Case Western Reserve University

Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) is a private research university in Cleveland, Ohio. Case Western Reserve was established after Western Reserve University—which was founded in 1826 and named for its location in the Connecticut Western Reserve—and Case Institute of Technology—which was founded in 1880 through the endowment of Leonard Case Jr.—formally federated in 1967.

Case Western Reserve University
Former names
Western Reserve College (1826–1882)
Western Reserve University (1882–1967)
Case School of Applied Science (1880–1947)
Case Institute of Technology (1947–1967)
MottoHistorical:
Christo et Ecclesiae (1827–1885)
Lux (1885–1932)[1]
Motto in English
"For Christ and the Church" (1827–1885)
"Light" (1885–1932)
TypePrivate research university
Established1826; 197 years ago (1826)
AccreditationHLC
Academic affiliations
Endowment$2.188 billion (2022)[2]
PresidentEric Kaler
ProvostJoy K. Ward (interim)
Academic staff
1,110[3]
Administrative staff
3,047[3]
Students12,266
Undergraduates6,186[3]
Postgraduates6,080[3]
Location, ,
United States

41°30′14″N 81°36′29″W / 41.504°N 81.608°W / 41.504; -81.608
CampusLarge city[5], 267 acres (1.08 km2)[4]
NewspaperThe Case Western Reserve Observer
ColorsCWRU Blue, white, and gray[6]
     
NicknameSpartans[7]
Sporting affiliations
MascotSpartie
Websitewww.case.edu

Case Western Reserve University comprises eight schools that offer more than 100 undergraduate programs and about 160 graduate and professional options.[9] In 2023, the university enrolled 12,266 students (6,186 undergraduate plus 6,080 graduate and professional) from all 50 states and 102 countries and employed more than 1,110 full-time faculty members.[3] The university's athletic teams, Case Western Reserve Spartans, play in NCAA Division III as a founding member of the University Athletic Association. The Spartans compete in 10 men's and 9 women's varsity sports.

Case Western Reserve University is a member of the Association of American Universities and is classified among "R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity".[10] According to the National Science Foundation, in 2019 the university had research and development (R&D) expenditures of $439 million, ranking it 20th among private institutions and 58th in the nation.[11]

Fifteen Nobel laureates are numbered among Case Western Reserve faculty or alumni, or one of its predecessors.[12] The Michelson–Morley experiment measuring the speed of light was conducted at Case Western in 1887, and Albert A. Michelson became the first American to win the Nobel Prize in a science.

History edit

Western Reserve College (1826–1882) and University (1882–1967) edit

 
John Macleod, 1923 Nobel Prize winner, with Frederick Banting, for co-discovering Insulin and Western Reserve University Professor of Physiology

Western Reserve College, the college of the Connecticut Western Reserve, was founded in 1826 in Hudson, Ohio, as the Western Reserve College and Preparatory School. Western Reserve College, or "Reserve" as it was popularly called, was the first college in northern Ohio.[13] The school was called "Yale of the West"; its campus, now that of the Western Reserve Academy, imitated that of Yale. It had the same motto, "Lux et Veritas" (Light and Truth), the same entrance standards, and almost the same curriculum. It was different from Yale in that it was a manual labor college, in which students were required to perform manual labor, seen as psychologically beneficial.[14]

The vision its founders had of Western Reserve College was that it would instill in students an "evangelical ethos" and produce ministers to remedy the acute shortage of them in Ohio. The college was located in Hudson because the town made the largest financial offer (to help in its construction).[15]: 422 

The town of Hudson, about 30 miles southeast of Cleveland, was a quiet antislavery center from the beginning: its founder, David Hudson, was against slavery, and founding trustee Owen Brown was a noted abolitionist who secured the location for the college. The abolitionist John Brown, who would lead the 1859 raid on Harpers Ferry, grew up in Hudson and was the son of co-founder Owen Brown. Hudson was a major stop on the Underground Railroad.

Along with Presbyterian influences of its founding, the school's origins were strongly though briefly associated with the pre-Civil War abolitionist movement;[16] the abolition of slavery was the dominant topic on campus in 1831. The trustees were unhappy with the situation. The college's chaplain and Bible professor, Beriah Green, gave four sermons on the topic[17] and then resigned, expecting that he would be fired. President Charles Backus Storrs took a leave of absence for health, and soon died. One of the two remaining professors, Elizur Wright, soon left to head the American Anti-Slavery Society. The center of American abolitionism, along with support from the well-to-do Tappan brothers, moved with Green to the Oneida Institute near Utica, New York, then, after a student walk-out, to Lane Seminary near Cincinnati, and finally, after a second mass student walkout, to Oberlin Collegiate Institute, later Oberlin College. "Oberlin's student body was the beneficiary of anti-abolitionist censure from other regional colleges, especially the Western Reserve College in nearby Hudson. Students flocked to Oberlin so that they could openly debate the antislavery issue without the threat of punishment or dismissal."[18]

Western Reserve was the first college west of the Appalachian Mountains to enroll (1832) and graduate (1836) an African-American student, John Sykes Fayette.[19] Frederick Douglass gave the commencement speech in 1854.[20]

In 1838, the Loomis Observatory was built by astronomer Elias Loomis, and today remains the second oldest observatory in the United States, and the oldest still in its original location.[21]

In 1852, the Medical School became the second medical? school in the United States to graduate a woman, Nancy Talbot Clark. Five more women graduated over the next four years, including Emily Blackwell and Marie Zakrzewska, giving Western Reserve the distinction of graduating six of the first eight female physicians in the United States.[22]

By 1875, Cleveland had emerged as the dominant population and business center of the area, and the city wanted a prominent higher education institution. In 1882, with funding from Amasa Stone, Western Reserve College moved to Cleveland and changed its name to Adelbert College of Western Reserve University. Adelbert was the name of Stone's son.[23]

Case School of Applied Science (1880–1947) and Institute of Technology (1947–1967) edit

 
The main building of the Case School of Applied Science in 1916

In 1877, Leonard Case Jr. began laying the groundwork for the Case School of Applied Science by secretly donating valuable pieces of Cleveland real estate to a trust. He asked his confidential advisor, Henry Gilbert Abbey, to administer the trust and to keep it secret until after his death in 1880.

On March 29, 1880, articles of incorporation were filed for the founding of the Case School of Applied Science. Classes began on September 15, 1881.[24] The school received its charter by the state of Ohio in 1882.

For the first four years of the school's existence, it was located in the Case family's home on Rockwell Street in downtown Cleveland. Classes were held in the family house, while the chemistry and physics laboratories were on the second floor of the barn. Amasa Stone's gift to relocate Western Reserve College to Cleveland also included a provision for the purchase of land in the University Circle area, adjacent to Western Reserve University, for the Case School of Applied Science. The school relocated to University Circle in 1885.

In 1921 Albert Einstein came to the Case campus during his first visit to the United States, out of respect for the physics work performed there. Besides noting the research done in the Michelson–Morley experiment, Einstein also met with physics professor Dayton Miller to discuss his own research.[25]

During World War II, Case School of Applied Science was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission.[26]

Over time, the Case School of Applied Science expanded to encompass broader subjects, adopting the name Case Institute of Technology in 1947 to reflect the institution's growth.[23]

Led by polymer expert Eric Baer in 1963, the nation's first stand-alone Polymer Science and Engineering program was founded, to eventually become the Department of Macromolecular Science and Engineering.[27]

Federation of two universities edit

 
Haydn Hall on the Flora Stone Mather Quadrangle, built in 1901

Although the trustees of Case Institute of Technology and Western Reserve University did not formally federate their institutions until 1967, the institutions already shared buildings and staff when necessary and worked together often. One such example was seen in 1887, when Case physicist Albert Michelson and Reserve chemist Edward Morley collaborated on the famous Michelson–Morley experiment.

There had been some discussion of a merger of the two institutions as early as 1890, but those talks dissolved quickly. In the 1920s, the Survey Commission on Higher Education in Cleveland took a strong stand in favor of federation and the community was behind the idea as well, but in the end all that came of the study was a decision by the two institutions to cooperate in founding Cleveland College, a special unit for part-time and adult students in downtown Cleveland.

By the 1960s, Reserve President John Schoff Millis and Case President T. Keith Glennan shared the idea that federation would create a complete university, one better able to attain national distinction. Financed by the Carnegie Corporation, Cleveland Foundation, Greater Cleveland Associated Foundation, and several local donors, a study commission of national leaders in higher education and public policy was charged with exploring the idea of federation. The Heald Commission, so known for its chair, former Ford Foundation President Henry T. Heald, predicted in its final report that a federation could create one of the largest private universities in the nation.

Case Western Reserve University (1967–present) edit

In 1967, Case Institute of Technology, a school with its emphasis on engineering and science, and Western Reserve University, a school with professional programs and liberal arts, came together to form Case Western Reserve University.[28]

In 1968, the Department of Biomedical Engineering launched as a newly unified collaboration between the School of Engineering and School of Medicine as the first in the nation and as one of the first Biomedical Engineering programs in the world.[29] The following year in 1969, the first Biomedical Engineering MD/PhD program in the world began at Case Western Reserve.[30]

The first computer engineering degree program in the United States was established in 1971 at Case Western Reserve.

 
The controversial "Case" logo

In 2003, the university unveiled a new logo and branding campaign that emphasized the "Case" portion of its name. In 2006, interim university president Gregory Eastwood convened a task group to study reactions to the campaign. The panel's report indicated that it had gone so poorly that, "There appear to be serious concerns now about the university's ability to recruit and maintain high-quality faculty, fund-raising and leadership." Also, the logo was derided among the university's community and alumni and throughout northeastern Ohio; critics said it looked like "...a fat man with a surfboard."[31]

In 2007, the university's board of trustees approved a shift back to giving equal weight to "Case" and "Western Reserve." A new logo was chosen and implementation began July 1.[32] In an open letter to the university community, interim president Eastwood admitted that "the university had misplaced its own history and traditions."[33] The "Forward Thinking" campaign was launched in 2011 by President Barbara Snyder and raised $1 billion in 30 months. The board of trustees unanimously agreed to expand the campaign to $1.5 billion, which reached its mark in 2017.[34] The campaign ultimately raised $1.82 billion.[35]

A 2020 United States presidential debate, the first of two, was held at the Samson Pavilion of the Health Education Campus (HEC), shared by the Cleveland Clinic.[36]

In February 2020, president Barbara Snyder was appointed the president of Association of American Universities (AAU). Later that year, former Tulane University president Scott Cowen was appointed interim president. On October 29, 2020, Eric W. Kaler, former University of Minnesota president, was appointed as the new Case Western Reserve University president, effective July 1, 2021.[37]

Presidents edit

President From Until
Robert W. Morse 1967 1970
Louis A. Toepfer 1970 1980
David V. Ragone 1980 1987
Agnar Pytte 1987 1999
David H. Auston 1999 2001
James W. Wagner (interim) 2001 2002
Edward M. Hundert 2002 2006
Gregory L. Eastwood (interim) 2006 2007
Barbara R. Snyder 2007 2020
Scott S. Cowen (interim) 2020 2021
Eric W. Kaler 2021 present

Campus edit

Case Western Reserve University's main campus is approximately 5 miles (8 km) east of Downtown Cleveland in the neighborhood known as University Circle, an area containing many educational, medical, and cultural institutions.[38] Case Western Reserve has a number of programs taught in conjunction with other University Circle institutions, including University Hospitals, the Cleveland Clinic, the Louis Stokes Cleveland Department of Veteran's Affairs Medical Center, Cleveland Institute of Music, the Cleveland Hearing & Speech Center, the Cleveland Museum of Art, the Cleveland Institute of Art, the Cleveland Museum of Natural History. Severance Hall, home of the Cleveland Orchestra, is on the Case Western Reserve campus.

Case Quad edit

The Case Quadrangle, known also to students as the Engineering Quad, contains most engineering and science buildings, notably the John D. Rockefeller Physics Building.[39] The Case Quad also houses administration buildings, including Adelbert Hall. The Michelson–Morley experiment occurred here, commemorated by a marker and the Michelson-Morley Memorial Fountain. The southernmost edge consists of athletic areas—Adelbert Gymnasium, Van Horn Field and the Veale Convocation, Recreation and Athletic Center (commonly referred to as the Veale Center). The Veale Center houses the Horsburgh Gymnasium and the Veale Natatorium.

Mather Quad edit

 
Kelvin Smith Library is the main library of Case Western Reserve

The Flora Stone Mather Quadrangle is located north of Euclid Avenue between East Blvd., East 115th Street, and Juniper Road. The Flora Stone Mather College Historic District is more strictly defined by the area between East Blvd, Bellflower Road, and Ford Road north of Euclid Avenue. Named for the philanthropist wife of prominent industrialist Samuel Mather and sister-in-law of the famous statesman John Hay, the Mather Quad is home to Weatherhead School of Management, School of Law, Mandel School of Applied Social Sciences, and many departments of the College of Arts and Sciences. The Kelvin Smith Library, Thwing Center, and Tinkham Veale Student Center (known also as "The Tink") sit on the western edge of the Mather Quad.

Transportation edit

On and near campus, CircleLink is a free public shuttle service in University Circle and Little Italy. Colloquially, the shuttle buses are known as Greenies.[40] To supplement evening and nighttime hours, the Safe Ride Program provides personal pickup of students and staff upon request.[41]

For city public transit, rail and bus access are managed by the Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority (RTA). Unlimited use RTA passes are provided to undergraduate and full-time graduate students. The two Red Line rapid train stations are Little Italy–University Circle and Cedar–University. Notably, the Red Line connects campus to Cleveland Hopkins Airport and Downtown Cleveland. The bus rapid transit (BRT) HealthLine runs down the center of campus along Euclid Ave. Numerous RTA bus routes run through campus.[42]

Academics edit

Rankings edit

Academic rankings
National
Forbes[43]116
THE / WSJ[44]48
U.S. News & World Report[45]53
Washington Monthly[46]155
Global
ARWU[47]151–200
QS[48]255
THE[49]164
U.S. News & World Report[50]152

In U.S. News & World Report's 2021 rankings, Case Western Reserve was ranked as tied for 42nd among national universities and 155th among global universities.[51][52] The 2020 edition of The Wall Street Journal/Times Higher Education (WSJ/THE) rankings ranked Case Western Reserve as 52nd among US colleges and universities.[53]

In 2018, Case Western Reserve was ranked 37th in the category American "national universities" and 146th in the category "global universities" by U.S. News & World Report. In 2019 U.S. News ranked it tied for 42nd and 152nd, respectively. Case Western Reserve was also ranked 32nd among U.S. universities—and 29th among private institutions—in the inaugural 2016 edition of The Wall Street Journal/Times Higher Education (WSJ/THE) rankings, but ranked tied for 39th among U.S. universities in 2019.[53]

Case Western Reserve University's biochemistry program is jointly administered with the CWRU School of Medicine, and was ranked 14th nationally in the latest rankings by Blue Ridge Institute for Medical Research.[54]

Case Western Reserve is noted (among other fields) for research in electrochemistry and electrochemical engineering. The Michelson–Morley interferometer experiment was conducted in 1887 in the basement of a campus dormitory by Albert A. Michelson of Case School of Applied Science and Edward W. Morley of Western Reserve University. Michelson became the first American to win a Nobel Prize in science.[55]

Also in 2018, "The Hollywood Reporter" ranked CWRU's Department of Theater Master of Fine Arts program with the Cleveland Play House as 18th in the English-speaking world. In 2019, this ranking improved to 12th.[56]

In 2014, Washington Monthly ranked Case Western Reserve University as the 9th best National University,[57][58] but in the 2018 rankings, Case Western Reserve was ranked the 118th best National University.[59]

In 2013, Washington Monthly ranked Case Western Reserve as the nation's 4th best National University for contributing to the public good. The publication's ranking was based upon a combination of factors including social mobility, research, and service.[60] In 2009, the school had ranked 15th.[61] Although Washington Monthly no longer ranks contributions to the public good as such, in its 2018 rankings of National Universities Case Western Reserve was ranked 180th in Social mobility and 118th in Service.[59]

In 2013, Case Western Reserve was among the Top 25 LGBT-Friendly Colleges and Universities, according to Campus Pride. The recognition follows Case Western Reserve's first five-star ranking on the Campus Pride Index, a detailed survey of universities' policies, services and institutional support for LGBT individuals.[62]

Case Western Reserve ranks 13th among private institutions (26th among all) in federal expenditures for science and engineering research and development, per the National Science Foundation.[63]

Undergraduate profile edit

The undergraduate student body hails from all 50 states and over 90 countries.[64]

The six most popular majors are Biomedical Engineering, Biology/Biological Sciences, Nursing, Mechanical Engineering, and Psychology. Since 2016, the top fields for graduating CWRU undergraduate students have been engineering, nursing, research and science, accounting and financial services, and information technology.[65]

For the 2023 admissions cycle, Case Western Reserve had an acceptance rate of 29%. 73% of admitted students are from other states and 13% from outside the United States. 71% graduated in the top 10% of their high school class. The mid-50% for SAT scores (25%–75%) were between 1440 and 1530. The mid-50% for ACT scores was 32 to 35.[66]

Schools and programs edit

 
The Peter B. Lewis Building houses the Weatherhead School of Management, designed by Frank Gehry.

The university in its present form consists of eight schools that offer more than 100 undergraduate programs and about 160 graduate and professional options.[9]

CWRU also supports over a hundred 'Centers' in various fields.[67]

Research edit

 
DEXTER, Team Case's autonomous car, in DARPA Grand Challenge 2007

Case Western Reserve University is a member of the Association of American Universities and is classified among "R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity".[10] Following is a partial list of major contributions made by faculty, staff, and students at Case Western Reserve since 1887:[citation needed]

  • Case Western Reserve was the site of the Michelson-Morley interferometer experiment, conducted in 1887 by Albert A. Michelson of Case Institute of Technology and Edward W. Morley of Western Reserve University. This experiment proved the non-existence of the ether, and provided evidence that later substantiated Einstein's special theory of relativity
  • Albert A. Michelson, who became the first American to win a Nobel Prize in science, taught at Case Institute of Technology. He won the prize in physics in 1907.
  • Edward W. Morley, in 1895, made the most precise (to that date) determination of the atomic weight of oxygen, the basis for calculating the weights of all other elements.
  • Dayton C. Miller, in 1896, performed the first full X-ray of the human body—on himself.
  • George W. Crile, in 1905, performed the first modern blood transfusion, using a coupling device to connect blood vessels.
  • Roger G. Perkins, in 1911, pioneered drinking water chlorination to eradicate typhoid bacilli.[68]
  • Claude S. Beck, in 1935, pioneered surgical treatment of coronary artery disease.
  • Robert Kearns, in 1964, invented the intermittent windshield wiper used in most modern automobiles.
  • Frederick Reines, in 1965, first detected neutrinos created by cosmic ray collisions with the Earth's atmosphere and developed innovative particle detectors. Case Western Reserve had selected Reines as chair of the physics department based on Reines's work that first detected neutrinos emitted from a nuclear reactor—work for which Reines shared a 1995 Nobel Prize.[69]
  • Eric Baer, in 1967, pioneered the materials science of polymers and created the first comprehensive polymer science and engineering department at a major U.S. university.
  • In 1987 the first edition of the Encyclopedia of Cleveland History was published.[70]
  • Huntington F. Willard of the School of Medicine and University Hospitals of Cleveland—collaborating with colleagues at Athersys, Inc., in 1997—created the first artificial human chromosomes, opening the door to more detailed study of human genetics and potentially offering a new approach to gene therapy.
  • Roger Quinn, in 2001, developed robots such as Whegs that mimic cockroaches and other crawling insects Case Biorobotics Lab[71]
  • Tshilidzi Marwala, in 2006, began work on Local Loop Unbundling in Africa. He also chaired the Local Loop Unbundling Committee on behalf of the South African Government. Furthermore, Marwala and his collaborators developed an artificial larynx, developed the theory of rational counterfactuals, computer bluffing as well as establishing the relationship between artificial intelligence and the theory of information asymmetry.
  • In 2007, a team from Case Western Reserve participated in the DARPA Urban Challenge with a robotic car named DEXTER. Team Case placed as one of 36 semi-finalists.[72]
  • Case Western Reserve University researchers are developing atomically thin drumheads which is tens of trillions times smaller in volume and 100,000 times thinner than the human eardrum. They will be made with the intent to receive and transmit signals across a radio frequency range which will be far greater than what we can hear with the human ear.[73]
  • Simon Ostrach and Yasuhiro Kamotani led spacelab projects entitled surface tension driven convection experiment (STDCE) aboard the Space Shuttle STS-50[74] and the re-flight STDCE-2 in USML-2 aboard STS-73[75] studying oscillatory thermocapillary flows in the absence of gravitational effects.
  • James T'ien has contributed to the study of numerous microgravity combustion space flight experiments including the Candle Flame In Non-Buoyant Atmospheres aboard the Space Shuttle STS-50 along with the reflight to Mir Orbiting Station in 1995,[76] the Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS) [77] taking place aboard the International Space Station along with the experiment reflight (BASS-2).[78] He received the NASA Public Service Medal in 2000.[79] He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and serves on the Committee of Biological and Physical Sciences in Space.[80]
  • Salvatore Pais M.S., Ph.D., Engineer formerly with the Naval Research Laboratory, now working with the Air Force on hypersonic weapons program.
 
The Burrell Schmidt telescope at the Warner and Swasey Observatory at Kitt Peak National Observatory in Arizona

Today, the university operates several facilities off campus for scientific research. One example of this is the Warner and Swasey Observatory at Kitt Peak National Observatory in Arizona.

Electrochemistry edit

CWRU has contributed to the electrochemical sciences since the 1930s beginning with Frank Hovorka's studies of quinhydrone (quinone) and other electrodes. Subsequently, Ernest Yeager carried out pioneering studies on ultrasound electrodeposition and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), which is directly relevant for H2-O2 fuel cells and batteries that use air electrodes such as zinc-air, iron-air, etc. The Yeager Center for Electrochemical Sciences (YCES), formerly the Case Center for Electrochemical Sciences, has provided annual workshops on electrochemical measurements since the late 1970s. The leadership in the Electrochemical Society have frequently included CWRU professors, and the university is home to six Fellows of the Electrochemical Society. Some notable achievements involve the work on ultrasound electrochemistry, oxygen reduction fundamentals, boron-doped diamond electrodes, in-situ electrochemical spectroscopy, polybenzimidazole (PBI) membranes for high-temperature fuel cells (HT-PEM), methanol fuel cells, iron-based flow batteries, metal deposition studies, dendrite modeling and electrochemical sensors. Noted laboratories at Case include the Electrochemical Engineering and Energy Laboratory (EEEL), the Electrochemical Materials Fabrication Laboratory (EMFL), the Case Electrochemical Capacitor Fabrication Facility and the ENERGY LAB.

Sears think[box] edit

Larry Sears and Sally Zlotnick Sears think[box] is a public-access design and innovation center at Case Western Reserve University that allows students and other users to access prototyping equipment and other invention resources. The makerspace is located in the Richey Mixon building, a seven-story, 50,000 sq. ft. facility behind the campus athletic center. Over $35 million has been invested in space including in large part from a funding of $10 million from alumni Larry Sears and his wife Sally Zlotnick Sears.[81][82] Larry Sears is an adjunct faculty member in the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at CWRU and the founder of Hexagram, Inc. (now ACLARA Wireless Technologies).[83] Many projects and startup companies have come out of the makerspace.[84]

Student life edit

Student body composition as of May 2, 2022
Race and ethnicity[85] Total
White 42% 42
 
Asian 23% 23
 
Foreign national 14% 14
 
Hispanic 10% 10
 
Other[a] 6% 6
 
Black 4% 4
 
Economic diversity
Low-income[b] 15% 15
 
Affluent[c] 85% 85
 

The primary area for restaurants and shopping is the Uptown district along Euclid Ave adjacent to campus. Cleveland's Little Italy is within walking distance. A campus shuttle runs to Coventry Village, a shopping district in neighboring Cleveland Heights. Popular with students, Downtown Cleveland, Ohio City, Legacy Village, and Shaker Square are all a short driving distance or accessible by RTA.

Music edit

 
The 1200-seat Maltz Performing Arts Center showcases Case Western Reserve's music department and 19 ensembles.

WRUW-FM (91.1 FM) is the campus radio station of Case Western Reserve University. WRUW broadcasts at a power of 15,000 watts and covers most of Northeast Ohio.

Case Western Reserve is also home to 19 performing ensembles, including a cappella groups such as Dhamakapella, the Case Men's Glee Club,[86] Case Women's Glee Club,[87] Case in Point, and Solstice. Other ensembles include the Case/University Circle Symphony Orchestra, Camerata Chamber Orchestra, Case/CIM Baroque Orchestra, Concert Choir, Early Music Singers, Jazz Ensemble 1 and 2, Marching Spartans, Percussion Ensemble, Symphonic Winds, University Singers, Collegium Musicum, New Music Ensemble, Wind Ensemble, and Chamber Music.[88]

Case Western Reserve's main music venue is the Maltz Performing Arts Center. Case Western Reserve also has two main rehearsal spaces for performing arts music majors and school ensembles. Haydn Hall contains practice rooms with Steinway pianos, along with the department offices. Denison Hall serves as a rehearsal, practice, and teaching space for the music students and school ensembles, and is attached to Wade Commons. The Cleveland Youth Wind Symphony also rehearses in Denison Hall. Music majors may take lessons and courses at the Cleveland Institute of Music.

For performances, all students, ensembles, and a cappella groups use Harkness Chapel. The bands and orchestra also perform at Severance Hall (the on-campus home of the Cleveland Orchestra) and CIM's Kulas Hall.

Computing edit

Case Western Reserve had the first ABET-accredited program in computer engineering.[89]

In 1968, the university formed a private company, Chi Corporation, to provide computer time to both it and other customers. Initially this was on a Univac 1108 (replacing the preceding UNIVAC 1107), 36 bit, ones' complement machine.[90] The company was sold in 1977 to Robert G. Benson in Beachwood, Ohio becoming Ecocenters Corporation.

 
ARPANET network map from 1973 listing Case as an Interface Message Processor (IMP) node

Project Logos, under ARPA contract, was begun within the department on a DEC System-10 (later converted to TENEX (BBN) in conjunction with connection to the ARPANET) to develop a computer-aided computer design system. This system consisted in a distributed, networked, graphics environment, a control and data flow designer and logic (both hardware and software) analyzer. An Imlac PDS-1 with lightpen interrupt was the main design workstation in 1973, communicating with the PDP-10 over a display communications protocol written by Don Huff as a Master Thesis and implemented on the Imlac by Ted Brenneman. Graphics and animation became another departmental focus with the acquisition of an Evans & Sutherland LDS-1 (Line Drawing System-1), which was hosted by the DEC System-10, and later with the acquisition of the stand-alone LDS-2.

Case Western Reserve was one of the earliest universities connected to the ARPANET, predecessor to the Internet. ARPANET went online in 1969; Case Western Reserve was connected in January, 1971.[91] Case Western Reserve graduate Ken Biba published the Biba Integrity Model in 1977 and served on the ARPA Working Group that developed the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) used on the Internet.

Case Western Reserve pioneered the early Free-net computer systems, creating the first Free-net, The Cleveland Free-Net, as well as writing the software that drove a majority of those systems, known as FreePort. The Cleveland Free-Net was shut down in late 1999, as it had become obsolete.

It was the first university to have an all-fiber-optic network, in 1989.[92]

At the inaugural meeting in October, 1996, Case Western Reserve was one of the 34 charter university members of Internet2.[93]

The university was ranked No. 1 in Yahoo Internet Life's 1999 Most Wired College list.[94] There was a perception that this award was obtained through partially false or inaccurate information submitted for the survey,[95] and the university did not appear at all on the 2000 Most Wired College list (which included 100 institutions). The numbers reported were much lower than those submitted by Ray Neff in 1999.[96][97] The university had previously placed No. 13 in the 1997 poll.[98]

In August 2003, Case Western Reserve joined the Internet Streaming Media Alliance, then one of only two university members.[99]

In September 2003, Case Western Reserve opened 1,230 public wireless access points on the Case Western Reserve campus and University Circle.[100]

Case Western Reserve was one of the founding members of OneCleveland, formed in October 2003.[101] OneCleveland is an "ultra broadband" (gigabit speed) fiber optic network. This network is for the use of organizations in education, research, government, healthcare, arts, culture, and the nonprofit sector in Greater Cleveland.

Case Western Reserve's Virtual Worlds gaming computer lab opened in 2005. The lab has a large network of Alienware PCs equipped with game development software such as the Torque Game Engine and Maya 3D modeling software. Additionally, it contains a number of specialized advanced computing rooms including a medical simulation room, a MIDI instrument music room, a 3D projection "immersion room," a virtual reality research room, and console room, which features video game systems such as Xbox 360, PlayStation 3, and Wii.[102] This laboratory can be used by any student in the Electrical Engineering and computer science department, and is heavily used for the Game Development (EECS 290) course.

Housing edit

Residence halls are divided into two areas: one featuring suite-style rooms for second-year students in the South Residential Village, the other featuring double, single and suite style rooms for first-year students and upperclassmen in the North Residential Village. Suite style housing, known as the Village at 115th, was opened in fall 2005 for upperclassmen and features one- to nine-person, "apartment-style" residence halls.

First-year students are grouped into one of four residential colleges that are overseen by first-year coordinators. The Mistletoe, Juniper, and Magnolia residential colleges were established when the "First Year Experience" system was introduced, and Cedar was created in the fall of 2005 to accommodate a large influx of new students. In the fall of 2007, Magnolia was integrated into Mistletoe, however, it was later re-separated in the fall of 2012. The areas of focus for each college are – Cedar: visual and performing arts; Mistletoe: service leadership; Juniper: multiculturalism and Magnolia: sustainability.[103]

Greek life edit

Nearly one-half of the campus undergraduates are said to be in a fraternity or sorority. There are dozens of Greek organizations on campus.

Safety and security edit

Office of Emergency Management edit

The Office of Emergency Management prepares for various levels of emergencies on campus, such as chemical spills, severe weather, infectious diseases, and security threats. RAVE, a multi-platform emergency alerting system, is operated by Emergency Management for issuing emergency alerts and instructions for events on campus. The Office of Emergency Management also performs risk assessment to identify possible safety issues and aims to mitigate these issues. Additionally, CERT is managed through Emergency Management, enabling faculty and staff members to engage in emergency preparedness. The Office of Emergency Management works closely with other campus departments, such as Police and Security Services, University Health Services, and Environmental Health and Safety, as well as community resources including city, state, and federal emergency management agencies.[104]

Police and security services edit

Case operates a police force of sworn officers as well as a security officers. Starting as security only, the university expanded the role of protective services to include sworn officers who have arrest power and carry firearms. Some officers have additional training, such as SWAT training. On top of routine duties such as fingerprinting, traffic control, and bicycle registration, police and security also conduct investigations, undercover operations, and community outreach. Police and Security operate a fleet of vehicles, including police cruisers, scooters, and Smart cars. Police and Security are dispatched by a 24/7 campus dispatch center, responsible for emergency call handling, alarm monitoring, and video surveillance. Additionally, the dispatch center can send RAVE notifications and manages CWRU Shield, a mobile application allowing video, image, and text tips, safety checks, and viewing emergency procedures.[105] CWRU Police also works closely with RTA transit police, University Circle Police, Cleveland Police, East Cleveland Police, Cleveland Heights Police, University Hospitals Police Department, and other surrounding emergency services. Police and Security, with conjunction with the Emergency Management Office, conduct tabletop drills and full-scale exercises involving surrounding emergency services.[106]

Emergency Medical Services edit

Case Western Reserve University Emergency Medical Services (CWRU EMS) is a student-run all volunteer ambulance service and a National Collegiate Emergency Medical Services Foundation member. Covering University Circle, CWRU EMS is run solely by undergraduates volunteers, who provides free basic life support level treatment and transport to local hospitals.[107] Crews receive medical direction from University Hospitals.[108] CWRU EMS is under operational oversight by the Department of Public Safety. CWRU EMS provides both emergency rescue operations, medical standby services, and free community outreach programs such as Stop the Bleed (STB). CWRU EMS responds to over 300 calls for services annually, and operates 2 Type 3 ambulances, 549 and 660, out of the public safety headquarters. CWRU EMS is primarily operational during the academic year, but have the ability to respond off shift for members within the community.

Traditions edit

 
Adelbert Hall

Starting in 1910, the Hudson Relay is an annual relay race event remembering and honoring the university relocation from Hudson, Ohio to Cleveland. Conceived by then-student, Monroe Curtis,[109] the relay race was run from the old college in Hudson, Ohio to the new university in University Circle. Since the mid-1980s, the race has been run entirely in the University Circle area. The race is a distance of 26 miles (42 km). It is held weekend before spring semester finals. Competing running teams are divided by graduating class. If a class wins the relay all four years, tradition dictates a reward of a champagne and steak dinner with the president of the university be awarded. Only six classes have won all four years—1982, 1990, 1994, 2006, 2011, and 2017.[110][111] The winning classes of each year is carved on an original boulder located behind Adelbert Hall.

Springfest is a day-long concert and student group festival that occurs later in the same day as Hudson Relays. The Springfest Planning Committee brings in several bands and a beer garden, student groups set up booths to entertain the student body, and various inflatable carnival-style attractions are brought in to add to the festive atmosphere. Occasionally, due to adverse weather conditions, the festival must be moved indoors, usually to Thwing Center or Adelbert Gym.

Since 1976, the Film Society[112] of Case Western Reserve University has held a science fiction marathon. The film festival, the oldest of its type, boasts more than 34 hours of non-stop movies, cartoons, trailers, and shorts spanning many decades and subgenres, using both film and digital projection. The Film Society, which is student-run and open to the public, also shows movies on Friday and Saturday evenings throughout the school year.

Athletics edit

 
The Veale Athletic Center, which houses much of the Case Western Reserve University athletic and Physical Education departments

Case Western Reserve competes in 19 varsity sports—10 men's sports and 9 women's sports. All 19 varsity teams wear a commemorative patch on their uniforms honoring Case alumnus, M. Frank Rudy, inventor of the Nike air-sole.[113] The Spartans' primary athletic rival is the Carnegie Mellon Tartans. DiSanto Field is home to the football, men's soccer, women's soccer, and track and field teams.

Case Western Reserve is a founding and current member of the University Athletic Association (UAA). The conference participates in the National Collegiate Athletic Association's (NCAA) Division III. Case Institute of Technology and Western Reserve University were also founding members of the Presidents' Athletic Conference (PAC) in 1958. The university remained a member of the PAC after the merger of Case Institute of Technology and Western Reserve University and until 1983. In the fall of 1984, the university joined the North Coast Athletic Conference (NCAC) as a charter member. The 1998–99 school year marked the final season in which the Spartans were members of the NCAC. As the university had held joint conference membership affiliation with the UAA and the NCAC for over a decade. In 2014, the football team began competing as an associate member of the PAC, as only four out of the eight UAA member institutions sponsored football.[114]

The Case Western Reserve cross country team won the conference every year for twelve straight years from 1967 to 1978 led by Coach Bill Sudeck, and also won conference titles in 1985, 1986, 1988, 1992, 1993, and 1994. The Case Western Reserve's women's cross country team finished the 2006 season with a UAA Championship and a bid to the NCAA Championship. The Lady Spartans finished 10th in the nation. The women's team went on to finish even higher at nationals in 2007, earning a sixth-place finish at the NCAA DIII national championship. Both the men's and women's Cross Country teams qualified for and competed in the NCAA DIII national championships in 2008, with the women's team coming away with two All-Americans and a 16th-place finish. In 2009, they had two All-Americans and finished 15th. In 2010, the lady Spartans finished 19th, with one all-American. From 2006 to 2010 the women's cross country team earned 8 individual All-American Titles, including current professional marathoner Esther Erb.

 
The 1904 Case School of Applied Science football team

The Case Western Reserve football team reemerged in the mid-2000s under the direction of Head Coach Greg Debeljak. The 2007 team finished undefeated earning the school's first playoff appearance and first playoff victory, winning against the Widener Pride.

Notable people edit

Notable alumni include John Charles Cutler, former surgeon general who violated human rights and led to deaths in the Tuskegee Syphilis Study, Terre Haute prison experiments, and the syphilis experiments in Guatemala; Anthony Russo and Joe Russo, Hollywood movie directors, Paul Buchheit, creator and lead developer of Gmail; Craig Newmark, billionaire founder of Craigslist; Peter Tippett, developer of the anti-virus software Vaccine, which Symantec purchased and turned into the popular Norton AntiVirus; Francis E. Sweeney the main suspect from the Cleveland Torso Murders also was a Case Alumnus.

Founders of Fortune 500 companies include Herbert Henry Dow, founder of Dow Chemical, Art Parker, founder of Parker Hannifin, and Edward Williams, co-founder of Sherwin-Williams.

Other notable alumni include Larry Hurtado, New Testament scholar; Harvey Hilbert, a zen master, psychologist and expert on post-Vietnam stress syndrome; Peter Sterling, neuroscientist and co-founder of the concept of allostasis; Ogiame Atuwatse III, Tsola Emiko the 21st Olu of Warri – a historic monarch of the Itsekiri people in Nigeria's Delta region, and Donald Knuth, a leading expert on computer algorithms and creator of the TeX typesetting system.

Nobel laureates edit

 
Case Western's 2003 Nobel Prize winners – Paul C. Lauterbur and Peter Agre (1st and 2nd from right) with President George Walker Bush
17 Nobel laureates associated with Case Western Reserve University[12]
Year Recipient Prize Details
1907 Albert A. Michelson Physics First American scientist to win the Nobel Prize
1923 John Macleod Medicine Discovery of insulin
1938 Corneille Heymans Medicine Carotid sinus reflex
1954 Frederick C. Robbins Medicine Polio vaccine. Dean of CaseMed
1955 Polykarp Kusch Physics BS in physics in 1931
1960 Donald A. Glaser Physics BS in physics in 1946
1971 Earl W. Sutherland Jr. Medicine Professor and chair of pharmacology
1980 Paul Berg Chemistry PhD in 1952
1988 George H. Hitchings Medicine Professor and researcher
1994 Alfred G. Gilman Medicine MD and PhD in 1969
1994 George A. Olah Chemistry Professor and chair of chemistry
1995 Frederick Reines Physics Professor and chair of physics
1998 Ferid Murad Medicine MD and PhD in 1965. Current trustee of Case
2003 Paul C. Lauterbur Physiology or Medicine BS in chemistry
2003 Peter Agre Chemistry Instructor, 1978 Internal Medicine alumnus
2004 Edward C. Prescott Economics MS in operations research in 1964
2017 Richard Thaler Economics BA in economics in 1967

See also edit

Notes edit

  1. ^ Other consists of multiracial Americans & those who prefer to not say.
  2. ^ The percentage of students who received an income-based federal Pell grant intended for low-income students.
  3. ^ The percentage of students who are a part of the American middle class at the bare minimum.

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Further reading edit

External links edit