sultans of Bengal who eventually lost to the Mughal Empire in 1576. During that period, the Bhoi dynasty and the feudatory Garhjat states of Odisha became autonomous states in their own right and came under the Mughal imperial authority till 1717. Later they became vassals of the Maratha Empire who conquered Odisha by 1741 and were later defeated by the British East India Company in 1803. The kingdom was eventually annexed to the British Empire after the King led a failed rebellion against the British in 1804 and was exiled to Puri. Later, the British granted him the management of the Jagannath Temple which the nominal heads of the dynasty retained to this day. In other words, the Bhoi dynasty still has the administrative control over one of the holiest shrines in Hinduism, which is the Jagannath Temple at Puri.[9]

EtymologyEdit

"Bhoi" was a term used for accountants who belonged to Karan caste of Odisha.[10]

OriginEdit

Govinda Vidyadhara was the founder of Bhoi dynasty. He was a writer by caste.[11][12][13] Historian KC. Panigrahi has theorized Bhoi rulers to be of Karana descent.[14] According to KC. Panigrahi, bhois originally belonged to the Gopala caste, but when they took up the profession of scribes, they became Karanas.[15]

Historian Francesco Brighenti has also theorized bhoi rulers to be of Karana descent.[16]

Historian Hermann Kulke has also theorized Govinda Vidyadhara to be of Karana descent. According to Historian Hermann Kulke Govinda Vidyadhara's ancestors were Karanas (scribes) in Suryavamshi administration, they were given landed property in Rajahmundry area where Govinda's younger son is said to have founded the family of Peddapuram zamindars.[17][18] Historian Ashirbadi Lal Srivastava has theorized Govinda Vidyadhara to be of writer caste descent.[19]

He served as a minister[20] and accountant[21][22] under Gajapati Prataparudra Deva.

HistoryEdit

As Gajapatis of OdishaEdit

With the death of Prataparudra Deva of the Suryavamsa Gajapati Empire in 1540 and a succession of weak rulers lead to the rise of political instability in the kingdom as there was a rise in internal squabbles, economic decline and increasing threats of invasions from both south and northern parts of the subcontinent. In the political chaos, the Gajapati Empire started weakening as Prataprudra Deva's successors were unable to maintain political authority. Taking de facto control of the situation, the general and minister of the kingdom, Govinda Vidyadhara decided to take the opportunity by murdering the successors of the Gajapati king and usurped the throne of Cuttack, thus laying the foundation of the Bhoi dynasty.

Under his reign, the kingdom was still undergoing political upheaval as there were rebellions in different provinces and conflicts with the neighouring Qutb Shahi rulers of the Golconda Sultanate. His 7 year reign came to an end in 1548 and was succeeded by his son Chakrapratapa whose 8 year reign came to an end when he was killed by his son Narasimha Ray Jena in 1557. Around the same time, the influence of Mukunda Deva Harichandan of the Chalukya dynasty began to grow at the court. He assassinated Narasimha Ray Jena and placed the King's younger brother, Raghuram Ray Chotaraya on the throne, making him his puppet ruler while also simultaneously fending off the influence of his rival, Janardhan Danai Vidyadhara, general and minister of Govinda Vidyadhara. The short-lived nearly two decade old reign of Bhoi dynasty as the ruling Kings of Odisha finally came to an end when Mukunda Deva assassinated Raghuram Ray Chotaraya and crowned himself in 1560.[23][24][25][26]

Restoration and establishing the Khurda kingdomEdit

 
Forts located in the Khurda kingdom

With the defeat of the Chalukya king Mukunda Deva at Cuttack in 1568 at the hands of the Sultans of Bengal who subsequently lost to the Mughals in 1576, the fragmentation of territories of former Odra kingdom was well underway as the territories and the Barabati fort at Cuttack came under Mughal imperial control while the native feudatory Kings had become autonomous and vassals to the imperial rule. Meanwhile the surviving scion of the Bhoi dynasty led by the son of Danai Vidyadhara, Ramachandra Rautraya Mahapatra who took the regnal title as Ramachandra Deva I restored Bhoi rule by shifting the power centre by establishing the Khurda kingdom with their capital at Khurda.[27][28] The extent of the kingdom ranged from Mahanadi river in the north to Khimidi in the South, while ranging from Khandapara-Daspalla in the west to the coasts of Puri in the east. He also retained control of the Jagannath Temple at Puri. The temple's status as the residing place of Lord Jagannath, the patron deity of Odia people, enabled Ramachandra Dev and the Bhoi dynasty to continue the nominal status and legacy of retaining the regnal titles of the historical ruling Kings of Odisha.[29][30][31] Hence the Bhoi dynasty lays the foundation and legitimation of a political institution through the possession of a sacred temple-city thus deriving its legitimacy from an older imperial tradition.[32][26]

Under Ramachandra Deva I, the patronage and pilgrimage of Jagannath temple at Puri resumed as he assumed its administrative control. He also constructed the Sakshigopal Temple at Sakhigopal near Puri. He also patronised Odia literature and arts as stability returned during his reign in the region following a spate of invasions. His successors continued to rule the kingdom as autonomous vassals to the Mughal Empire while fending off influence of the Mughal governor at Cuttack and continuing patronage of arts, culture and literature. This period coincides with the Riti Yuga, which is an important phase in Odia literature considering the evolution of language from middle Odia of Sarala and Panchasakhas Yuga to modern Odia.

Independence from Mughal EmpireEdit

Towards the late 17th and early 18th century, with the weakening of the Mughal Empire after its conflicts with the Marathas in the Mughal–Maratha Wars, the Mughal imperial authority over Odisha region started weakening as a result. King Divyasingha Deva I managed to defeat the Subahdar of the Mughal Governor of Bengal in 1707 thereby reducing their influence over the kingdom which eventually became independent of the Mughal sovereign authority by 1717 under his successor Harekrushna Deva.[33][25] By then the feudatory Garhjat states had also become independent due to crumbling of the centralised rule, thus leaving only the Northern coast from Cuttack to Subarnarekha river under the control of the Nawab of Bengal, thereby ending Islamic rule over most of the regions of Odisha.

The Bhois also maintained minor maritime and international trade links, albeit much reduced from the heydays of the Eastern Ganga dynasty and Gajapati Empire. This is noted from the Manchu language memorials and edicts depicting contacts under the reign of Qing dynasty in China, when the Qianlong Emperor received a gift from the Brahmin (Ch. Polomen 婆羅門, Ma. Bolomen) envoy of a ruler whose Manchu name was Birakišora han of Utg’ali (Ch. Wutegali bilaqishila han 烏特噶里畢拉奇碩拉汗), who is described as a ruler in Eastern India. Hence referring to Birakisore Deva I of Khurda (1736–1793) who styled himself as Gajapati, the ruler of Utkala. Many of the gosains entering Tibet from China passed through his territory when visiting the Jagannath temple at Puri.[34]

Under Maratha EmpireEdit

The Maratha Empire under the Peshwas were rapidly expanding over most of the Indian subcontinent and by 1741 had brought most of Odisha and the Barabati fort under their control[25] and also brought the Khurda kingdom under Birakesari Deva I under their vassalage. The Bengal Nawab's control over the Northern coast lasted until 1741 when Maratha Empire led by general Raghoji I Bhonsle of the Nagpur kingdom, led the Maratha expeditions against the Nawabs of Bengal and during the reign of Birakesari Deva I, Maratha invasions of Bengal took place. In 1751 CE, Alivardi Khan signed a peace treaty and ceded the de-jure control of the Northern coast from Cuttack up to the river Suvarnarekha, following which all of Odisha formally became a part of the Maratha Empire, thus ending the last remaining vestiges of Islamic rule over Odisha.[35][36][37][25]

The Aruna Stamba at the ruined Konark Temple was also brought over to the Jagannath Temple at Puri during the reign of Divyasingha Deva II. Under the reign of his son Mukundeva Deva II, the British started making inroads into the region and were emerged as the strongest contenders after conquering the regions of Bengal, Awadh and much of Southern India. Eventually after the Maratha defeat in the Second Anglo-Maratha War, the British ultimately took over the region following the Treaty of Deogoan in 1803 and created the Orissa division within the Bengal Presidency. Conflicts with the British led Mukundeva Deva II to plot rebelions with the Paik leaders and local chieftains. The rebellion was discovered and suppressed and the kingdom was eventually annexed to the Orissa division in 1804. The kingdom's minister Jayi Rajaguru was executed for his role in the rebellion and following petitions, Mukunda Deva II was released and exiled to Puri but was allowed to retain his title.[25][38]

Colonial period and shift to PuriEdit

Following the 1804 rebellion of Mukunda Deva II, the British decided to take control of the administration of the Khurda kingdom which was hence annexed to the Orissa division. However following petitions, Mukunda Deva II was allowed to return but was pensioned off and exiled to Puri to remain as a titular head of the dynasty albeit reduced to the status of a Zamindar. He was however successful in persuading the British to allow him to retain control of the administration of the Jagannath temple in the sacred temple-city of Puri as it was an important socio-political institution in the Orissa region. Thus as Rajas of Puri, the Bhoi dynasty managed to compensate for the loss of political power by building a religious institution through the superintendence of the hereditary temple of the Gajapati kings of Orissa.[32][39]

Post IndependenceEdit

This remained the case until independence when the Indian Constitution brought in a republican system of government following which the Odisha government through the Shri Jagannath Temple Act, 1955 formally took over the management and affairs of the temple. The Gajapati was retained as the Chairman of the Temple Managing Committee which the current head of the dynasty, Dibyasingha Deb fulfils along with the members of the committee appointed by the govt of Odisha.[40][41]

Dhenkanal branchEdit

Another brother of Govinda Vidyadhara, Harisingh Vidyadhara had conquered the Dhenkanal region during the rule of Prataparudra Deva during the Gajapati Empire rule in 1530 CE and laid the foundation of Dhenkanal State. The princely state acceded to India and merged into the state of Odisha following independence in 1947.[42][43]

RulersEdit

Gajapati of OdishaEdit

  • Govinda Vidyadhara (1541–1548)
  • Chakrapratapa (1548–1557)
  • Narasimha Raya Jena (1557–1558)[44]
  • Raghuram Raya Chotaraya (1558–1560)[45]

Bhoi dynasty's reign as rulers of Odisha lasted nearly two decades, as they were deposed by Mukunda Deva in 1560. The dynasty then shifted its power centre to Khurda where they continued as Rajas of Khurda led by Ramachandra Deva I.[46]

Khurda kingdomEdit

  • Ramachandra Deva I (Abhinav Indradyumna) (1568-1600)
  • Purusottam Deva (1600–1621)
  • Narasingha Deva (1621–1647)
  • Balabhadra Deva (1647–1657)
  • Mukunda Deva I (1657–1689)
  • Divyasingha Deva I (1689 – 1716)
  • Harekrushna Deva (1716–1720)
  • Gopinath Deva (1720–1727)
  • Ramachandra Deva II (1727–1736)
  • Birakesari Deva I (Bhagirathi Deva) (1736–1793)
  • Divyasingha Deva II (1793–1798)
  • Mukundeva Deva II (1798-1804)

The Rajas of Khurda continued to rule the region well into the early 1800s but by then their power had diminished. Then the Raja of Khurda along with other local chieftains led a series of rebellions against the British which was suppressed and the Raja of Khurda was later exiled to Puri.

Puri EstateEdit

  • Mukundeva Deva II (1804-1817) (exiled and continues as Raja of Puri)
  • Ramchandra Deva III (1817-1854)
  • Birakesari Deva II (1854-1859)
  • Divyasingha Deva III (1859-1882)
  • Mukundeva Deva III (1882-1926)
  • Ramchandra Deva IV (1926-1956)
  • Birakisore Deva III (1956-1970)
  • Divyasingha Deva IV (1970-current, Current Raja of Puri and Titular Gajapati)

GalleryEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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