NCAA Division III (D-III) is a division of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) in the United States. D-III consists of athletic programs at colleges and universities that choose not to offer athletic scholarships to their student-athletes.

NCAA Division III logo
NCAA Division III logo

The NCAA's first split was into two divisions, the University and College Divisions, in 1956, the College Division was formed for smaller schools that did not have the resources of the major athletic programs across the country. The College Division split again in 1973 when the NCAA went to its current naming convention: Division I, Division II, and Division III. D-III schools are not allowed to offer athletic scholarships, while D-II schools can.

D-III is the NCAA's largest division with around 450 member institutions, which are 80% private and 20% public. The median undergraduate enrollment of D-III schools is about 2,750, although the range is from 418 to over 38,000. Approximately 40% of all NCAA student-athletes compete in D-III.[1]

Requirements edit

D-III institutions must sponsor at least three team sports for each sex/gender, with each playing season represented by each gender. Teams in which men and women compete together are counted as men's teams for sports sponsorship purposes. In a feature unique to D-III, the total number of required sports varies with each school's full-time undergraduate enrollment. Schools with an enrollment of 1,000 or less must sponsor five men's and five women's sports; those with larger enrollments must sponsor six for each sex/gender. Institutions that sponsor athletic programs for only one sex/gender (single-sex schools, plus a few historically all-female schools that are now coeducational) need only meet the sponsorship requirements for that sex. There are minimum contest rules and participant minimums for each sport.[2][3]

D-III athletic programs are non-revenue-generating, extracurricular programs that are staffed and funded like any other university department. They feature student-athletes who receive no financial aid related to their athletic ability.[3] Student-athletes cannot redshirt as freshmen,[4][5][6] and schools may not use endowments or funds whose primary purpose is to benefit athletic programs.[7]

D-III schools "shall not award financial aid to any student on the basis of athletics leadership, ability, participation or performance".[8] Financial aid given to athletes must be awarded under the same procedures as for the general student body, and the proportion of total financial aid given to athletes "shall be closely equivalent to the percentage of student-athletes within the student body".[9] The ban on scholarships is strictly enforced. As an example of how seriously the NCAA takes this rule, in 2005 MacMurray College became only the fifth school slapped with a "death penalty" after its men's tennis program gave grants to foreign-born players.[10] The two service academies that are D-III members, Merchant Marine and Coast Guard, do not violate the athletic scholarship ban because all students, whether or not they are varsity athletes, receive the same treatment, a full scholarship.

Another aspect that distinguishes D-III from the other NCAA divisions is that D-III institutions are specifically banned from using the National Letter of Intent, or any other pre-enrollment form that is not executed by other prospective students at the school. The NCAA provides for one exception—a standard, nonbinding celebratory signing form that may be signed by the student upon his or her acceptance of enrollment. However, this form cannot be signed at the campus of that college, and staff members of that college cannot be present at the signing.[11]

Conferences edit

All-sports conferences edit

An "all-sports conference" is defined here as one that sponsors both men's and women's basketball. While the NCAA has a much more detailed definition of the term, every NCAA conference (regardless of division) that sponsors basketball meets the organization's requirements for "all-sports" status.

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Conference sponsors football.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Conference does not sponsor football.
  1. ^ The Middle Atlantic Conferences (MAC) is an umbrella organization that operates three separate leagues. Two of these, the MAC Commonwealth and MAC Freedom, sponsor competition in the same set of 14 sports, including men's and women's basketball, but not football. The third league, known as the Middle Atlantic Conference (singular), sponsors competition in football and 12 other sports.

Single-sport conferences edit

Ice hockey
Men's volleyball

Independents edit

D-III schools with D-I programs edit

Ten D-III schools currently field Division I programs in one or two sports, one maximum for each gender. These schools are allowed to offer athletic scholarships only for their D-I men's and women's sports.

Five of them are schools that traditionally competed at the highest level of a particular men's sport prior to the institution of the three division classifications in 1973, a decade before the NCAA governed women's sports.[12] These five colleges (plus three others that later chose to return their D-I programs to D-III) were granted a waiver (a.k.a. a grandfather clause) in 1983 to continue offering scholarships, a waiver that was reaffirmed in 2004.[12] Presumably due to Title IX considerations, grandfathered schools are also allowed to field one women's sport in D-I, and all five schools choose to do so.

Three formerly grandfathered schools moved completely to D-III. The State University of New York at Oneonta, which had been grandfathered in men's soccer, moved totally to D-II in 2006. Rutgers University–Newark, which had been grandfathered in men's volleyball, did the same in 2014.[13] Hartwick College, which had been grandfathered in men's soccer and women's water polo, moved its men's soccer program to D-III in 2018 and dropped women's water polo entirely.[14]

The other five schools chose to field D-I programs in one sport for men and/or one sport for women after the original grandfather clause went into effect, so they were not grandfathered and thus were not allowed to offer athletic scholarships. Academic-based and need-based financial aid was still available, as is the case for all of D-III.

In addition, Lawrence University was formerly a non-grandfathered program in fencing, but the NCAA no longer conducts a separate D-I fencing championship. Lawrence continues to field a fencing team, but that team is now considered D-III (see below).

In August 2011, the NCAA decided to no longer allow individual programs to move to another division as a general policy. One exception was made in 2012, when RIT successfully argued for a one-time opportunity for colleges with a D-I men's team to add a women's team.[15]

Since no more colleges would be allowed to move individual sports to D-I, the five non-scholarship programs (led by RIT and Union) petitioned to be allowed to offer scholarships in the interests of competitive equity.[16][17][18] D-III membership voted in January 2022 to extend the grandfather clause to allow all ten colleges to offer athletic scholarships, effective immediately.[19]

Football and basketball may not be D-I programs at D-III institutions, because their revenue-enhancing potential would give them an unfair advantage over other D-III schools. In 1992, several D-I schools playing D-III football were forced to bring their football programs into D-I, following the passage of the "Dayton Rule" (named after the University of Dayton, whose success in D-III football was seen as threatening the "ethos" of Division III sports). This led directly to the creation of the Pioneer Football League, a non-scholarship football-only Division I FCS conference.

D-III schools playing in non-divisional sports edit

In addition to the D-III schools with teams that play as D-I members, many other D-III schools have teams that compete alongside D-I and D-II members in sports that the NCAA does not split into divisions. Teams in these sports are not counted as playing in a different division from the rest of the athletic program. D-III members cannot award scholarships in these sports.

Reforms edit

In 2003, concerned about the disparity of some D-III athletic programs and the focus on national championships, the D-III Presidents' Council, led by Middlebury College President John McCardell, proposed ending the athletic scholarship exemptions for D-I programs, eliminating redshirting, and limiting the length of the traditional and non-traditional seasons.[20] At the January 2004 NCAA convention, an amendment allowed the exemption for grandfathered D-I athletic scholarships to remain in place, but the rest of the reforms passed.[21]

Inclusion programs edit

D-III announced the creation of a LGBTQ inclusion program in 2019. Named as their LGBTQ OneTeam Program, it is designed to create more LGBTQ inclusion in D-III athletics within the NCAA.[22] The program has facilitators from more than 40 colleges across the country, including Smith College, Agnes Scott College, and more.[23] The group publicly condemned laws trying to limit transgender people in sports in 2021.[24] A member of the program – Rhea Debussy who is a transgender rights activist – publicly left the program after changes to the NCAA transgender policy in 2022.[25]

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "Division III Facts and Figures" (PDF). NCAA. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 27, 2018. Retrieved November 26, 2017.
  2. ^ "Bylaw 20.11.3: Sports Sponsorship". 2021–22 NCAA Division I Manual. NCAA. August 1, 2021. pp. 221–25. Retrieved April 23, 2022.
  3. ^ a b "Divisional Differences and the History of Multidivision Classification". NCAA. Archived from the original on July 14, 2015. Retrieved November 26, 2017.
  4. ^ NCAA. "Bylaw Minimum Amount of Participation". 2012–13 NCAA Division III Manual (PDF). p. 93. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 8, 2014. Retrieved December 19, 2012.
  5. ^ Under Bylaw, a D-III athlete uses a year of eligibility by either practicing with or playing on a team. This differs from the rules for D-I and D-II, in which only playing on a team counts as participation.
  6. ^ The so-called medical redshirt, officially known as a hardship waiver, is covered by a different NCAA bylaw—specifically Bylaw 14.2.5 (p. 96, 2012–13 NCAA Division III Manual).
  7. ^ "Bylaw 15.01.5 Student-Athlete Financial Aid Endowments or Funds". 2012–13 NCAA Division III Manual (PDF). NCAA. p. 107. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 8, 2014. Retrieved December 19, 2012.
  8. ^ "Bylaw 15.01.3 Institutional Financial Aid". 2012–13 NCAA Division III Manual (PDF). NCAA. p. 107. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 8, 2014. Retrieved December 19, 2012.
  9. ^ "Bylaw 15.4.1 Consistent Financial Aid Package.". 2012–13 NCAA Division III Manual (PDF). NCAA. p. 110. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 8, 2014. Retrieved December 19, 2012.
  10. ^ "LSDBi". Archived from the original on September 9, 2015. Retrieved March 21, 2013.
  11. ^ "Bylaw 13.9.1 Letter-of-intent Prohibition". 2018–19 NCAA Division III Manual (PDF). NCAA. pp. 80–81. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 18, 2019. Retrieved January 28, 2019. A staff member whose child or other close relative signs such a form can be present, but only in a personal capacity and not as an official school representative.
  12. ^ a b Wodon, Adam (January 12, 2004). "Scholarships Will Continue For D-III 'Play Up' Schools". Archived from the original on August 6, 2012. Retrieved November 26, 2017.
  13. ^ "Transitioning Scarlet Raiders Join CVC" (Press release). Rutgers–Newark Athletics. March 13, 2014. Archived from the original on September 12, 2014. Retrieved September 11, 2014.
  14. ^ Kennedy, Paul (February 28, 2018). "Hartwick to downgrade men's soccer, making it a D-III sport". Soccer America. Archived from the original on June 21, 2018. Retrieved June 21, 2018.
  15. ^ "RIT's push for NCAA legislative change opens the door for women to move to Division I". Archived from the original on April 14, 2015. Retrieved April 7, 2015.
  16. ^ "Union hockey: Could scholarships be on the horizon?". January 12, 2022.
  17. ^ "Union hockey teams could be on verge of offering athletic scholarships – the Daily Gazette". November 25, 2021.
  18. ^ "RIT pushes for NCAA rule changes for hockey teams".
  19. ^ "NCAA Votes to Allow Union Hockey to Offer Scholarships". January 22, 2022.
  20. ^ Pennington, Bill (May 25, 2003). "Playing for Victory, Or Simply to Play? Colleges Are Split". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 28, 2017. Retrieved November 26, 2017.
  21. ^ "NCAA Division III Defeats Effort To Repeal Waiver". Clarkson University. January 12, 2004. Archived from the original on August 18, 2018. Retrieved November 26, 2017.
  22. ^ Schultz, Ken (October 25, 2019). "NCAA OneTeam Program turns D-III schools into LGBT allies". Outsports. Retrieved June 22, 2023.
  23. ^ "Division III LGBTQ OneTeam Programs". NCAA. Retrieved June 17, 2023.
  24. ^ "NCAA group condemns anti-transgender sports bills in open letter". ABC News. Retrieved June 22, 2023.
  25. ^ Kliegman, Julie (January 24, 2022). "Diversity Facilitator Withdraws From NCAA Program in Wake of Association's Trans Eligibility Change". OutSports. Retrieved June 17, 2023.

External links edit