Saeculum obscurum (Latin: the Dark Age) is a name given to a period in the history of the Papacy during the first half of the 10th century, beginning with the installation of Pope Sergius III in 904 and lasting for sixty years until the death of Pope John XII in 964. During this period, the popes were influenced strongly by a powerful and corrupt aristocratic family, the Theophylacti, and their relatives.
The saeculum obscurum was first named and identified as a period of papal immorality by the Italian cardinal and historian Caesar Baronius in his Annales Ecclesiastici in the sixteenth century. Baronius' primary source for his history of this period was a contemporary writer, Bishop Liutprand of Cremona. Baronius himself was writing during the Counter-Reformation, a period of heightened sensitivity to clerical corruption. His characterisation of the early 10th-century papacy was perpetuated by Protestant authors. The terms pornocracy (German: Pornokratie, from Greek pornokratiā, "rule of prostitutes"), hetaerocracy ("government of mistresses") and the Rule of the Harlots (German: Hurenregiment) were coined by Protestant German theologians in the nineteenth century.
The Theophylacti family originated from Theophylactus. They held positions of increased importance in the Roman nobility such as Judex, vestararius, gloriosissimus dux, consul and senator, and magister militum. Theophylact's wife Theodora and daughter Marozia held a great influence over the papal selection and religious affairs in Rome through conspiracies, affairs, and marriages.
Marozia became the concubine of Pope Sergius III when she was 15 and later took other lovers and husbands. She ensured that her son John was seated as Pope John XI according to Antapodosis sive Res per Europam gestae (958–62), by Liutprand of Cremona (c. 920–72). Liutprand affirms that Marozia arranged the murder of her former lover Pope John X (who had originally been nominated for office by Theodora) through her then husband Guy of Tuscany possibly to secure the elevation of her current favourite as Pope Leo VI. There is no record substantiating that Pope John X had definitely died before Leo VI was elected since John X was already imprisoned by Marozia and was out of public view.
Theodora and Marozia held great sway over the popes during this time. In particular, as political rulers of Rome they had effective control over the election of new popes. Much that is alleged about the saeculum obscurum comes from the histories of Liutprand, Bishop of Cremona. Liutprand took part in the Assembly of Bishops which deposed Pope John XII and was a political enemy of the Roman aristocracy and its control over papal elections. Lindsay Brook writes:
We must be especially circumspect about the writing of Liutprand of Cremona, perhaps the most polemical of the tenth century chroniclers, who had his own agenda to promote the revived western Roman Empire.
It would be misleading to portray all, or even most, of the popes of the era as worldly and corrupt. Surviving documents (and there are obvious lacunae) make it clear that many were competent administrators, and skilful diplomats in difficult and dangerous times. Some were even reformers, keen to root out discreditable practices such as simony. Others ordered the rebuilding and restoration of Rome's churches and palaces... Rather, it is the manner of the election of many of them and their symbiotic relationship with the Roman aristocracy that has earned their regime the designation pornocracy."
List of Popes during the saeculum obscurumEdit
- Pope Sergius III (904–911), alleged lover of Marozia
- Pope Anastasius III (911–913)
- Pope Lando (913–914)
- Pope John X (914–928), alleged lover of Theodora (the mother), allegedly killed by Marozia
- Pope Leo VI (928–928)
- Pope Stephen VII (928–931)
- Pope John XI (931–935), son of Marozia, alleged son of Pope Sergius III
- Pope Leo VII (936–939)
- Pope Stephen VIII (939–942)
- Pope Marinus II (942–946)
- Pope Agapetus II (946–955)
- Pope John XII (955–964), grandson of Marozia, by her son Alberic II of Spoleto.
|Theophylact I, Count of Tusculum|
|Hugh of Italy|
(also married Marozia)
|Alberic I of Spoleto|
|Pope Sergius III|
|Alda of Vienne||Alberic II of Spoleto|
|David or Deodatus||Pope John XI|
|Gregory I, Count of Tusculum||Pope John XII|
|Pope Benedict VII|
|Pope Benedict VIII|
|Alberic III, Count of Tusculum|
|Pope John XIX|
|Peter, Duke of the Romans||Gregory II, Count of Tusculum||Gaius||Octavianus||Pope Benedict IX|
Pope 1032–1044, 1045, 1047–1048
The Tusculan Papacy, 1012–59Edit
- Pope Benedict VIII, son of Count Gregory I; (1012–24)
- Pope John XIX, son of Count Gregory I, (1024–32)
- Pope Benedict IX, son of Alberic III; (1032–44; 1045; 1047–48)
- Antipope Benedict X, son of Alberic III (1058–59); driven out of Rome after a small war.
Pope Benedict IX went so far as to sell the Papacy to his religious Godfather, Pope Gregory VI (1045–46). He then changed his mind, seized the Lateran Palace, and became Pope for the third time in 1047–48.
The Tusculan Papacy was finally ended by the election of Pope Nicholas II, who was assisted by Hildebrand of Sovana against Antipope Benedict X. Hildebrand was elected Pope Gregory VII in 1073 and introduced the Gregorian Reforms, increasing the power and independence of the papacy.
- Dwyer, John C. (1998). Church history: twenty centuries of Catholic Christianity. Mahwah, USA.: Paulist Press. p. 155. ISBN 0-8091-3830-1.
- Paolo Squatriti, "Pornocracy", in Christopher Kleinhenz (ed.), Medieval Italy: An Encyclopedia, Vol. 2 (New York and London: Routledge, 2004), pp. 926–27.
- Durant, Will. The Age of Faith. New York: Simon and Schuster. 1972. p. 537
- Poole, Reginald L (1917). "Papal chronology in the eleventh century". English Historical Review. 1917a41 (32): 204–214.
- Fedele, Pietro (1910 & 1911). "Ricerche per la storia di Rome e del papato al. sec. X". Archivo della Reale Società Romana di Storia Patria, 33: 177–247; & 34: 75–116, 393–423.
- Ide, Arthur Frederick (1987). Unzipped: The Popes Bare All : A Frank Study of Sex and Corruption in the Vatican. Austin, USA.: American Atheist Press. ISBN 0-910309-43-4.
- Stark, Rodney (2004). For the glory of God. Princeton, USA.: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-11950-2.
- Brook, Lindsay (2003). "Popes and Pornocrats: Rome in the early middle ages". Foundations. 1 (1): 5–21.