1000 (M) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1000th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 1000th and last year of the 1st millennium, the 100th and last year of the 10th century, and the 1st year of the 1000s decade. As of the start of 1000, the Gregorian calendar was 5 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which was the dominant calendar of the time.

Millennium: 1st millennium
1000 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1000
Ab urbe condita1753
Armenian calendar449
Assyrian calendar5750
Balinese saka calendar921–922
Bengali calendar407
Berber calendar1950
English Regnal yearN/A
Buddhist calendar1544
Burmese calendar362
Byzantine calendar6508–6509
Chinese calendar己亥年 (Earth Pig)
3697 or 3490
    — to —
庚子年 (Metal Rat)
3698 or 3491
Coptic calendar716–717
Discordian calendar2166
Ethiopian calendar992–993
Hebrew calendar4760–4761
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1056–1057
 - Shaka Samvat921–922
 - Kali Yuga4100–4101
Holocene calendar11000
Igbo calendar0–1
Iranian calendar378–379
Islamic calendar390–391
Japanese calendarChōhō 2
Javanese calendar901–902
Julian calendar1000
Korean calendar3333
Minguo calendar912 before ROC
Nanakshahi calendar−468
Seleucid era1311/1312 AG
Thai solar calendar1542–1543
Tibetan calendar阴土猪年
(female Earth-Pig)
1126 or 745 or −27
    — to —
(male Iron-Rat)
1127 or 746 or −26

In the proleptic Gregorian calendar, it was a non-leap century year starting on Wednesday (like 1800).

The year falls well into the period of Old World history known as the Middle Ages; in Europe, it is sometimes and by convention considered the boundary date between the Early Middle Ages and the High Middle Ages. The Muslim world was in its Islamic Golden Age. China was in its Song dynasty, Korea was in its Goryeo dynasty, Japan was in its classical Heian period. India was divided into a number of lesser empires, such as the Eastern Chalukyas, Pala Empire (Kamboja Pala dynasty; Mahipala), Chola dynasty (Rajaraja I), Yadava dynasty, etc. Sub-Saharan Africa was still in the prehistoric period, although Trans-Saharan slave trade was beginning to be an important factor in the formation of the Sahelian kingdoms. The pre-Columbian New World was in a time of general transition in many regions. Wari and Tiwanaku cultures receded in power and influence while Chachapoya and Chimú cultures rose toward florescence in South America. In Mesoamerica, the Maya Terminal Classic period saw the decline of many grand polities of the Petén like Palenque and Tikal yet a renewed vigor and greater construction phases of sites in the Yucatán Peninsula like Chichen Itza and Uxmal. Mitla, with Mixtec influence, became the more important site of the Zapotec, overshadowing the waning Monte Albán. Cholula flourished in central Mexico, as did Tula, the center of Toltec culture.

World population is estimated to have been between c. 250 and 310 million.[1]




  • Palace Scandal: Princess Consort Yasuko has an affair. Michinaga (her half-brother) investigates it secretly and finds out the truth about her pregnancy. Yasuko cries and repents. Yasuko leaves the palace under the patronage of Empress Dowager Senshi and Michinaga (moved to his residence).[citation needed]
  • Murasaki Shikibu starts to write The Tale of Genji.[2]
  • Ichimonjiya Wasuke, the oldest surviving wagashi store, is established as a teahouse adjacent to Imamiya Shrine.
  • January 10: Death of Empress Dowager Masako (empress consort of the late Emperor Reizei)[citation needed]
  • April 8: Fujiwara no Shoshi is promoted to Empress (Chugu), while there is another empress, Fujiwara no Teishi (kogo) - this is the first time that there are two empresses[3]




Western Europe, the Holy Roman Empire, Kievan Rus', and the Byzantine Empire in the Middle Ages (year 1000)

Islamic world


The Muslim world was in its Golden Age; still organised in caliphates, it continued to be dominated by the Abbasid Caliphate, with the Caliphate of Córdoba to the west, and experienced ongoing campaigns in Africa and in India. At the time, Persia was in a period of instability, with various polities seceding from Abbasid rule, among whom the Ghaznavids would emerge as the most powerful.

The Islamic world was reaching the peak of its historical scientific achievements. Important scholars and scientists who flourished in AD 1000 include Al-Zahrawi (Abcasis), Ibn Yunus (publishes his astronomical treatise Al-Zij al-Hakimi al-Kabir in Cairo in c. 1000), Abu Sahl al-Quhi (Kuhi), Abu-Mahmud Khujandi, Abu Nasr Mansur, Abu al-Wafa' al-Buzjani, Ahmad ibn Fadlan, Ali Ibn Isa, Al-Karaji (al-Karkhi), Ibn al-Haytham (Book of Optics), Avicenna, Averroes, and Al-Biruni.

By this time, the Turkic migration from the Eurasian Steppe had reached Eastern Europe, and most of the Turkic tribes (Khazars, Bulgars, Pechenegs etc.) had been Islamized.

Babylon abandoned


Babylon was abandoned around this year.

Largest cities

  1. Córdoba, Caliphate of Córdoba – 450,000
  2. Kaifeng, Song Dynasty (China) – 400,000
  3. Constantinople, Byzantine Empire – 300,000
  4. Angkor, Khmer Empire (Cambodia) – 200,000
  5. Kyoto, Heian Period (Japan) – 175,000
  6. Cairo, Fatimid Caliphate – 135,000
  7. Baghdad, Buyid Dynasty (Iraq) – 125,000
  8. Nishapur, Ghaznavid Dynasty (Iran) – 125,000
  9. Al-Hasa, Qarmatian State (Arabia) – 110,000
  10. Patan, Chaulukya Dynasty (India) – 100,000[5]





See also



  1. ^ 310 million: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. 254 million: Jean-Noël Biraben, 1980, "An Essay Concerning Mankind's Evolution", Population, Selected Papers, Vol. 4, pp. 1–13.
  2. ^ "The Tale of Genji | Asia for Educators | Columbia University". afe.easia.columbia.edu. Retrieved 2024-05-29.
  3. ^ "Fujiwara no Teishi • . A History . . of Japan . 日本歴史". . A History . . of Japan . 日本歴史. Retrieved 2024-05-29.
  4. ^ "Ancient genome study identifies traces of indigenous "Taíno" in present-day Caribbean populations". University of Cambridge. 2018-02-19. Retrieved 2024-05-29.
  5. ^ "Top 10 Cities of the Year 1000". About.com Geography. About.com. Archived from the original on June 5, 2013. It references Chandler, Tertius (1987). Four Thousand Years of Urban Growth: An Historical Census. St. David's University Press.
  • Robert Lacey and Danny Danziger The Year 1000: What Life Was Like at the Turn of the First Millennium (1999) ISBN 0-316-55840-0
  • John Man Atlas of the Year 1000 (1999) ISBN 0-14-051419-8