|Ab urbe condita||1807|
|Balinese saka calendar||975–976|
|English Regnal year||N/A|
|Chinese calendar||癸巳年 (Water Snake)|
3750 or 3690
— to —
甲午年 (Wood Horse)
3751 or 3691
|- Vikram Samvat||1110–1111|
|- Shaka Samvat||975–976|
|- Kali Yuga||4154–4155|
|Japanese calendar||Tengi 2|
|Minguo calendar||858 before ROC|
|Seleucid era||1365/1366 AG|
|Thai solar calendar||1596–1597|
1180 or 799 or 27
— to —
1181 or 800 or 28
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1054.|
- Sultan Tughril leads a large Seljuk army out of Azerbaijan into Armenia, possibly to consolidate his frontier while providing an incentive to his Turkoman allies in the form of plunder. Tughril divides his army into four columns, ordering three to veer off to the north to raid into central and northern Armenia while he takes the fourth column towards Lake Van. The Seljuk Turks capture and sack the fortress city of Artchesh after an 8-day siege.
- Battle of Mortemer: The Normans led by Duke William the Bastard defeat a French army (near Mortemer), as it is caught pillaging and plundering. King Henry I of France withdraws his main army from Normandy as a result. Guy I (or Wido), count of Ponthieu, is captured during the course of the battle.
- July 27 – Siward, earl of Northumbria, invades Scotland, to support King Malcolm III against Macbeth, who has usurp the Scottish throne from Malcolm's father, Duncan I. Macbeth is defeated at Dunsinane.
- The Almoravids retake the trading center of Aoudaghost from the Ghana Empire. Repeated Almoravid incursions, aim at seizing control of the trans-Saharan gold trade, disrupt Ghana's dominance of the trade routes.
- Lý Nhật Tôn, third king of the Lý Dynasty, begins to rule in Vietnam, and changes the country's official name to Đại Việt.
- July 4 – The SN 1054, a supernova, is first observed by the Chinese, Arabs and possibly Native Americans, near the star Zeta Tauri. For 23 days it remains bright enough to be seen in daylight. Its remnants form the Crab Nebula (NGC 1952).
- Spring – Pope Leo IX sends a legatine mission under Cardinal Humbert of Silva Candida (during the celebration of the Divine Liturgy) to Constantinople to negotiate with Patriarch Michael I (Cerularius), in response to his actions concerning the church in Constantinople.
- July 16 – Humbert of Silva Candida, representative of the newly deceased Leo IX, breaks the relations between Western and Eastern Churches through the act of placing an invalidly-issued Papal Bull of ex-communication (see East-West Schism).
- September 2 – Sukjong, ruler of Goryeo (d. 1105)
- Al-Hariri of Basra, Abbasid poet and scholar (d. 1122)
- Bohemond I, Italo-Norman nobleman (approximate date)
- George II (or Giorgi), king of Georgia (approximate date)
- Judith of Lens, niece of William the Conqueror (or 1055)
- Judith of Swabia, queen consort of Hungary (d. 1105)
- Langri Tangpa, Tibetan Buddhist master (d. 1123)
- Ramon Berenguer II, count of Barcelona (or 1053)
- Tong Guan, Chinese general and adviser (d. 1126)
- February 20 – Yaroslav I (the Wise), Russian grand prince
- March 8 – Azelin (or Azellinus), bishop of Hildesheim
- April 19 – Leo IX, pope of the Catholic Church (b. 1002)
- July 19 – Bernold (or Bernulf), bishop of Utrecht
- August 25 – Fujiwara no Michimasa, Japanese nobleman (b. 992)
- August 31 – Kunigunde of Altdorf, German noblewoman
- September 1 – Fortún Sánchez, Spanish nobleman
- September 15 – García Sánchez III, king of Pamplona
- September 24 – Hermann of Reichenau, German music theorist (b. 1013)
- Abu Sahl Zawzani, Persian statesman and chief secretary
- Atiśa, Tibetan Buddhist leader and master (b. 980)
- Cacht ingen Ragnaill, queen consort of Munster
- Nuño Álvarez de Carazo, Spanish nobleman
- Osbern Pentecost, Norman knight and nobleman
- Osgod Clapa (or Osgot), English nobleman
- Brian Todd Carey (2012). Road to Manzikert: Byzantine and Islamic Warfare (527–1071), p. 125. ISBN 978-1-84884-215-1.
- Levtzion, Nehemia; Hopkins, John F.P., eds. (2000), Corpus of Early Arabic Sources for West Africa, New York: Marcus Weiner Press. ISBN 1-55876-241-8. First published in 1981.
- Journal of Astronomy, part 9, chapter 56 of Sung History (Sung Shih) first printing, 1340. facsimile on the frontispiece of Misner, Thorne, Wheeler Gravitation, 1973.
- "Crab Nebula". NASA.
- Brett Edward Whalen (2009). Dominion of God: Christendom and Apocalypse in the Middle Ages, p. 24 (Harvard University Press).