Battle of Benevento

The Battle of Benevento was fought on 26 February 1266 near Benevento, in present-day Southern Italy. It was waged between the troops of Charles of Anjou and Manfred of Sicily. Manfred's defeat and death resulted in the capture of the Kingdom of Sicily by Charles, effectively ending the rule of the Hohenstaufen in the Italian Peninsula.

Battle of Benevento
BeneventoVillani.jpg
Battle of Benevento, from Giovanni Villani's Nuova Cronica
Date26 February 1266
Location
River Calore, near Benevento, present-day Italy
Result Decisive Guelph victory
Belligerents

Guelphs

Ghibellines

Commanders and leaders

Arms of Jean dAnjou.svg Charles of Anjou

Arms of Swabia-Sicily.svg Manfred of Sicily 

Strength

Total: 12,000

  • 4,500 light infantry
  • 3,900 heavy infantry
  • 600 crossbowmen
  • 2,400 mount. sergeants
  • 600 knights

Total: ~25,000[1]

Casualties and losses
Unknown more than 2,500 cavalry killed
Unknown infantry

BackgroundEdit

The Papacy had long been in conflict with the imperial house of Hohenstaufen over their rule in Italy. At the time of the battle, the Hohenstaufen ruler of the Kingdom of Sicily (which included Sicily and southern Italy) was Manfred, illegitimate son of Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor. While the rightful heir to the kingdom was (Frederick's legitimate grandson Conradin) young and safely across the Alps in Bavaria. Manfred, taking advantage of a false rumor of Conradin's death, had usurped the throne in 1258. Pope Urban IV determined to take the Kingdom from him, and in 1263, concluded a secret treaty with Charles of Anjou, promising him the Sicilian throne instead.[3]

PreludeEdit

Charles reached Rome in 1265, but was temporarily halted by financial embarrassments. Manfred, however, did not take the field against him until January 1266, when Charles' main army had crossed the Alps. Alarmed by desertions among his followers and fearing further treachery, Manfred sought to bring Charles to battle as swiftly as possible. Charles attempted to turn Manfred's position at Capua by a perilous crossing of the Apennines which wrecked his supply line; but Manfred had intelligence of his move and lay in a strong position across the River Calore, crossed only by one bridge.[citation needed]

Angevin compositionEdit

Charles' army includes three components:

  • ribalbaldi, lightly armed and poorly trained auxiliary unit
  • serjeants, lowborn heavy infantry and light cavalry
  • milites, landless knights

The Pope and the Church covered the cost of ribaldi and serjeants, while the milites followed Charles in hopes of being rewarded with a land of their own. The army was made out of six-hundred knights, two-thousand-four-hundred mounted sergeants, six-hundred crossbowmen, three-thousand-nine-hundred heavy infantry, and four-thousand-five-hundred light infantry, totaling around twelve-thousand men.[4]

Charles had divided his army into three "battles". The first battle consisted of crossbowmen and Provençal cavalry placed in behind them[5], commanded by Hugh of Mirepoix and Lord of Castres.[6] Behind them were the second battle, which consisted of Italians and men of Languedoc and central France. Charles commanded the second battle in person.[6] Behind them, the third battle consisted of about men from the county of Flanders under Constable of France and Robert III of Flanders.[6][7]

Hohenstaufen compositionEdit

Manfred had adopted similar dispositions. His Saracen archers were in the fore.[6] Behind them was the first battle, 1,200 German mercenaries armed in coats of plates, commanded by his cousin Giordano d'Anglano and Galvano of Anglona.[6] The second battle consisted of the Italian mercenaries, about 1,000, and 300 Saracen light horse, commanded by his uncle Galvano Lancia.[6] The third battle, numbering 1,400, were the feudatories of the Kingdom, under Manfred's personal command.[6]

BattleEdit

The battle began in the morning, when Manfred advanced his Saracens (archers and a few light cavalry) across the bridge to skirmish. They drove off Charles' infantry, but were put to flight by his Provençal cavalry.[6] Rashly, Manfred's first battle crossed the bridge and counter-charged.[6] At first, and despite being outnumbered, the German mercenaries seemed unstoppable; all blows rebounded from their armor plates. The Germans continued to advance into the French line and Charles felt forced to commit his second battle prematurely as well. However, before the two battles reunited, the French discovered that the Germans' new plate armor did not protect the armpits when the arm was lifted to strike.[6] Outnumbered and too tightly pressed to take full advantage of their longswords, the Germans were swiftly routed before Manfred's reinforcements could come to their support.

The tide of battle now rapidly turned against Manfred. His troops were forced to defile across the single bridge over the Calore to reach the field. By the time his second battle had crossed the bridge, Charles had ordered his third battle to charge them on both flanks and they were swiftly destroyed.[6] Upon the defeat of the Italians, most of the nobles in Manfred's third battle deserted him, leaving only the king and a few faithful followers.[6] After exchanging the royal surcoat with his friend Tebaldo Annibaldi, Manfred and his followers charged into the fray and were slain.[6] The narrow bridge acted as a bottleneck, causing many to be killed or captured. Only 600 of the 3,600 horsemen escaped.[6]

AftermathEdit

The destruction of Manfred's army marked the collapse of Hohenstaufen rule in Italy.[citation needed] The remainder of the Kingdom of Sicily was conquered almost without resistance. Settled in his new kingdom, Charles could await the coming of Conradin, the last hope of the Hohenstaufen, in 1268, and meet him at the Battle of Tagliacozzo.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Gregorovius, Ferdinand (2010). History of the City of Rome in the Middle Ages. Cambridge University Press. p. 390. ISBN 9781108015066. Retrieved 2 September 2019.
  2. ^ Gregorovius, Ferdinand (2010). History of the City of Rome in the Middle Ages. Cambridge University Press. p. 387. ISBN 9781108015066. Retrieved 2 September 2019.
  3. ^ "Battle of Benevento | Summary". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 4 September 2019.
  4. ^ Esposito, Gabriele (2019). Armies of the Medieval Italian Wars 1125–1325. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 39. ISBN 9781472833426. Retrieved 4 September 2019.
  5. ^ Connolly, Peter; Gillingham, John; Lazenby, John (2016). The Hutchinson Dictionary of Ancient and Medieval Warfare. Routledge. p. 39. ISBN 9781135936747. Retrieved 3 September 2019.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Steven Runciman, The Sicilian Vespers: A History of the Mediterranean World in the Later Thirteenth Century, (Cambridge University Press, 2000), 92–94.
  7. ^ Gravett, Christopher and Turner, Graham. "German Medieval Armies: 1000-1300." Osprey Military Men-at-Arms 310. (Oxford: Osprey Military, 1997) p. 38

SourcesEdit

Coordinates: 41°08′00″N 14°47′00″E / 41.1333°N 14.7833°E / 41.1333; 14.7833