Mu'ayyad al-Din al-Urdi
Born circa 1200, presumably (from the nisba al‐ʿUrḍī) in the village of ʿUrḍ in the Syrian desert between Palmyra and Resafa, he came to Damascus at some point before 1239, where he worked as an engineer and teacher of geometry, and built instruments for al-Malik al-Mansur of Hims. In 1259 he moved to Maragha in northeastern Iran, after being asked by Nasir al-Din al-Tusi to help establish the Maragha observatory under the patronage of Hulagu. Al-Urdi's most notable works are Risālat al-Raṣd, a treatise on observational instruments, and Kitāb al-Hayʾa (كتاب الهيئة), a work on theoretical astronomy. His influence can be seen on Bar Hebraeus and Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi, in addition to being quoted by Ibn al-Shatir.
Al-Urdi contributed to the construction of the observatory outside of the city, constructing special devices and water wheels in order to supply the observatory, which was built on a hill, with drinking water. He also constructed some of the instruments used in the observatory, in the year 1261/2. Al-Urdi's son, who also worked in the observatory, made a copy of his father's Kitāb al‐Hayʾa and also constructed a celestial globe in 1279.
Al-Urdi is a member of the group of Islamic astronomers of the 13th and 14th centuries who were active in the criticism of the astronomical model presented in Ptolemy's Almagest. Saliba (1979) identified Bodleian ms. Marsh 621 as a copy of Al-Urdi's Kitāb al-Hayʾa, based on which he argued that Al-Urdi's contributions predated Al-Tusi. Otto E. Neugebauer in 1957 argued that the works of this group of astronomers, perhaps via Ibn al-Shatir, must have been received in 15th-century Europe and ultimately influenced the works of Copernicus. This concerns the "Urdi lemma" in particular, an extension of Apollonius' theorem that allowed an equant in an astronomic model to be replaced with an equivalent epicycle that moved around a deferent centered at half the distance to the equant point.
- Schmidl, Petra G. (2007). "ʿUrḍī: Muʾayyad (al‐Milla wa‐) al‐Dīn (Muʾayyad ibn Barīk [Burayk]) al‐ʿUrḍī (al‐ʿĀmirī al‐Dimashqī)". In Thomas Hockey; et al. (eds.). The Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers. New York: Springer. pp. 1161–2. ISBN 978-0-387-31022-0. (PDF version)
- "Urdi". islamsci.mcgill.ca.
- This globe was bought by Augustus, Elector of Saxony in 1562 and since then has been kept in Dresden (now in Mathematisch-Physikalischer Salon). Drechsler, Adolph (1873). Der Arabische Himmels‐Globus angefertigt 1279 zu Maragha von Muhammed bin Muwajid Elardhi zugehörig dem Königl. Mathematisch‐physikalischen Salon zu Dresden Dresden: Königl. Hofbuchhandlung von Hermann Burdach. (2nd edition reprinted in Sezgin, Astronomische Instrumente, Vol. 4, pp. 215–241; (reprinted in Sezgin, School of Marāgha, Vol. 1, pp. 261–289).
- Saliba, George (2007). Islamic Science and the Making of the European Renaissance. MIT Press. p. 203 – via EBSCOHost.