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Muḥammad Abū Numayy ibn Abī Sa‘d al-Ḥasan ibn ‘Alī ibn Qatādah al-Ḥasanī (Arabic: محمد أبو نمي بن أبي سعد الحسن بن علي بن قتادة الحسني‎; c. 1232 – 8 October 1301), sometimes referred to as Abu Numayy I (أبو نمي الأول), was Emir of Mecca from 1250 to 1301, with interruptions.

Abu Numayy I
Emir of Mecca
1st reign1250 – Oct/Nov 1253
PredecessorAbu Sa'd al-Hasan
SuccessorJammaz ibn al-Hasan
Co-EmirAbu Sa'd al-Hasan
2nd reignNov/Dec 1254 – 6 Jan 1255
PredecessorGhanim ibn Rajih
SuccessorIbn Birtas
Co-EmirIdris ibn Qatadah
3rd reign6 Mar 1255 – Nov 1270
PredecessorIbn Birtas
SuccessorIdris ibn Qatadah
Co-EmirIdris ibn Qatadah
4th reignDec 1270 – Oct 1271
PredecessorIdris ibn Qatadah
Successors
5th reignNov 1271 – 1288
Predecessors
SuccessorJammaz ibn Shihah
6th reign1288 – 6 Oct 1301
PredecessorJammaz ibn Shihah
Successors
Bornc. 1232
Died8 Oct 1301
Wadi Marr al-Zahran (present-day Wadi Fatimah, Mecca Province, Saudi Arabia)
Burial
al-Ma'la Cemetery
Mecca
Full name
Muḥammad Abū Numayy ibn Abī Sa‘d al-Ḥasan ibn ‘Alī ibn Qatādah al-Ḥasanī
Arabic: محمد أبو نمي بن أبي سعد الحسن بن علي بن قتادة الحسني
Regnal name
Najm al-Dīn
Arabic: نجم الدين
House
FatherAbu Sa'd al-Hasan

LifeEdit

Joint rule with his father Abu Sa'd al-HasanEdit

Muhammad Abu Numayy was born around the year 630 AH (c. 1232).[1] His father Abu Sa'd al-Hasan assumed the Emirate of Mecca in Dhu al-Qi'dah 647 AH (February 1250). Soon afterwards, Rajih ibn Qatadah went to Medina where he acquired support from the Banu Husayn, his maternal relatives, to overthrow Abu Sa'd. He set out from Medina with 700 horsemen led by Isa ibn Shihah, Emir of Medina. On the way to Mecca they were ambushed by Abu Numayy, who had set out from Yanbu with only 40 horsemen after he received word of their advance. His attack was successful, and Rajih and Isa retreated to Medina. On Abu Numayy's triumphant return Abu Sa'd rewarded him with the co-rulership of Mecca.[2]

Abu Sa'd reigned with Abu Numayy until Ramadan 651 AH (October/November 1253), when Jammaz ibn al-Hasan captured Mecca with Syrian troops and killed Abu Sa'd. Jammaz was quickly deposed by Rajih, who in turn was deposed by his son Ghanim in Rabi al-Awwal 652 AH (April/May 1254).[3]

Joint rule with Idris ibn QatadahEdit

In Shawwal 652 AH (November/December 1254) Abu Numayy and Idris ibn Qatadah seized the Emirate from Ghanim ibn Rajih with limited bloodshed (three of the ashraf were killed). However the following month the Yemeni commander Mubariz al-Din Ibn Birtas arrived with a force of 100 horsemen to capture Mecca and reestablish Rasulid hegemony. Abu Numayy and Idris sought assistance from Jammaz ibn Shihah, Emir of Medina, but their alliance was defeated on Wednesday, 25 Dhu al-Qi'dah (6 January 1255) at Qawz al-Makkasah, south of Mecca, and Ibn Birtas occupied Mecca.[4][5]

On the last Saturday of Muharram 653 AH (6 March 1255), Abu Numayy and Idris returned with reinforcements, supported again by Jammaz ibn Shihah, and delivered a crushing defeat to Ibn Birtas. Descending from the mountaintops, they entered Mecca by force and inflicted heavy casualties on the Yemeni army. Ibn Birtas himself was captured, but after ransoming himself he was allowed to return to Yemen.[6][7]

In 654 AH (1256) Idris traveled to al-Sirrayn to visit his brother Rajih, and in his absence Abu Numayy took sole control of the Emirate. When Idris returned to Mecca with Rajih, the three reconciled and Idris returned to the co-rulership.[8][9]

In 655 or 656 AH (1257 or 1258) Abu Numayy left Mecca to fight the Thaqif tribe, and in his absence some sons of Hasan ibn Qatadah took over Mecca and captured Idris. When Abu Numayy heard the news he returned to Mecca and the attackers fled without fighting, having held the city for six days.[8][10]

In 659 AH (1261) al-Muzaffar Yusuf performed the Hajj. When he neared Mecca with his army Abu Numayy and Idris fled out of fear, returning only after his departure ten days after the completion of the Hajj.

In Sha'ban 667 AH (April 1269) Abu Numayy ousted Idris and ordered the khutbah with the name of al-Zahir Baybars, the Mamluk Sultan of Egypt. He informed Baybars that he had deposed his uncle due to the latter's pro-Rasulid inclinations, and requested that the Sultan issue a royal decree forbidding the Emir of Medina from assisting Idris. Baybars accepted Abu Numayy's allegiance on the condition that he fulfill his responsibilities towards the Masjid al-Haram and its visitors, including that he not impose any additional taxes. The Sultan further stipulated that both the khutbah (sermon) and sikkah (coinage) would be in his name, and in return the Emir of Mecca would receive an annual payment of 20,000 nuqrah dirhams. After Abu Numayy accepted these conditions Baybars sent him a diploma of investiture. Soon afterwards Idris reconciled with Abu Numayy and Baybars confirmed them both as joint Emirs.[11][12] That year Baybars performed the Hajj and was pleased with their rule.[13]

Independent ruleEdit

In Rabi al-Awwal 669 AH (November 1270) Abu Numayy's son was killed and he fought with Idris, who ousted him from the Emirate. Abu Numayy fled to Yanbu to seek assistance from its Emir. Forty days later, in Jumada al-Ula (December 1270) he returned with reinforcements and defeated Idris at Khulays. Abu Numayy personally beheaded his uncle and assumed independent control of the Emirate.[14]

In late Safar 670 AH (October 1271) Jammaz ibn Shihah, Emir of Medina, entered into an alliance with Ghanim ibn Idris ibn Hasan ibn Qatadah, Emir of Yanbu, and together they captured Mecca and deposed Abu Numayy. They held the city for forty days, until Rabi al-Akhir (November 1271), when Abu Numayy defeated them in battle and retook the city. On 19 Rabi al-Akhir 675 AH (c. 29 September 1276) Jammaz advanced on Mecca with Idris ibn Hasan ibn Qatadah, Emir of Yanbu, and an army of 215 horsemen and 600 footsoldiers. He was defeated by Abu Numayy's forces at Marr al-Zahran, though Abu Numayy was outnumbered with only 100 horsemen and 180 footsoldiers. Idris was captured, but Jammaz escaped.[15]

In 681 AH (1282/1283) al-Mansur Qalawun of Egypt demanded an oath of absolute loyalty from Abu Numayy. This latest treaty with the Mamluks concerned not only the khutbah and the sikkah in the Sultan's name, but also the Sultan's monopoly on supplying the annual kiswah.[16]

In 687 AH (1288) Jammaz requested an army from Qalawun to depose Abu Numayy and bring Mecca more firmly under Mamluk rule. The Sultan sent Jammaz an army, and he succeeded in capturing the city from Abu Numayy. However his intentions were made clear when upon assuming rulership of Mecca he ordered the khutbah and sikkah in his own name. Before the end of the year Jammaz was poisoned, reportedly by one of the attendants of his wife Khuzaymah, daughter of Abu Numayy. He returned to Medina, and Abu Numayy reassumed the Emirate.[17]

On the last day of Rabi al-Awwal 691 AH (21 March 1292) Abu Numayy replaced the name of al-Ashraf Khalil ibn Qalawun in the khutbah with that of al-Muzaffar of Yemen.[18] In 692 AH the Mamluk amir al-rakab ordered Abu Numayy to accompany him back to Egypt. They set out in early 693 AH, but Abu Numayy turned back at Yanbu when they received word of Khalil's death.[19]

Abdication and deathEdit

On Friday, 2 Safar 701 AH (6 October 1301) Abu Numayy abdicated in favor of his sons Humaydah and Rumaythah. He died two days later at al-Jadidah in Wadi Marr al-Zahran near Mecca. His funeral was in Mecca, and he was buried in the Ma'la Cemetery near the qubbah of his father Abu Sa'd and his great-grandfather Qatadah. A qubbah was built over his grave.[20][21][22]

IssueEdit

According to Ibn Unbah, Abu Numayy had a total of 30 sons. Some of his sons died during his lifetime. According to al-Nuwayri, when Abu Numayy died he had 21 sons, 12 daughters, and 4 wives. Izz al-Din Ibn Fahd compiled the following list names of his sons:

It is reported that his kunya was Abu Mahdi, from which it can be inferred that his first-born son was named Mahdi. Therefore, it is possible that he did not have a son named Numayy, and that he was called Abu Numayy for a different reason.

His daughters included:

NotesEdit

  1. ^ al-Zirkīlī 2002, p. 86.
  2. ^ al-Ghāzī 2009, pp. 145–146.
  3. ^ al-Ghāzī 2009, pp. 146–147.
  4. ^ al-Ghāzī 2009, p. 148.
  5. ^ Ibn Fahd 1983, p. 76.
  6. ^ al-Ghāzī 2009, pp. 148–149.
  7. ^ Ibn Fahd 1983, p. 77.
  8. ^ a b al-Ghāzī 2009, p. 149.
  9. ^ Ibn Fahd 1983, p. 78.
  10. ^ Ibn Fahd 1983, p. 80.
  11. ^ Ibn Fahd 1983, p. 93.
  12. ^ al-Maqrīzī 1997, p. 59.
  13. ^ al-Maqrīzī 1997, p. 61.
  14. ^ al-Ghāzī 2009, pp. 151–152.
  15. ^ al-Ghāzī 2009, pp. 152–153.
  16. ^ al-Ghāzī 2009, pp. 154–156.
  17. ^ al-Ghāzī 2009, pp. 160–161.
  18. ^ al-Ghāzī 2009, p. 156.
  19. ^ a b al-Ghāzī 2009, p. 158.
  20. ^ al-Ghāzī 2009, pp. 162–163.
  21. ^ Ibn Fahd 1983, p. 134.
  22. ^ Ibn Fahd 1988, p. 38.

ReferencesEdit

  • al-Zirkīlī, Khayr al-Dīn (2002). al-A‘lām qāmūs tarājim الأعلام قاموس تراجم (in Arabic). 6 (15th ed.). Bayrūt: Dār al-‘Ilm li-al-Malāyīn.
  • al-Ghāzī, ‘Abd Allāh ibn Muḥammad (2009). ‘Abd al-Malik ibn ‘Abd Allāh ibn Duhaysh (ed.). Ifādat al-anām إفادة الأنام (in Arabic). 3 (1st ed.). Makkah: Maktabat al-Asadī.
  • Ibn Fahd, ‘Izz al-Dīn ‘Abd al-‘Azīz ibn ‘Umar ibn Muḥammad (1988). Shaltūt, Fahīm Muḥammad (ed.). Ghāyat al-marām bi-akhbār salṭanat al-Balad al-Ḥarām غاية المرام بأخبار سلطنة البلد الحرام (in Arabic). 2 (1st ed.). Makkah: Jāmi‘at Umm al-Qurá, Markaz al-Baḥth al-‘Ilmī wa-Iḥyā’ al-Turāth al-Islāmī, Kullīyat al-Sharīʻah wa-al-Dirāsāt al-Islāmīyah.
  • Ibn Fahd, al-Najm ‘Umar (1983) [Composed before 1482]. Shaltūt, Fahīm Muḥammad (ed.). Itḥāf al-wará bi-akhbār Umm al-Qurá إتحاف الورى في أخبار أم القرى (in Arabic). 3. Makkah: Jāmi‘at Umm al-Qurá, Markaz al-Baḥth al-‘Ilmī wa-Iḥyā’ al-Turāth al-Islāmī, Kullīyat al-Sharīʻah wa-al-Dirāsāt al-Islāmīyah.
  • al-Maqrīzī, Taqī al-Dīn Abū al-‘Abbās Aḥmad ibn ‘Alī ibn ‘Abd al-Qādir (1997) [Composed before 1443]. Muḥammad ‘Abd al-Qādir ‘Aṭā (ed.). al-Sulūk li-maʻrifat duwal al-mulūk السلوك لمعرفة دول الملوك (in Arabic). 2. Bayrūt: Dār al-Kutub al-‘Ilmīyah.
Muḥammad Abū Numayy ibn Abī Sa‘d al-Ḥasan ibn ‘Alī ibn Qatādah
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Abu Sa'd al-Hasan
Emir of Mecca
1250 – Oct/Nov 1253
with Abu Sa'd al-Hasan
Succeeded by
Jammaz ibn al-Hasan
Preceded by
Ghanim ibn Rajih
Emir of Mecca
Nov/Dec 1254 – 6 Jan 1255
with Idris ibn Qatadah
Succeeded by
Ibn Birtas
Preceded by
Ibn Birtas
Emir of Mecca
6 Mar 1255 – Nov 1270
with Idris ibn Qatadah
Succeeded by
Idris ibn Qatadah
Preceded by
Idris ibn Qatadah
Emir of Mecca
Dec 1270 – Oct 1271
Succeeded by
Jammaz ibn Shihah
Succeeded by
Ghanim ibn Idris
Preceded by
Jammaz ibn Shihah
Emir of Mecca
Nov 1271 – 1288
Succeeded by
Jammaz ibn Shihah
Preceded by
Ghanim ibn Idris
Preceded by
Jammaz ibn Shihah
Emir of Mecca
1288 – 6 Oct 1301
Succeeded by
Rumaythah ibn Abi Numayy
Succeeded by
Humaydah ibn Abi Numayy