Diocese of Skara
The Diocese of Skara (Swedish: Skara stift) is the oldest existing diocese in Sweden, originally a Latin bishopric of the Roman Catholic church, and since Protestant reformation a Lutheran diocese of the Church of Sweden (the former state church of Sweden), with its seat at Skara in Västergötland (Skara Cathedral). In 2014, it celebrated its 1000-year anniversary as a full diocese.
Diocese of Skara
|Denomination||Church of Sweden|
It was suffragan to the Archdiocese of Hamburg-Bremen (990-1104), to the Archdiocese of Lund (1104–64), and finally to the Archdiocese of Uppsala (1164-1530). This diocese, the most ancient in Sweden, included the provinces of Västergötland and Värmland.
It was founded about 990 at Skara, the capital of the country of the Geats (Gauthiod), the whole of which it embraced until about 1100, when the eastern portion of the Diocese of Skara was formed into that of Linköping. At the beginning there was no strict division of the country into dioceses, and the missionary bishops went about preaching wherever they would. Thus it is that, though Odinkar Hvite the Elder was apparently the first bishop stationed at Skara about 990, Sigurd, a court bishop of King Olaf Tryggveson of Norway, is named as the first Bishop of Skara in the list of bishops written down about 1325 as an appendix to the Laws os the Western Geats (Västgötalagen). It is added that he founded three churches in Västergötland, and he also seems to have baptized Olof Skötkonung, first Christian King of Sweden, at Husaby near Skara in 1008. Odinkar's successor was Thurgaut, first diocesan Bishop of Skara (about 1012-30). He was nominally succeeded by Gotskalk, a monk of the Benedictine abbey at Lüneburg, who never left his abbey, although he had been consecrated to the See of Skara by Archbishop Liavizo of Hamburg (1030–32). Meanwhile, Sigurd, or Sigfrid, an Englishman of Scandinavian origin and a monk of Glastonbury (?), took possession of the See of Skara about 1031, and remained there till after 1043. Although he entered into communication with Bremen and sent his relative and successor Osmund to be educated there, both Sigurd and Osmund seem to have been regarded as intruders by the Archbishop of Hamburg-Bremen. Osmund was consecrated in Poland, and refused to acknowledge the primacy of Hamburg. In this refusal he was supported by King Anund Jacob. Consequently, when Adalvard the Elder, subdean of Bremen, who had been consecrated Bishop of Skara by Archbishop Adalbert on the death of Bishop Gotskalk, came to Skara about 1050 to take possession of his see, he was prevented from doing so, and had to wait for Osmund's departure for England in 1057 (?) before he could become Bishop of Skara de facto. Adalvard the Elder died in 1060 and was buried near the first Cathedral of St. Mary, which he had built. Acelin, dean of Bremen, was consecrated bishop in 1061, but never took possession of the see. Adalvard the younger, who had visited and buried his elder namesake in 1060, was invited on his expulsion from the See of Sigtuna in 1067 to become Bishop of Skara, but was recalled to Bremen by Archbishop Adalbert.
Of the next four bishops of Skara hardly anything is known. Concerning Bishop Oedgrim the following facts are recorded. He was present at the consecration of Lund Cathedral in 1145. During his episcopate the abbey at Varnhem was founded (1150) by some Cistercians of Clairvaux who came from Alvastra. Finally in 1151 Bishop Oedgrim consecrated part of the present cathedral, which Bishop Benedict I (1158–90) enlarged and furnished. The latter also built the Churches of St. Nicholas and of St. Peter at Skara as well as many roads and bridges. Bishop Jerpulf (1191–1201) persuaded a popular assembly at Askubeck to assign to the bishop part of the tithe. Benedict II (1217–30) founded several secular canonries in 1220, and thus originated the cathedral chapter.
St. Bryniolph Algotsson is the best known bishop. He studied for eighteen years at Paris, became dean of Linköping, and in 1278 Bishop of Skara. He issued statutes in 1231, and composed hymns and other works, amongst them a Life of St. Helena of Skövde (Schedvia), who was murdered in 1140 and was canonized by Pope Honorius III, and whose remains were translated to Uppsala in 1164. She was also greatly venerated at Tidsvilde (Zealand) and elsewhere in Denmark. St. Bryniolph died on 6 February 1317. In 1499 Alexander VI granted leave for the translation of his relics, but St. Bryniolph was never formally canonized. Under him and his successor, Bishop Benedict III Tunnesson (1317–21), that is between 1312 and 1320, the whole of the cathedral was restored. Bishop Sven the Great (1435-48?) painted it in fresco.
15th and 16th centuriesEdit
Bishop Bryniolph III Gerlaktsson (1478–1505) regulated the frontier between his diocese and that of the Archdiocese of Lund. His successor, Bishop Vincent Hennings, was beheaded by Christian II at the Stockholm bloodbath on 8 November 1520, although he protested aloud on his way to the scaffold against the injustice of his condemnation.
Then came Magnus Haraldsson (1523), whose election was not confirmed by the pope in spite of King Gustavus I Vasa's request. Johannes Franciscus de Potentia, a Franciscan, was nominated Bishop of Skara the same year by papal provision, but the king refused to receive him. Bishop Magnus Haraldsson, though at first submissive towards Gustavus I, led his diocesans to Larv to take part in the rising of 1529. He was accordingly deposed by the king, who appointed in 1530 a Protestant, Svend Jacobsson, in his place. Rome suppressed the Catholic see in 1527.
At Skara the cathedral chapter consisted latterly of a dean, an archdeacon, a subdean, and twenty-one canons. There were also in the town a Franciscan priory dating from about 1242 and a Dominican order priory from about 1260. At Lödöse there were also Franciscans from 1283 and Dominicans from 1286. Finally there were the Cistercian monastery at Varnhem and the Cistercian nunnery at Gudhem; the latter was founded about 1160.
List of Catholic bishopsEdit
- Thurgot or Thurgaut, 1014–1030
- Gotskalk, 1030, not consecrated
- Sigfrid the Younger, 1030–1050
- Osmund, 1050-talet
- Adalvard the Elder, 1060–1064
- Acilinus, 1064, not consecrated
- Adalvard the Younger, 1066–1068
- Rodulvard, mentioned 1081
- Rikulf, at end of the 11th century
- Hervard, late 1000-tal or early 1100-tal
- Styrbjörn, dead around 1130
- Ödgrim, around 1130- around 1150
- Bengt (I) the Good, around 1150- around 1190
- Järpulf, around 1190 - around 1200
- Jon Hyrne, 1201–1205
- Bernhard, 1206–1216
- Bengt (II) the Younger, mentioned from 1219 to 1228
- Stenar, probably 1228-1238
- Lars (I), 1240/41-1257
- Valdemar, 1258–1262
- Ragvald, 1262–1263
- Ulf, 1263–1267
- Erik (I), 1267–1278
- Brynolf (I) Algotsson, 1267–1317
- Bengt (III) Johansson, 1317–1321
- Erik (II), 1321–1322
- Peder Larsson, 1322–1336
- Gunnar Tynnesson, 1337–1340
- Sigge Jonsson, 1340–1352
- Sigfrid Rotgeri, 1352-1352
- Lars (II), 1354–1356
- Nils, 1356–1386
- Rudolf of Mecklenburg-Stargard, 1387–1391
- Torsten, 1391–1404
- Brynolf (II) Karlsson, 1404–1424
- Sven Grotte, 1424–1449
- Bengt (IV) Gustavsson, (Tre Rosor till Horshaga) 14491460, under Bengts refugee 1452–1457 the Diocese was governed by Peder Larsson (officialis sedis episcopalis.
- Björn Månsson (Bero de Ludosia), 1461/62 - 1465, not consecrated
- Hans Markvardsson, 1465–1478
- Brynolf (III) Gerlaksson, 1478–1505
- Vincent Henningsson, 1505–1520
- Didrik Slagheck, 1520–1521
Besides Skara cathedral and the abbey church at Varnhem, there are interesting romanesque churches at Asklanda and elsewhere. At Husaby there was a spring dedicated to St. Brigid of Kildare. This Irish dedication may be accounted for by the fact that Olof Skötkonung was, as mentioned above, baptized there in 1008 by Sigurd, court bishop of King Olaf Tryggveson, who had many connections with Ireland. St. Olaf was specially venerated at Dalby and Elgaa in Värmland.
Skara stifts biskopslängd, by Hilding Johansson from Skara stads historia part I - Staden i stiftet. This list deviates somewhat from the lists in the bishop's mansion and in Nordisk teologisk uppslagsbok.
- Francesesco de Potenza 1523, not consecrated.
- Magnus Haraldsson, 1522–1529
- Sveno Jacobi, 1530–1540
- Erik Svensson Hjort, 1544–1545
- Erik Falck, 1547–1558
- Erik Pedersson Hwass, 1558–1560
- Erik Nicolai Swart, 1561–1570
- Jacob Johannis, 1570–1595, disposed 1593 as liturgic, but remained until 1595.
- Henrik Gadolenus, 1593, appointed at the Uppsala Synod in 1593, but not consecrated.
- Petrus Kenicius, 1595–1609,
- Paulus Pauli, 1612–1616
- Sveno Svenonis, 1618–1639
- Jonas Magni Wexionensis, 1640–1651
- Olof Fristadius, 1651–1654
- Johannes Kempe, 1655–1673
- Johannes Baazius the Younger, 1673–1677
- Andreas Omenius, 1677–1684
- Haquin Spegel, 1685–1691
- Petrus Johannis Rudbeckius, 1692–1701
- Jesper Swedberg, 1702–1735
- Petrus Schyllberg, 1736–1743
- Daniel Juslenius, 1744–1752
- Engelbert Halenius, 1753–1767
- Anders Forssenius, 1767–1788
- Thure Weidman, 1789–1828
- Sven Lundblad, 1829–1837
- Johan Albert Butsch, 1837–1875
- Anders Fredrik Beckman, 1875–1894
- Ernst Jakob Keijser, 1895–1905
- Hjalmar Danell, 1905–1935
- Gustaf Ljunggren, 1935–1950
- Yngve Rudberg, 1951–1955
- Sven Danell, 1955–1969
- Helge Brattgård, 1969–1985
- Karl-Gunnar Grape, 1985–1989
- Lars-Göran Lönnermark, 1989–2004
- Erik Aurelius, 2004-2012
- Åke Bonnier, 2012-
- List translated from Swedish article sv:Biskopar i Skara
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Ancient See of Skara". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
- "Detta är Skara stift" (in Swedish). Church of Sweden. Retrieved 26 August 2011.
- "Skara stift". Nationalencyklopedin (in Swedish). Retrieved 26 August 2011. (subscription required)
- "Biskop Erik Aurelius" (in Swedish). Church of Sweden. Retrieved 26 August 2011.
- "Kronprinsessparet firade Skara stift 1000 år". Swedish Royal House.