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Elisabeth of Carinthia (also known as Elisabeth of Tyrol; c. 1262 – 28 October 1312), was a Duchess of Austria from 1282 and Queen of the Romans from 1298 until 1308, by marriage to King Albert I of Habsburg.
|Elisabeth of Carinthia|
|Queen consort of the Romans|
|Tenure||27 July 1298 – 1 May 1308|
|Died||28 October 1312|
Saint Paul's Abbey, Carinthia
|Spouse||Albert I of Germany|
|Rudolph I of Bohemia|
Frederick the Fair
Leopold I, Duke of Austria
Albert II, Duke of Austria
Henry the Gentle
Otto, Duke of Austria
Anna, Margravine of Brandenburg and Duchess of Wrocław
Agnes, Queen of Hungary
Elizabeth, Duchess of Lorraine
Catherine, Duchess of Calabria
|House||House of Gorizia|
|Father||Meinhard, Duke of Carinthia|
|Mother||Elisabeth of Bavaria|
Elizabeth thus was a half-sister of Conradin, King of Jerusalem and Duke of Swabia. Elizabeth was in fact better connected to powerful German rulers than her future husband: a descendant of earlier monarchs, for example Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, she was also a niece of the Bavarian dukes, Austria's important neighbors.
Duchess and Queen edit
Elisabeth was married in Vienna on 20 December 1274 to Count Albert I of Habsburg, eldest son and heir of the newly elected Rudolf I, King of the Romans, thus becoming daughter-in-law of the King of the Romans and Emperor-to-be. After Rudolf had defeated his rival King Ottokar II of Bohemia in the 1278 Battle on the Marchfeld, he invested his son Albert with the duchies of Austria and Styria at the Imperial Diet in Augsburg on 17 December 1282.
Albert initially had to share the rule with his younger brother Rudolf II, who nevertheless had to waive his rights according to the Treaty of Rheinfelden the next year. Duke Albert and Elizabeth solidified their rule in what was to become the Habsburg "hereditary lands", also with the help of Elizabeth's father Meinhard, who in his turn was created Duke of Carinthia by King Rudolf I in 1286.
Elizabeth was described as shrewd and enterprising, in possession of some commercial talents. The construction of the Saline plant in Salzkammergut goes back to her suggestion.
Upon the death of Albert's father in 1291, the princes elected Count Adolf of Nassau German king, while Duke Albert himself became entangled in internal struggles with the Austrian nobility. Not until Adolf's deposition in 1298, Elizabeth's husband was finally elected King of the Romans on 23 June 1298. Two weeks later, Adolf was defeated and killed in the Battle of Göllheim. In 1299, Elizabeth was crowned Queen of the Romans in Nuremberg.
Later life edit
On 1 May 1308 her husband was murdered by his nephew John "the Parricide" near Windisch, Swabia (in modern-day Switzerland). After Albert's assassination, Elizabeth had the Poor Clare monastery of Königsfelden erected at the site, where she died on 28 October 1312 and was also buried. Today her mortal remains rest at Saint Paul's Abbey in Carinthia.
Elizabeth's and Albert's children were:
- Anna (1275, Vienna – 19 March 1327, Breslau).
- Agnes (18 May 1281 – 10 June 1364, Königsfelden)
- Rudolf III (ca. 1282 – 4 July 1307), married but line extinct. He predeceased his father.
- Elisabeth (1285 – 19 May 1353).
- married in 1304 to Frederick IV, Duke of Lorraine (1282 – 1328).
- Frederick I (1289 – 13 January 1330).
- married on 11 May 1315 to Isabella of Aragon, Queen of Germany (1305 – 1330) but line extinct.
- Leopold I (4 August 1290 – 28 February 1326, Strassburg).
- married in 1315 to Catherine of Savoy (1284 – 1336).
- Catherine (1295 – 18 January 1323, Naples).
- married in 1316 to Charles, Duke of Calabria (1328 – 1298).
- Albert II (12 December 1298, Vienna – 20 July 1358, Vienna).
- Henry the Gentle (1299 – 3 February 1327, Bruck an der Mur).
- married Countess Elizabeth of Virneburg but line extinct.
- Meinhard (1300 – 1301).
- Otto (23 July 1301, Vienna – 26 February 1339, Vienna).
- Jutta (1302 – 5 March 1329).
- married in Baden 26 March 1319 to Count Ludwig VI of Öttingen.
- Lodge, Richard (1906). The Close of the Middle Ages, 1272-1494. Rivington.
- Clauss, Martin (2010). "Germany". In Rogers, Clifford J. (ed.). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology. Vol. 2. Oxford University Press.
- Štih, Peter (2010). The Middle Ages between the Eastern Alps and the Northern Adriatic. Brill.