The 1400s ran from January 1, 1400, to December 31, 1409.
- Henry IV of England quells the Epiphany Rising and executes the Earls of Kent, Huntingdon and Salisbury, and the Baron le Despencer, for their attempt to have Richard II restored as king.
- February – Henry Percy (Hotspur) leads English incursions into Scotland.
- February 14 – The deposed Richard II of England dies by means unknown in Pontefract Castle. It is likely that King Henry IV ordered his death by starvation, to prevent further uprisings.
- March 23 – Five-year-old Trần Thiếu Đế is forced to abdicate as ruler of Đại Việt (modern-day Vietnam), in favour of his maternal grandfather and court official Hồ Quý Ly, ending the Trần Dynasty after 175 years and starting the Hồ Dynasty. Hồ Quý Ly subsequently changes the country's name to Đại Ngu.
- May – Frederick I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg is declared as a rival to Wenceslaus, King of the Romans. However, Frederick is murdered shortly after.
- August 21 – Rupert, Count Palatine of the Rhine, is elected as King of the Romans.
- September 16 – Owain Glyndŵr is proclaimed Prince of Wales by his followers, and begins attacking English strongholds in north-east Wales.
- October/November – Sack of Aleppo (1400) during Timur's conquest of Syria.
- December – Manuel II Palaiologos becomes the only Byzantine Emperor ever to visit England.
- Timur defeats both the Ottoman Empire and the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt, to capture the city of Damascus in present-day Syria. Much of the city's inhabitants are subsequently massacred by Timur's troops.
- Timur conquers the Empire of The Black Sheep Turkomans, in present-day Azerbaijan, and the Jalayirid Dynasty in present-day Iraq. Black Sheep ruler Qara Yusuf and Jalayirid Sultan Ahmad flee, and take refuge with the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid I.
- In modern-day Korea, King Jeongjong of Joseon abdicates in fear of an attack by his ambitious younger brother, Taejong. Taejong succeeds to the throne.
- Prince Parameswara establishes the Malacca Sultanate, in present-day western Malaysia and northern Sumatra.
- Hananchi succeeds Min as King of Hokuzan, in modern-day north Okinawa, Japan.
- Wallachia (modern-day southern Romania) resists an invasion by the Ottomans.
- A Wallachian army captures Iuga, and makes Alexandru cel Bun the Prince of Moldavia.
- The Kingdom of Kongo begins.
- The Haast's eagle and Moa are both driven to extinction by Māori hunters.
- The Mississippian culture starts to decline.
- Europe is reported to have around 52 million inhabitants.
- The House of Medici becomes powerful in Florence.
- Newcastle upon Tyne is created a county corporate, by Henry IV of England.
- Jean Froissart completes his Chronicles, detailing the events of the 14th Century in France.
- January 6 – Rupert, King of Germany, is crowned King of the Romans at Cologne.
- March 2 – William Sawtrey, a Lollard, is the first person to be burned at the stake at Smithfield, London.
- March 13 – The Samogitians, supported by Grand Duke Vytautas of Lithuania, rebel against the Teutonic knights and burn two castles. Vytautas is granted increased autonomy by King Jogaila of the Poland–Lithuania union.
- March 17 – Turko-Mongol emperor Timur sacks Damascus.
- October 14 – Sultan Mahmud II of Delhi is restored to power.
- The De heretico comburendo Act is passed in England, as the Archbishop of Canterbury pressures King Henry IV of England into outlawing as heretics the Lollards, followers of John Wycliffe. Evidence of being a Lollard is having a copy of Wycliffe's translation of the Bible.
- Dilawar Khan establishes the Malwa Sultanate in present-day northern India.
- Emperor Hồ Quý Ly of Dai Ngu (now Vietnam) passes the throne to his son, Hồ Hán Thương.
- A civil war, lasting four years, breaks out in the Majapahit Empire in present-day Indonesia.
- The Joseon Dynasty in present-day Korea officially enters into a tributary relationship with Ming Dynasty China.
- Japan re-enters into a tributary relationship with China.
- January 29 – King Jogaila of the Poland–Lithuania Union answers the rumblings against his rule of Poland, by marrying Anna of Celje, a granddaughter of Casimir III of Poland.
- March 26 – David Stewart, Duke of Rothesay, heir to the throne of Scotland, dies while being held captive by his uncle, Robert Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany.
- May 21 – Following the death of Queen Maria of Sicily, her husband Martin I of Sicily, now sole ruler, marries Blanche of Navarre.
- June 22
- Battle of Nesbit Moor: An English force decisively defeats a returning Scottish raiding party.
- Battle of Bryn Glas: Welsh rebels under Owain Glyndŵr defeat the English on the England/Wales border. The Welsh capture Edmund Mortimer, son of the 3rd Earl, who defects to the Welsh cause, on 30 November marrying Owain's daughter Catrin.
- June 26 – Battle of Casalecchio: Gian Galeazzo Visconti, the Duke of Milan, crushes the forces of Bologna and Florence, but dies from a fever later this year and is succeeded by his son, Gian Maria Visconti.
- July 12 – The Ming dynasty prince Zhu Di and his army occupy the Ming capital, Nanjing. The Jianwen Emperor is either lost or killed and Zhu Di takes over the throne as the Yongle Emperor, marking the end of the Jingnan campaign.
- July 20 – Battle of Ankara: An invading Timurid Empire force defeats the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid I, who is captured. A period of interregnum begins in the Ottoman Empire, with the future Mehmed I as one of the leading claimants to the throne. After Serbia is freed from Ottoman rule, Stefan Lazarević is crowned Despot of Serbia.
- September – The English Parliament passes penal Laws against Wales which stop the Welsh from gathering together, obtaining office, carrying arms and living in English towns. Any Englishman who marries a Welsh woman also comes under the laws.
- September 14 – Battle of Homildon Hill: Northern English nobles, led by Sir Henry Percy (Hotspur), and using longbows, decisively defeat a Scottish raiding army and capture their leader, the Earl of Douglas.
- The Malacca Sultanate is established at Melaka Darul Azim (modern-day Melaka Darul Azim, Malaysia).
- After the Christian Knights of Saint John, who are ruling Smyrna, refuse to convert to Islam or pay tribute, Timur has the entire population massacred. The Knights subsequently begin building Bodrum Castle in Bodrum, to defend against future attacks.
- Conquest of the Canary Islands: King Henry III of Castile sends French explorer Jean de Béthencourt to colonize the Canary Islands. Béthencourt receives the title King of the Canary Islands but recognizes Henry as his overlord. This marks the beginning of the Spanish Empire.
- The Republic of Genoa regains control of Monaco.
- The Aq Qoyunlu ("White Sheep Turkmen") tribal confederation, in modern-day northern Iraq and Iran, moves its capital from Amida to Diyarbakır.
- Moldavia becomes a vassal of the Kingdom of Poland in order to protect itself from an invasion by Hungary.
- Maria II Zaccaria succeeds her husband, Pedro de San Superano, as regent of the Principality of Achaea (modern-day southern Greece).
- Conchobar an Abaidh mac Maelsechlainn O Cellaigh succeeds Maelsechlainn mac William Buidhe O Cellaigh, as King of Uí Maine in modern-day County Galway and County Roscommon in Ireland.
- The University of Würzburg is founded.
- The Gangnido map of the world is completed in Joseon dynasty Korea.
- A Great comet is sighted.
- A big fire in the city of Utrecht starts near the Jacobikerk.
- January / February – Treaty of Gallipoli: Süleyman Çelebi makes wide-ranging concessions to the Byzantine Empire and other Christian powers' in the southern Balkans.
- February 7 – King Henry IV of England marries as his second wife Joan of Navarre, the daughter of King Charles II of Navarre and widow of John IV, Duke of Brittany, at Winchester Cathedral.
- March 12 – As King Martin I of Aragon helps to end the siege by the French of the papal palace in Avignon, Antipope Benedict XIII flees to Aragon.
- March 23 – Stříbrná Skalice in Central Bohemia is razed by Sigismund of Luxembourg.
- April – Balša III succeeds his father Đurađ II as ruler of the Principality of Zeta (now the Republic of Montenegro).
- May 21 – Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo, an ambassador from the king of Castile to Timur, leaves Cadiz; he arrives in Samarkand over a year later.
- Before July 21 – Henry 'Hotspur' Percy forms an alliance with Welsh rebel Owain Glyndŵr.
- July 21 – Battle of Shrewsbury: King Henry IV of England defeats a rebel army led by "Hotspur" Percy, who is killed in the battle.
- October 7 – Battle of Modon: The Genoese fleet under Jean Le Maingre (Marshal Boucicaut) is defeated by the Republic of Venice, at Modon in the Peloponnese.
- October – An English fleet organised by John Hawley of Dartmouth and Thomas Norton of Bristol seizes seven French merchant vessels in the English Channel.
- November – An English revenge raid on Brittany by Sir William Wilford captures 40 ships and causes considerable damage ashore.
- December – Local English forces defeat an attempted French raid on the Isle of Wight under Waleran III, Count of Ligny.
- Jan Hus begins preaching Wycliffite ideas in Bohemia.
- In China, the Yongle Emperor of the Ming Dynasty
- moves the capital from Nanjing to Beijing.
- commissions the Yongle Encyclopedia, one of the world's earliest and largest known general encyclopedias.
- orders his coastal provinces to build a vast fleet of ships, with construction centered at Longjiang near Nanjing; the inland provinces are to provide wood and float it down the Yangtze River.
- The Temple of a City God is constructed in Shanghai.
- The Gur-e Amir Mausoleum is built in Samarkand by Timur, after the death of his grandson Muhammad Sultan, and eventually becomes the family mausoleum of the Timurid Dynasty.
- Georgia makes peace with Timur, but has to recognise him as a suzerain and pay him tribute.
- The world's first quarantine station is built in Venice, to protect against the Black Death.
- Grand Duke Vytautas ends his alliance with Muscovy, and captures Vyazma and Smolensk.
- Stefan Lazarević establishes Belgrade, as the capital of the Serbian Despotate.
- A guild of stationers is founded in the City of London. As the Worshipful Company of Stationers and Newspaper Makers (the "Stationers' Company"), it continues to be a livery company in the 21st century.
- In Ireland
- probable – Ououso becomes King of Nanzan, in present-day south Okinawa, Japan.
- April or May – Battle of Blackpool Sands: Local English forces defeat an attempted raid from Saint-Malo on the port of Dartmouth, Devon; the French commander, William du Chastel, is killed.
- June 14 – Rebel leader Owain Glyndŵr, having declared himself Prince of Wales, allies with the French against the English. He later begins holding parliamentary assemblies.
- October 17 – Pope Innocent VII succeeds Pope Boniface IX, as the 204th pope.
- November 19 – St. Elizabeth's flood: A flood of the North Sea devastates parts of Flanders, Zeeland and Holland.
- Jean de Béthencourt becomes the first ruler of the Kingdom of the Canary Islands.
- Stephan Tvrtko II succeeds Stefan Ostoja as King of Bosnia.
- Peace is declared between Lithuania and the Teutonic Knights, after they agree to exchange land and form an alliance against Muscovy.
- Wallachia reaches its maximum extent under Mircea cel Bătrân.
- The University of Turin is founded.
- Timur is hit by a fever, while preparing to invade China.
- Centurione II Zaccaria succeeds Maria II Zaccaria, as ruler of the Principality of Achaea.
- Virupaksha Raya succeeds Harihara Raya II, as ruler of the Vijayanagara Empire in present-day southern India.
- Narayana Ramadhipati succeeds Ponthea Yat, as King of Cambodia.
- Ruaidri Caech MacDermot succeeds Conchobair Óg MacDermot, as King of Magh Luirg, in present-day north-east Connacht, Ireland.
- The city of Vicenza comes under the rule of the Venetians.
- May 29 – In England, Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland, meets Richard le Scrope, Archbishop of York and Earl of Norfolk Thomas Mowbray in Shipton Moor, tricks them to send their rebellious army home, and then imprisons them.
- June 8 – Richard le Scrope, Archbishop of York and Thomas Mowbray, Earl of Norfolk, are executed in York on Henry IV's orders.
- July 11 – Ming Dynasty fleet commander Zheng He sets sail from Suzhou, to explore the world for the first time.
- October 5 – Christine de Pizan writes a letter to Queen Isabeau, urging her to intervene in the political struggle between the dukes of Burgundy and Orléans.
- November 17 – The Sultanate of Sulu is established on the Sulu Archipelago, off the coast of Mindanao in the Philippines.
- Bath Abbey is built in England.
- The first record is written of whiskey being consumed in Ireland, where it is distilled by Catholic monks.
- Bellifortis, a book on military technology, is published by Konrad Kyeser.
- Christine de Pizan writes The Book of the City of Ladies.
- April 4 – James I becomes King of Scotland, after having been captured by Henry IV of England.
- October 7 – French troops comprising 1,000 men at arms land on Jersey, and fight a battle against 3,000 defenders.: 50–1
- October 13 – Richard Whittington is elected Lord Mayor of London for a second full term. He holds this office simultaneously, with that of Mayor of the Calais Staple.
- October 26 – Eric of Pomerania marries Philippa, daughter of Henry IV of England.
- November 30 – Pope Gregory XII succeeds Pope Innocent VII, as the 205th pope.
- December 25 – John II becomes King of Castile.
- Construction of the Forbidden City begins in Beijing during the Chinese Ming Dynasty.
- Pisa is subjugated by Florence.
- April 10 – After several invitations by the Yongle Emperor of China since 1403, the fifth Karmapa of the Karma Kagyu sect of Tibetan Buddhism, the lama Deshin Shekpa, finally visits the Ming Dynasty capital, then at Nanjing. In his twenty-two-day visit, he thrills the Ming court with alleged miracles that are recorded in a gigantic scroll, translated into five different languages. In a show of mystical prowess, Deshin Shekpa adds legitimacy to a questionable succession to the throne by Yongle, who had killed his nephew the Jianwen Emperor in the culmination of a civil war. For his services to the Ming court, including his handling of the ceremonial rites of Yongle's deceased parents, Deshin Shekpa is awarded the title Great Treasure Prince of Dharma (大寶法王).
- June 16 – Ming–Hồ War: The Ming Dynasty of China under the Yongle Emperor conquers Vietnam, capturing Hồ Quý Ly and his sons, ending the Vietnamese Hồ Dynasty.
- November 20 – A solemn truce between John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy and Louis I, Duke of Orléans is agreed under the auspicies of John, Duke of Berry.
- November 23 – The Duke of Orleans is assassinated; war breaks out again between the Burgundians and his followers.
- Rudolfo Belenzani leads a revolt against Bishop Georg von Liechtenstein in Trento, Bishopric of Trent.
- David Holbache founds Oswestry School, in the Welsh Marches.
- Mateu Texidor finishes the Puente de la Trinidad bridge in Valencia, Spain.
- February 19 – Battle of Bramham Moor: A royalist army defeats the last remnants of the Percy Rebellion.
- September – Henry, Prince of Wales (later Henry V of England) retakes Aberystwyth from Owain Glyndŵr.
- September 16 – Thorstein Olafssøn marries Sigrid Bjørnsdatter in Hvalsey Church, in the last recorded event of the Norse history of Greenland.
- December 5 – Emir Edigu of Golden Horde reaches Moscow.
- December 13 – The Order of the Dragon is founded under King Sigismund of Hungary.
- The Moldavian town of Iaşi is first mentioned.
- The Yongle Encyclopedia is completed.
- Gotland passes under Danish rule.
- Zheng He delivers 300 virgins from Korea to the Chinese emperor.
- Mihail I becomes co-ruler of Wallachia, with his father Mircea cel Bătrân.
- January 1 – The Welsh surrender Harlech Castle to the English.
- March 25 – The Council of Pisa opens. On June 5 it deposes Pope Gregory XII and Antipope Benedict XIII, and on June 26 crowns Petros Philargos as Pope Alexander V; he is subsequently regarded as an antipope.
- July – Martin I of Aragon succeeds his own son, as King of Sicily.
- August 7 – The Council of Pisa closes.
- December 2 – The University of Leipzig opens.
- December 9 – Louis II of Anjou founds the University of Aix.
- Ulugh Beg becomes governor of Samarkand.
- The Republic of Venice purchases the port of Zadar from Hungary.
- Grand Master Ulrich von Jungingen of the Teutonic Knights guarantees peace with the Kalmar Union of Scandinavia, by selling the Baltic Sea island of Gotland to Queen Margaret of Denmark, Norway and Sweden.
- Cheng Ho (or Zheng He), admiral of the Ming empire fleet, deposes the king of Sri Lanka.
- Mircea cel Bătrân successfully defends Silistra against the Ottomans.
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- January 13 – Infante John of Portugal, the Constable (d. 1442)
- May 19 – John Stourton, 1st Baron Stourton, English baron (d. 1462)
- July 26 – Isabel le Despenser, Countess of Worcester, English noble (d. 1439)
- December 25 – John Sutton, 1st Baron Dudley, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland (d. 1487)
- date unknown
- James Tuchet, 5th Baron Audley (d. 1459)
- Luca della Robbia, Florentine sculptor (d. 1482)
- Isabella, Duchess of Lorraine (d. 1453).
- Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury, English politician (d. 1460)
- Owen Tudor, Welsh courtier (d. 1461)
- Rogier van der Weyden, Dutch painter (or 1399)
- Hans Multscher, German painter and sculptor (d. 1467)
- Helene Kottanner, Hungarian writer and courtier (d. after 1470)
- March 27 – Albert III, Duke of Bavaria-Munich (d. 1460)
- May 10 – Thomas Tuddenham, Landowner (d. 1462)
- May 12 – Emperor Shōkō of Japan (d. 1428)
- July 23 – Francesco I Sforza, Italian condottiero (d. 1466)
- September 14 – Maria of Castile, Queen of Aragon, Queen consort of Aragon and Naples (d. 1458)
- October 27 – Catherine of Valois, queen consort of England from 1420 until 1422 (d. 1437)
- November 26 – Henry Beaufort, 2nd Earl of Somerset (d. 1418)
- December 21 – Tommaso Masaccio, Italian painter (d. 1428)
- date unknown
- probable – Nicholas of Cusa, German philosopher, mathematician and astronomer (d. 1464)
- February 6 – Louis I, Landgrave of Hesse, Landgrave of Hesse (1413-1458) (d. 1458)
- April 28 – Nezahualcoyotl, Acolhuan philosopher, warrior, poet and tlatoani of Texcoco (d. 1472)
- May 2 – Eleanor of Aragon, Queen of Portugal (d. 1445)
- June 7 – Ichijō Kaneyoshi, Japanese court noble (d. 1481)
- September 29 – Ferdinand the Holy Prince of Portugal (d. 1443)
- November 23 – Jean de Dunois, French nobleman and soldier, illegitimate son of Louis I (d. 1468)
- date unknown – Humphrey Stafford, 1st Duke of Buckingham, English nobleman (d. 1460)
- January 2 – Basilios Bessarion, Latin Patriarch of Constantinople (d. 1472)
- February 22 – King Charles VII of France, monarch of the House of Valois, King of France from 1422 to his death (d. 1461)
- June 11 – John IV, Duke of Brabant, son of Antoine (d. 1427)
- August 11 – Ravenna Petrova, Princess of Amara Palace, daughter of William Hamilton and Anita Petrova. (d. 1423)
- September 1 – Louis VIII, Duke of Bavaria, German noble (d. 1445)
- September 25 – Louis III of Anjou (d. 1434)
- September 29 – Elisabeth of Brandenburg, Duchess of Brzeg-Legnica and Cieszyn, German princess (d. 1449)
- date unknown
- January 18 – Sir Philip Courtenay, British noble (d. 1463)
- February 14 – Leon Battista Alberti, Italian painter, poet, and philosopher (d. 1472)
- March 25 (bapt.) – John Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset, English military leader (d. 1444)
- June – Murad II, Ottoman Sultan (d. 1451)
- July 6 – Yamana Sōzen, Japanese warlord and monk (d. 1473)
- July 25 – Philip I, Duke of Brabant (d. 1430)
- September 30 – Anne of Burgundy (d. 1432)
- September – Gilles de Rais, French aristocrat (d. 1440)
- October 14 – Marie of Anjou, queen of Charles VII of France (d. 1463)
- February 8 – Constantine XI, last Byzantine Emperor (d. 1453)
- February 22 – Gilbert Kennedy, 1st Lord Kennedy, Scottish noble (d. 1489)
- March 6 – King John II of Castile (d. 1454)
- May 6 – George Kastrioti, better known as Skanderbeg, Albanian national hero (d. 1468) (probable date)
- October 18 – Pope Pius II (d. 1464)
- date unknown – Louis I, Count of Montpensier (d. 1486)
- January 28 – Guy XIV de Laval, French noble (d. 1486)
- July 11 – William, Margrave of Hachberg-Sausenberg, Margrave of Hachberg-Sausenberg (1428-1441) (d. 1482)
- September 26 – Thomas de Ros, 8th Baron de Ros, English soldier and politician (d. 1430)
- date unknown
- probable date
- March 15 – Jacob, Margrave of Baden-Baden (1431-1453) (d. 1453)
- August 27 – Ashikaga Yoshikazu, Japanese shōgun (d. 1425)
- September 21 – Leonello d'Este, Marquis of Ferrara, Italian noble (d. 1450)
- November 8 – Alain de Coëtivy, Catholic cardinal (d. 1474)
- date unknown
- January 25 – Katharina of Hanau, German countess regent (d. 1460)
- February 14 – John FitzAlan, 14th Earl of Arundel (d. 1435)
- March 25 – Agnes of Baden, Countess of Holstein-Rendsburg, German noble (d. 1473)
- April 8 – Jadwiga of Lithuania, Polish princess (d. 1431)
- April 23 – John de Vere, 12th Earl of Oxford, English noble (d. 1462)
- May 22 – Annamacharya, Indian mystic saint composer (d. 1503)
- October 1 or 1409 – Karl Knutsson, King of Sweden (d. 1470)
- date unknown – John FitzAlan, 14th Earl of Arundel (d. 1435)
- January 16 – René of Anjou, king of Naples (d. 1480)
- March 2 – Jean II, Duke of Alençon, son of John I of Alençon and Marie of Brittany (d. 1476)
- March 12 – Isabella of Urgell, Duchess of Coimbra, Portuguese Duchess (d. 1459)
- September 13 – Joan of Valois, Duchess of Alençon, French duchess (d. 1432)
- October 7 – Elizabeth of Luxembourg (d. 1442)
- October 21 – Alessandro Sforza, Italian condottiero (d. 1473)
- date unknown – Bernardo Rossellino, Florentine sculptor and architect
- January 7
- January 13 – Thomas le Despenser, 1st Earl of Gloucester, English politician (executed) (b. 1373)
- January 16 – John Holland, 1st Duke of Exeter, English politician (executed)
- February 14 – King Richard II of England, (probably murdered) (b. 1367)
- April 21 – John Wittlebury, English politician (b. 1333)
- April 23 – Aubrey de Vere, 10th Earl of Oxford, third son of John de Vere (b. 1338)
- April 28 – Baldus de Ubaldis, Italian jurist (b. 1327)
- June 5 – Frederick I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, rival King of the Romans
- June 17 – Jan of Jenštejn, Archbishop of Prague (b. 1348)
- October 25 – Geoffrey Chaucer, English poet (b. c. 1343)
- November 8 – Peter of Aragon, Aragonese infante (b. 1398)
- November 20 – Elizabeth of Moravia, Margravine of Meissen (b. 1355)
- November – Tarabya of Ava (b. 1368)
- December – Archibald the Grim, Scottish magnate (b. 1328)
- date unknown – Narayana Pandit, Indian mathematician (b. 1340)
- January 19 – Robert Bealknap, British justice
- March – William Sawtrey, English Lollard martyr (burned at the stake)
- April 8 or August 8 – Thomas de Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick (b. 1338)
- May 25 – Queen Maria of Sicily (b. 1363)
- September 14 – Dobrogost of Nowy Dwór, Polish bishop (b. 1355)
- October – Anabella Drummond, queen of Scotland
- October 19 – John Charleton, 4th Baron Cherleton (b. 1362)
- October 20 – Klaus Störtebeker, German pirate
- November 25 – King Tarabya of Ava (b. 1368)
- date unknown – Andronikos Asen Zaccaria, Baron of Chalandritsa and Arcadia, Grand Constable of Achaea
- March 26 – David Stewart, Duke of Rothesay, heir to the throne of Scotland (b. 1378)
- May 3 – João Anes, Archbishop of Lisbon
- July 13 – Jianwen Emperor of China (b. 1377)
- August 1 – Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, son of King Edward III of England (b. 1341)
- September 3 – Gian Galeazzo Visconti, first Duke of Milan (b. 1351)
- date unknown
- March 8 – Beyazid, Ottoman Sultan (b. 1354)
- April 27 – Maria of Bosnia, Countess of Helfenstein (b. 1335)
- April – Đurađ II Stracimirović, Serbian nobleman from the House of Balšić in Zeta
- May 10 – Katherine Swynford, Duchess of Lancaster, spouse of John of Gaunt
- May 12 – William de Lode, English prior
- July 21 (at the Battle of Shrewsbury)
- July 23 – Thomas Percy, 1st Earl of Worcester, English rebel (executed) (b. 1343)
- date unknown – Vukosav Nikolić, Bosnian nobleman (in battle)
- probable date – Hajji Zayn al-Attar, Persian physician
- April 27 – Philip II, Duke of Burgundy (b. 1342)
- September 14 – Albert IV, Duke of Austria (b. 1377)
- September 27 – William of Wykeham, English bishop and statesman (b. 1320)
- October 1 – Pope Boniface IX (b. 1356)
- October 15 – Marie Valois, French princess (b. 1344)
- December 13 – Albert I, Duke of Bavaria (b. 1336)
- date unknown – Eleanor of Arborea, ruler of Sardinia (b. 1350)
- January 12 – Eleanor Maltravers, English noblewoman (b. 1345)
- February 14 – Timur (aka Tamerlane), Turco-Mongol monarch and conqueror (b. 1336)
- March 16 – Margaret III, Countess of Flanders (b. 1350)
- April 19 – Thomas West, 1st Baron West (b. 1335)
- May 29 – Philippe de Mézières, advisor to Charles V of France
- June 8
- June 20 – Alexander Stewart, Earl of Buchan, fourth son of King Robert II of Scotland (b. 1343)
- probable – Jean Froissart, French chronicler (b. 1337)
- January 6 – Roger Walden, English bishop
- March 17 – Ibn Khaldun, African Arab historian (b. 1332)
- April 4 – King Robert III of Scotland (b. 1337)
- May 4 – Coluccio Salutati, Chancellor of Florence (b. 1331)
- July 15 – William, Duke of Austria
- August 28 – John de Sutton V (b. 1380)
- September 16 – Cyprian, Metropolitan of Moscow
- November 1 – Joanna, Duchess of Brabant (b. 1322)
- November 6 – Pope Innocent VII (b. 1339)
- December 25 – King Henry III of Castile (b. 1379)
- probable date – Tokhtamysh, khan of the Golden Horde
- February 9 – William I, Margrave of Meissen (b. 1343)
- March 7 – Francesco I Gonzaga, ruler of Mantua
- April 23 – Olivier de Clisson, French soldier (b. 1326)
- July – Empress Xu (Ming dynasty), Chinese Empress (b. 1362)
- November 23 – Louis I, Duke of Orléans, brother of Charles VI of France (murdered) (b. 1372)
- date unknown
- February 19 – Thomas Bardolf, 5th Baron Bardolf, English rebel (in battle)
- February 20 – Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland, English rebel (in battle) (b. 1342)
- April – Miran Shah, son of Timur the Lame (b. 1366)
- April 10 or April 11 – Elizabeth le Despenser, English noblewoman
- May 24 – Taejo of Joseon, ruler of Korea (b. 1335)
- May 31 – Ashikaga Yoshimitsu, Japanese shōgun (b. 1358)
- September 15 – Edmund Holland, 4th Earl of Kent (b. 1384)
- September 22 – John VII Palaiologos, Byzantine Emperor (b. 1370)
- December 4 – Valentina Visconti, Duchess of Orléans by marriage to Louis of Valois, Duke of Orléans
- date unknown – Coptic Pope Matthew I of Alexandria
- May 13 – Jan of Tarnów, Polish nobleman
- May 22 – Blanche of England, sister of King Henry V (b. 1392)
- July 25 – King Martin I of Sicily (b. 1374)
- September 13 – Isabella of Valois, queen consort of England (b. 1387)
- date unknown – Thomas Merke, English bishop
- probable – Edmund Mortimer, English rebel (b. 1376)
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