10th century

The 10th century was the period from 901 (CMI) through 1000 (M) in accordance with the Julian calendar, and the last century of the 1st millennium.

Eastern Hemisphere at the beginning of the 10th century

In China the Song dynasty was established. The Muslim World experienced a cultural zenith, especially in al-Andalus under the Caliphate of Córdoba and in the Samanid Empire under Ismail Samani. Additionally, there was a cultural flourishing for the Byzantine Empire and the First Bulgarian Empire.

The Medievalist and historian of technology Lynn White said that "to the modern eye, it is very nearly the darkest of the Dark Ages ... if it was dark, it was the darkness of the womb".[1] Similarly, Helen Waddell wrote that the 10th century was that which "in the textbooks disputes with the seventh the bad eminence, the nadir of the human intellect".[2] Caesar Baronius famously described it as the Iron Century, because it was ‘iron in its harshness and in its sterility of goodness', while Lorenzo Valla gave it the similar name "Age of Lead and Iron".[3]: 2 

EventsEdit

AfricaEdit

AmericasEdit

AsiaEdit

 
This statue of a yogini goddess was created in Kaveripakkam in Tamil Nadu, India, during the 10th century.

EuropeEdit

 
The Bulgarian victory at Anchialos.

OceaniaEdit

Inventions, discoveries, introductionsEdit

 
Earliest known representation of a gun (a fire lance) and a grenade (upper right), from the cave murals of Dunhuang, China, 10th century.

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Quoted in The Tenth Century: How Dark the Dark Ages?, edited by Robert Sabatino Lopez. Holt, Rinehart and Winston: 1959.
  2. ^ The Wandering Scholars. Constable and Co: London, 1927.
  3. ^ Barrow, Julia. "Authority and Reform. Historiographical Frameworks for Understanding Tenth and Eleventh-Century Bishops." The Medieval Low Countries 6 (2019): 9-25.
  4. ^ E. Mann, Michael (2009). "Global Signatures and Dynamical Origins of the Little Ice Age and Medieval Climate Anomaly" (PDF). geo.umass.edu. p. 1257. Retrieved 26 August 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  5. ^ "Asian maritime & trade chronology to 1700 CE". Maritime Asia.
  6. ^ Soekmono, R, Drs., Pengantar Sejarah Kebudayaan Indonesia 2, 2nd ed. Penerbit Kanisius, Yogyakarta, 1973, 5th reprint edition in 1988 p.52
  7. ^ Spuler, Bertold; F.R.C. Bagley. The Muslim world : a historical survey, Part 4. Brill Archive. p. 252. ISBN 978-90-04-06196-5.
  8. ^ Soekmono, R, Drs., Pengantar Sejarah Kebudayaan Indonesia 2, 2nd ed. Penerbit Kanisius, Yogyakarta, 1973, 5th reprint edition in 1988 p.51

Further readingEdit