Arthur II, Duke of Brittany
Arthur II (25 July 1261 – 27 August 1312), of the House of Dreux, was Duke of Brittany from 1305 to his death. He was the first son of John II and Beatrice, daughter of Henry III of England and Eleanor of Provence.
|Duke of Brittany|
|Reign||18 November 1305 – 27 August 1312|
|Born||25 July 1261|
|Died||27 August 1312 (aged 51)|
Château de L'Isle
(m. 1275; died 1291)
John of Montfort
|Mother||Beatrice of England|
As duke, Arthur was independent of the French crown. He divided his duchy into eight "battles": Léon, Kernev, Landreger, Penteur, Gwened, Naoned, Roazhon, and Sant Malou. In 1309, he convoked the first Estates of Brittany.[b] It was the first time in French history that the third estate was represented.
Arthur died at Château de l'Isle in Saint Denis en Val and was interred in a marble tomb of the cordeliers of Vannes. The tomb was vandalised during the French Revolution, but later repaired and is on display today.
Marriages and childrenEdit
In 1275, Arthur married Marie, Viscountess of Limoges, daughter of Guy VI, Viscount of Limoges, and Margaret, Lady of Molinot. Her maternal grandparents were Hugh IV, Duke of Burgundy, and his first wife, Yolande of Dreux. They were parents of three children:
- John III, Duke of Brittany (8 March 1286 – 30 April 1341).
- Guy of Brittany, Count of Penthièvre (1287 – 1331); father of Joanna of Penthièvre.
- Peter of Brittany, Seigneur of Dol-Combourg and Sant-Maloù (1289 – 1312).
Marie died in 1291. In May 1292, Arthur married Yolande of Dreux, who was Countess of Montfort, daughter of Robert IV, Count of Dreux, and Beatrice de Montfort. Yolande had briefly been Queen of Scotland by her first marriage. They were parents of six children:
- John of Montfort (1295 – 16 September 1345).
- Beatrice of Brittany (1295–1384); married Guy X, Lord of Laval.[c]
- Joan of Brittany (1296–1364); married Robert, Count of Marle, Lord of Cassel (son of Robert III, Count of Flanders).
- Alice of Brittany (1297–1377); married Bouchard VI, Count of Vendôme, a member of the House of Montoire.
- Blanche of Brittany (born c. 1300); considered to have died young.
- Marie of Brittany (1302–1371); a nun.
- There are discrepancies about how this title was separated from the Duke of Brittany and invested in John. One history recounts that Arthur conferred it on his brother, while an alternative history is that King Edward I invested John as Earl of Richmond the year after John and Arthur's father had died,
- Brittany would eventually have both an "Estates" and a "Parliament"
- The Lords of Laval would become Governors of Brittany after 1491, when Anne de Bretagne married Charles VIII of France.
- Hereford Brooke George, Genealogical Tables Illustrative of Modern History, (Oxford Clarendon Press, 1875), table XXVI
- Jonathan Sumption, Trial by Battle: The Hundred Years War, (Faber & Faber, 1990), 372.
- Duplès-Agier, H. (ed.) (1874) Chroniques de Saint-Martial de Limoges (Paris), Anonymum S Martialis Chronicon, Chroniques de Saint-Martial de Limoges, p. 172.
- Jonathan Sumption, Trial by Battle: The Hundred Years War, 373.
- Goodall, W. (ed.) (1759) Joannis de Fordun Scotichronicon cum Supplementis et Continuatione Walteri Boweri, Vols. I, II (Edinburgh) ("Joannis de Fordun (Goodall)"), Vol. II, Lib. X, Cap. XXXIX-XL, p. 127.
- Diocesis of Bruges (ed.) (1852) Chronicon abbatiæ Warnestoniensis (Bruges), Appendix, p. 34.
Arthur II, Duke of Brittany
Cadet branch of the Capetian DynastyBorn: 2 July 1262 Died: 27 August 1312
| Viscount of Limoges
with Marie (1275–1291)
| Duke of Brittany|
| Count of Penthièvre
| Count of Montfort