Gmail is a free, advertising-supported email service developed by Google. Users can access Gmail on the web and through mobile apps for Android and iOS, as well as through third-party programs that synchronize email content through POP or IMAP protocols. Gmail started as a limited beta release on April 1, 2004, and ended its testing phase on July 7, 2009.
Type of site
|Available in||72 languages|
|Created by||Paul Buchheit|
|Users||1 billion (February 2016)|
|Launched||April 1, 2004|
At launch, Gmail had an initial storage capacity offer of 1 gigabyte per user, a significantly higher amount than competitors offered at the time. Today, the service comes with 15 gigabytes of free storage. Users can receive emails up to 50 megabytes in size, including attachments, while they can send emails up to 25 megabytes. In order to send larger files, users can insert files from Google Drive into the message. Gmail has a search-oriented interface and a "conversation view" similar to an Internet forum. The service is notable among website developers for its pioneering use of Ajax.
Google's mail servers automatically scan emails for multiple purposes, including to filter spam and malware, and to add context-sensitive advertisements next to emails. This advertising practice has been significantly criticized by privacy advocates due to concerns over unlimited data retention, ease of monitoring by third parties, users of other email providers not having agreed to the policy upon sending emails to Gmail addresses, and the potential for Google to change its policies to further decrease privacy by combining information with other Google data usage. The company has been the subject of lawsuits concerning the issues. Google has stated that email users must "necessarily expect" their emails to be subject to automated processing, and claims that the service refrains from displaying ads next to potentially sensitive messages, such as those mentioning race, religion, sexual orientation, health, or financial statements. In June 2017, Google announced the upcoming end to the use of contextual Gmail content for advertising purposes, relying instead on data gathered from use of its other services.
As of February 2016, Gmail has one billion active users worldwide, and was the first app on the Google Play Store to hit one billion installations on Android devices. According to a 2014 estimate, 60% of mid-sized US companies, and 92% of startups, were using Gmail.
On April 1, 2005, the first anniversary of Gmail, the limit was doubled to 2 gigabytes of storage. Georges Harik, the product management director for Gmail, stated that Google would "keep giving people more space forever."
Users can buy additional storage, shared among Gmail, Google Drive and Google Photos, through a monthly subscription plan. As of 2017, storage of up to 15 gigabytes is free, and paid plans are available for up to 30 terabytes for personal use.
There are also storage limits to individual Gmail messages. One message, including all attachments, cannot be larger than 25 megabytes. This was changed in March 2017, to allow receiving of email up to 50 megabytes, with the limit for sending email staying at 25 megabytes. In order to send larger files, users can insert files from Google Drive into the message.
The Gmail user interface initially differed from other webmail systems with its focus on search and conversation threading of emails, grouping several messages between two or more people onto a single page, an approach that was later copied by its competitors. Gmail's user interface designer, Kevin Fox, intended users to feel as if they were always on one page and just changing things on that page, rather than having to navigate to other places.
Gmail's interface also makes use of 'labels' (tags) – that replace the conventional folders and provide a more flexible method of organizing email; filters for automatically organizing, deleting or forwarding incoming emails to other addresses; and importance markers for automatically marking messages as 'important'.
In May 2013, Google updated the Gmail inbox with tabs which allow the application to categorize the user's emails. The five tabs are: Primary, Social, Promotions, Updates, and Forums. In addition to customization options, the entire update can be disabled, allowing users to return to the traditional inbox structure.
In November 2011, Google began rolling out a redesign of its interface that "simplified" the look of Gmail into a more minimalist design to provide a more consistent look throughout its products and services as part of an overall Google design change. Major redesigned elements included a streamlined conversation view, configurable density of information, new higher-quality themes, a resizable navigation bar with always-visible labels and contacts, and better search. Users were able to preview the new interface design for months prior to the official release, as well as revert to the old interface, until March 2012, when Google discontinued the ability to revert and completed the transition to the new design for all users.
The Gmail Labs feature, introduced on June 5, 2008, allows users to test new or experimental features of Gmail. Users can enable or disable Labs features selectively and provide feedback about each of them. This allows Gmail engineers to obtain user input about new features to improve them and also to assess their popularity.
Popular features, like the "Undo Send" option, often "graduate" from Gmail Labs to become a formal setting in Gmail.
All Labs features are experimental and are subject to termination at any time.
In May 2012, Gmail improved the search functionality to include auto-complete predictions from the user's emails.
Gmail's search functionality does not support searching for word fragments (also known as 'substring search' or partial word search). Workarounds exist.
In August 2011, Google introduced Gmail Offline, an HTML5-powered app for providing access to the service while offline. Gmail Offline runs on the Google Chrome browser and can be downloaded from the Chrome Web Store.
Google Voice in Gmail chatEdit
In August 2010, Google released a plugin that provides integrated telephone service within Gmail's Google Chat interface. The feature initially lacked an official name, with Google referring to it as both "Google Voice in Gmail chat" and "Call Phones in Gmail". The service logged over one million calls in 24 hours.
As of March 2015, the Gmail interface supports 72 languages, including: Arabic, Basque, Bulgarian, Catalan, Chinese (simplified), Chinese (traditional), Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English (UK), English (US), Estonian, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Gujarati, Hebrew, Hindi, Hungarian, Icelandic, Indonesian, Italian, Japanese, Kannada, Korean, Latvian, Lithuanian, Malay, Malayalam, Marathi, Norwegian (Bokmål), Odia, Polish, Punjabi, Portuguese (Brazil), Portuguese (Portugal), Romanian, Russian, Serbian, Sinhala, Slovak, Slovenian, Spanish, Swedish, Tagalog (Filipino), Tamil, Telugu, Thai, Turkish, Ukrainian, Urdu, Vietnamese, Welsh and Zulu.
Language input stylesEdit
In October 2012, Google added over 100 virtual keyboards, transliterations, and input method editors to Gmail, enabling users different types of input styles for different languages in an effort to help users write in languages that aren't "limited by the language of your keyboard.”
In October 2013, Google added handwriting input support to Gmail.
Money transfer and payment optionsEdit
In May 2013, Google announced the integration between Google Wallet and Gmail, which would allow Gmail users to send money as email attachments. Although the sender must use a Gmail account, the recipient does not need to be using a Gmail address. The feature has no transaction fees, but there are limits to amount of money that can be sent. Initially only available on the web, the feature was expanded to the Android app in March 2017, for people living in the United States.
Gmail's "basic HTML" version will work on almost all browsers. The modern AJAX version is officially supported in the current and previous major releases of Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Internet Explorer, Microsoft Edge and Safari web browsers on a rolling basis.
In addition to the native apps on iOS and Android, users can access Gmail through the web browser on a mobile device.
In November 2014, Google introduced functionality in the Gmail Android app that enabled sending and receiving email from non-Gmail addresses (such as Yahoo! Mail and Outlook.com) through POP or IMAP.
In November 2016, Google redesigned the Gmail app for the iOS platform, bringing the first complete visual overhaul in "nearly four years". The update added much more use of colors, sleeker transitions, and the addition of several "highly-requested" features, including Undo Send, faster search with instant results and spelling suggestions, and Swipe to Archive/Delete.
In May 2017, Google updated Gmail on Android to feature protection from phishing attacks. Media outlets noticed that the new protection was announced amid a widespread phishing attack on a combination of Gmail and Google's Docs document service that occurred on the same day.
Later in May, Google announced the addition of "Smart Reply" to Gmail on Android and iOS. "Smart Reply", a feature originally launched for Google's Inbox by Gmail service, scans a message for information and uses machine intelligence to offer three responses the user can optionally edit and send. The feature is limited to the English language at launch, with upcoming support for Spanish, followed by other languages later.
Inbox by GmailEdit
In October 2014, Google introduced Inbox by Gmail on an invitation-only basis. Developed by the Gmail team, but serving as a "completely different type of inbox", the service is made to help users deal with the challenges of an active email. Citing issues such as distractions, difficulty in finding important information buried in messages, and receiving more emails than ever, Inbox by Gmail has several important differences from Gmail, including bundles that automatically sort emails of the same topic together, highlights that surface key information from messages, and reminders, assists, and snooze, that help the user in handling incoming emails at appropriate times.
Inbox by Gmail became publicly available in May 2015.
In September 2016, Google released Google Trips, an app that, based on information from a user's Gmail messages, automatically generates travel cards. A travel card contains itinerary details, such as plane tickets and car rentals, and recommends activities, food and drinks, and attractions based on location, time, and interests. The app also has offline functionality. In April 2017, Google Trips received an update adding several significant features. The app now also scans Gmail for bus and train tickets, and allows users to manually input trip reservations. Users can send trip details to other users' email, and if the recipient also has Google Trips, the information will be automatically available in their apps as well.
Google has supported secure HTTPS since the day it launched. In the beginning, it was only default on the login page, a reason that Google engineer Ariel Rideout stated was because HTTPS made "your mail slower". However, users could manually switch to secure HTTPS mode inside the inbox after logging in. In July 2008, Google simplified the ability to manually enable secure mode, with a toggle in the settings menu.
In January 2010, Google began rolling out HTTPS as the default for all users.
In June 2012, a new security feature was introduced to protect users from state-sponsored attacks. A banner will appear at the top of the page that warns users of an unauthorized account compromise.
In March 2014, Google announced that an encrypted HTTPS connection will be used for the sending and receiving of all Gmail emails, and "every single email message you send or receive —100% of them —is encrypted while moving internally" through the company's systems.
Whenever possible, Gmail uses transport layer security (TLS) to automatically encrypt emails sent and received. On the web and on Android devices, users can check if a message is encrypted by checking if the message has a closed or open red padlock.
Gmail automatically scans all incoming and outgoing e-mails for viruses in email attachments. For security reasons, some file types, including executables, are not allowed to be sent in emails.
At the end of May 2017, Google announced that it had applied machine learning technology to identify emails with phishing and spam, having a 99.9% detection accuracy. The company also announced that Gmail would selectively delay some messages, approximately 0.05% of all, to perform more detailed analysis and aggregate details to improve its algorithms.
Third-party encryption in transitEdit
In Google's Transparency Report under the Safer email section, it provides information on the percentage of emails encrypted in transit between Gmail and third-party email providers.
Once enabled, users are required to verify their identity using a second method after entering their username and password when logging in on a new device. Common methods include entering a code sent to a user's mobile phone through a text message, entering a code using the Google Authenticator smartphone app, or by inserting a physical security key into the computer's USB port.
If an algorithm detects what Google calls "abnormal usage that may indicate that your account has been compromised", the account can be automatically locked down for between one minute and 24 hours, depending on the type of activity detected. Listed reasons for a lock-down include:
- "Receiving, deleting, or downloading large amounts of mail via POP or IMAP in a short period of time. If you're getting the error message, 'Lockdown in Sector 4,' you should be able to access Gmail again after waiting 24 hours."
- "Sending a large number of undeliverable messages (messages that bounce back)."
- "Using file-sharing or file-storage software, browser extensions, or third party software that automatically logs into your account."
- "Leaving multiple instances of Gmail open."
- "Browser-related issues. Please note that if you find your browser continually reloading while attempting to access your Inbox, it's probably a browser issue, and it may be necessary to clear your browser's cache and cookies."
Anti child pornography policyEdit
Google combats child pornography through Gmail's servers in conjunction with the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children (NCMEC) to find children suffering abuse around the world. In collaboration with the NCMEC, Google creates a database of child pornography pictures. Each one of the images is given a unique numerical number known as a hash. Google then scans Gmail looking for the unique hashes. When suspicious images are located Google reports the incident to the authorities.
The idea for Gmail was developed by Paul Buchheit several years before it was announced to the public. The project was known by the code name Caribou. During early development, the project was kept secret from most of Google's own engineers. This changed once the project became better and better, and by early 2004, almost everybody was using it to access the company's internal email system.
In October 2007, Google began a process of rewriting parts of the code that Gmail used, which would make the service faster and add new features, such as custom keyboard shortcuts and the ability to bookmark specific messages and email searches. Gmail also added IMAP support in October 2007.
Gmail exited the beta status on July 7, 2009.
Prior to December 2013, users had to approve to see images in emails, which acted as a security measure. This changed in December 2013, when Google, citing improved image handling, enabled images to be visible without user approval. Images will be routed through Google's secure proxy servers rather than the original external host servers. MarketingLand noted that the change to image handling means email marketers will no longer be able to track the recipient's IP address or information about what kind of device the recipient is using. However, Wired stated that the new change means senders can track the time when an email is first opened, as the initial loading of the images requires the system to make a "callback" to the original server.
Before the introduction of Gmail, the product and graphic design firm Gamil Design in Raleigh, North Carolina received 3000 hits per month. A Google engineer who had accidentally gone to the Gamil site a number of times contacted the company and asked if the site had experienced an increase in traffic. In fact, the site's activity had doubled. Two years later, with 600,000 hits per month, the Internet service provider wanted to charge more, and Gamil posted the message on its site "You may have arrived here by misspelling Gmail. We understand. Typing fast is not our strongest skill. But since you've typed your way here, let's share."
In June 2012, Google announced that Gmail had 425 million active users globally.
In May 2015, Google announced that Gmail had 900 million active users, 75% of whom were using the service on mobile devices.
In the business sector, Quartz reported in August 2014 that, among 150 companies checked in three major categories in the United States (Fortune 50 largest companies, mid-size tech and media companies, and startup companies from the last Y Combinator incubator class), only one Fortune 50 company used Gmail - Google itself - while 60% of mid-sized companies and 92% of startup companies were using Gmail.
Social network integrationEdit
Gmail was integrated with Google+ in December 2011, as part of an effort to have all Google information across one Google account, with a centralized Google+ user profile. Backlash from the move caused Google to step back and remove the requirement of a Google+ user account, keeping only a private Google account without a public-facing profile, starting in July 2015.
As part of G Suite, Google's business-focused offering, Gmail comes with additional features, including:
- Email addresses with the customer’s domain name (@yourcompany.com)
- 99.9% guaranteed uptime with zero scheduled downtime for maintenance
- Either 30GB or unlimited storage shared with Google Drive, depending on the plan
- 24/7 phone and email support
- Synchronization compatibility with Microsoft Outlook and other email providers
- Support for add-ons that integrate third-party apps purchased from the G Suite Marketplace with Gmail
|This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (June 2014)|
Gmail was ranked second in PC World's "100 Best Products of 2005", behind Mozilla Firefox. Gmail also won 'Honorable Mention' in the Bottom Line Design Awards 2005. In September 2006, Forbes declared Gmail to be the best webmail application for small businesses. In November 2006, Gmail received PC World's 4 star rating.
Google claims that Gmail refrains from displaying ads next to potentially sensitive messages, such as those that mention race, religion, sexual orientation, health, or financial statements.
Automated scanning of email contentEdit
In 2004, thirty-one privacy and civil liberties organizations wrote a letter calling upon Google to suspend its Gmail service until the privacy issues were adequately addressed. The letter also called upon Google to clarify its written information policies regarding data retention and data sharing among its business units. The organizations also voiced their concerns about Google's plan to scan the text of all incoming messages for the purposes of ad placement, noting that the scanning of confidential email for inserting third-party ad content violates the implicit trust of an email service provider.
On June 23, 2017, Google announced that, later in 2017, it will phase out the scanning of email content to generate contextual advertising, relying on personal data collected through other Google services instead. The company stated that this change was meant to clarify its practices and quell concerns among enterprise G Suite customers who felt an ambiguous distinction between the free consumer and paid professional variants, the latter being advertising-free.
In March 2011, a former Gmail user in Texas sued Google, claiming that its Gmail service violates users' privacy by scanning e-mail messages to serve relevant ads.
In July 2012, some California residents filed two class action lawsuits against Google and Yahoo!, claiming that they illegally intercept emails sent by individual non-Gmail or non-Yahoo! email users to Gmail and Yahoo! recipients without the senders' knowledge, consent or permission. A motion filed by Google's attorneys in the case concedes that Gmail users have "no expectation of privacy".
A court filing uncovered by advocacy group Consumer Watchdog in August 2013 revealed that Google stated in a court filing that no "reasonable expectation" exists among Gmail users in regard to the assured confidentiality of their emails. In response to a lawsuit filed in May 2013, Google explained:
"... all users of email must necessarily expect that their emails will be subject to automated processing ... Just as a sender of a letter to a business colleague cannot be surprised that the recipient's assistant opens the letter, people who use web-based email today cannot be surprised if their communications are processed by the recipient's ECS [electronic communications service] provider in the course of delivery.
A Google spokesperson stated to the media on August 15, 2013 that the corporation takes the privacy and security concerns of Gmail users "very seriously."
April 2014 Terms of service updateEdit
Google updated its terms of service for Gmail in April 2014 to create full transparency for its users in regard to the scanning of email content. The relevant revision states: "Our automated systems analyse your content (including emails) to provide you personally relevant product features, such as customised search results, tailored advertising, and spam and malware detection. This analysis occurs as the content is sent, received, and when it is stored." A Google spokesperson explained that the corporation wishes for its policies "to be simple and easy for users to understand."
In response to the update, Jim Killock, executive director of the Open Rights Group, stated: "The really dangerous things that Google is doing are things like the information held in Analytics, cookies in advertising and the profiling that it is able to do on individual accounts".
Microsoft ad campaign against GoogleEdit
In 2013, Microsoft launched an advertising campaign to attack Google for scanning email messages, arguing that most consumers are not aware that Google monitors their personal messages to deliver targeted ads. Microsoft claims that its email service Outlook does not scan the contents of messages and a Microsoft spokesperson called the issue of privacy "Google's kryptonite." In response, Google stated; "We work hard to make sure that ads are safe, unobtrusive and relevant ... No humans read your e-mail or Google Account information in order to show you advertisements or related information. An automated algorithm — similar to that used for features like Priority Inbox or spam filtering — determines which ads are shown.” The New York Times cites "Google supporters", who say that "Microsoft’s ads are distasteful, the last resort of a company that has been unsuccessful at competing against Google on the more noble battleground of products".
Other privacy issuesEdit
2010 attack from ChinaEdit
In January 2010, Google detected a "highly sophisticated" cyber-attack on its infrastructure that originated from China. The targets of the attack were Chinese human rights activists, but Google discovered that accounts belonging to European, American and Chinese activists for human rights in China had been "routinely accessed by third parties". Additionally, Google stated that their investigation revealed that "at least" 20 other large companies from a "wide range of businesses" - including the Internet, finance, technology, media and chemical sectors - had been similarly targeted. Google was in the process of notifying those companies and it was also working with relevant US authorities. In light of the attacks, Google enhanced the security and architecture of its infrastructure, and advised individual users to install anti-virus and anti-spyware on their computers, update their operating systems and web browsers, and be cautious when clicking on Internet links or when sharing personal information in instant messages and emails.
The February 2010 launch of Google Buzz, a former social network that was linked to Gmail, immediately drew criticism for publicly sharing details of users' contacts unless the default settings were changed.
A new Gmail feature was launched in January 2014, whereby users can email people with Google+ accounts even though they do not know the email address of the recipient. Marc Rotenberg, President of the Electronic Privacy Information Center, called the feature "troubling", and compared it to the Google Buzz initial launch privacy flaw.
Gmail suffered at least seven outages in 2009 alone, causing doubts about the reliability of its service. It suffered a new outage on February 28, 2011, in which a bug caused Gmail accounts to be empty. Google stated in a blog post that "email was never lost" and restoration was in progress. Another outage occurred on April 17, 2012, September 24, 2013, and January 24, 2014.
Google has stated that "Gmail remains more than 99.9% available to all users, and we're committed to keeping events like today's notable for their rarity."
On behalf ofEdit
In May 2009, Farhad Manjoo wrote on The New York Times blog about Gmail's "on behalf of" tag. Manjoo explained: "The problems is, when you try to send outbound mail from your Gmail universal inbox, Gmail adds a tag telling your recipients that you're actually using Gmail and not your office e-mail. If your recipient is using Microsoft Outlook, he'll see a message like, "From firstname.lastname@example.org on behalf of email@example.com." Manjoo further wrote that "Google explains that it adds the tag in order to prevent your e-mail from being considered spam by your recipient; the theory is that if the e-mail is honest about its origins, it shouldn't arouse suspicion by spam checking software". The following July, Google announced a new option that would remove the "On behalf of" tag, by sending the email from the server of the other email address instead of using Gmail's servers.
- Siegler, MG (March 14, 2010). "The Key To Gmail: Sh*t Umbrellas". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- Bergen, Mark (June 23, 2017). "Google Will Stop Reading Your Emails for Gmail Ads". Bloomberg Technology. Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved June 23, 2017.
- Singer, Michael (March 31, 2004). "Google Testing Free Webmail". Internet News. Retrieved November 10, 2016.
- Kuchinskas, Susan (April 1, 2005). "Endless Gmail Storage". Internet News. Retrieved November 11, 2016.
- Behrens, Nicholas (April 24, 2012). "Gmail, now with 10 gigabytes of storage (and counting)". Google. Retrieved November 11, 2016.
- Bavor, Clay (May 13, 2013). "Bringing it all together: 15 GB now shared between Drive, Gmail, and Google+ Photos". Google. Retrieved November 11, 2016.
- Petkov, Jason (May 13, 2013). "15GB of Free Storage, Thanks Google!". W3Reports. Retrieved November 11, 2016.
- "Drive storage". Google. Retrieved February 12, 2017. (registration required)
- "Send attachments with your Gmail message". Gmail Help. Google. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- "Receive emails of up to 50MB in Gmail". G Suite Updates. Google. March 1, 2017. Retrieved March 2, 2017.
- Coldewey, Devin (March 1, 2017). "Huzzah! Gmail now accepts attachments up to 50 MB". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved March 2, 2017.
- "Send Google Drive attachments in Gmail". Gmail Help. Google.
- Lenssen, Philipp (June 2, 2008). "Kevin Fox of Gmail & FriendFeed on User Experience Design". Google Blogoscoped. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- Gilad, Itamar (May 29, 2013). "A new inbox that puts you back in control". Official Gmail Blog. Google. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- Bonnington, Christina (May 29, 2013). "Gmail’s New Inbox Sorts Emails Into Tabbed Categories". Wired. Condé Nast. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- Cornwell, Jason (November 1, 2011). "Gmail’s new look". Official Gmail Blog. Google. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- Houston, Thomas (November 1, 2011). "Gmail redesign adds enhanced search box, profile pictures, conversations, and more". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- "Gmail New Look will be released to all users starting March 27th". G Suite Updates. Google. March 20, 2012. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- "Mark or unmark Spam in Gmail". Gmail Help. Google. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- Coleman, Keith (June 5, 2008). "Introducing Gmail Labs". Official Gmail Blog. Google. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- Williams, Owen (June 23, 2015). "Gmail’s ‘Undo Send’ feature finally graduates out of labs after six years". The Next Web. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- "Gmail Labs". Google. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- Moolenaar, Bram (October 15, 2012). "Find your stuff faster in Gmail and Search". Official Gmail Blog. Google. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- Racz, Balazs (May 23, 2013). "Search emails, Google Drive, Calendar and more as you type". Official Gmail Blog. Google. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- Protalinski, Emil (May 23, 2013). "Google adds Google Drive files and Calendar events to Gmail’s search for US users". The Next Web. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- Elias, Isaac (May 21, 2012). "Improved search in Gmail". Official Gmail Blog. Google. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- "Gmail workarounds for sub-string (partial word) search". Confluence. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- Boursetty, Benoît (August 31, 2011). "Using Gmail, Calendar and Docs without an Internet connection". Official Gmail Blog. Google. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- Zukerman, Erez (May 10, 2013). "Review: Give Gmail an extreme makeover with Gmail Offline". PC World. International Data Group. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- Siegler, MG (May 11, 2011). "Coming This Summer: Fully Offline Gmail, Google Calendar, And Google Docs". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- Calore, Michael (August 25, 2010). "Gmail Gets Dialed Up a Notch With New Calling Feature". Wired. Condé Nast. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- Nowak, Peter (August 25, 2010). "Google launches free voice calls from Gmail". CBC News. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- Mullany, Anjali (August 27, 2010). "Google announces via Twitter: 1,000,000 Gmail calls in 24 Hours". New York Daily News. Mortimer Zuckerman. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- Shankland, Stephen (August 26, 2010). "Google: 1 million Gmail calls on first day". CNN. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- Weintraub, Seth (March 18, 2014). "Google plans to kill Google Voice in coming months, integrate features into Hangouts". 9to5Google. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- Russell, Brandon (March 18, 2014). "Google Planning To Discontinue Google Voice In Favor of Hangouts". TechnoBuffalo. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- "Change your language settings". Gmail Help. Google. Archived from the original on March 16, 2015. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- Warren, C. Andrew (October 9, 2012). "Communicate more easily across languages in Gmail". Official Google Blog. Google. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- Lardinois, Frederic (October 9, 2012). "Google Brings More Than 100 Virtual Keyboards, Transliterations And IMEs To Gmail". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- Xiao, Xiangye (October 22, 2013). "Handwriting input comes to Gmail and Google Docs". Official Gmail Blog. Google. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- Monferrer, Pedro (August 5, 2014). "A first step toward more global email". Official Gmail Blog. Google. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- Grandoni, Dino (August 5, 2014). "Google To Recognize Emails That Use Special Characters". The Huffington Post. AOL. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- Green, Travis (May 15, 2013). "Send money to friends with Gmail and Google Wallet". Official Gmail Blog. Google. Retrieved November 26, 2016.
- Honig, Zach (May 15, 2013). "Google Wallet will soon let you send payments as a Gmail attachment". Engadget. AOL. Retrieved November 26, 2016.
- "Send, request, receive, or withdraw money". Google Wallet Help. Google. Retrieved November 26, 2016.
- Welch, Chris (March 14, 2017). "Gmail for Android now lets you send people money right in the app". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved March 14, 2017.
- Lopez, Napier (March 14, 2017). "Google now lets you send money via Gmail on Android". The Next Web. Retrieved March 14, 2017.
- Panchapakesan, Venkat (June 1, 2011). "Our plans to support modern browsers across Google Apps". Official Gmail Blog. Google. Retrieved November 24, 2016.
- "Supported browsers". Chat Help. Google. Retrieved March 19, 2017.
- Kroeger, Rob (April 7, 2009). "A new mobile Gmail experience for iPhone and Android". Official Gmail Blog. Google. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- "Gmail on the iOS App Store". iTunes. Apple. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- "Gmail on the Google Play Store". Google Play. Google. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- Izatt, Matthew (November 3, 2014). "A more modern Gmail app for Android". Official Gmail Blog. Google. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- Izatt, Matthew (November 7, 2016). "Gmail and Google Calendar get a whole lot better on iOS". They Keyword Google Blog. Google. Retrieved November 26, 2016.
- Welch, Chris (November 7, 2016). "Google just redesigned Gmail for iPhone and made it way faster". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved November 26, 2016.
- Lawler, Richard (May 4, 2017). "Now the Android Gmail app keeps an eye out for phishing links". Engadget. AOL. Retrieved May 4, 2017.
- Tung, Liam (May 4, 2017). "Google gives Android Gmail users new shady link warnings amid fake Docs attack". ZDNet. CBS Interactive. Retrieved May 4, 2017.
- Perez, Sarah (May 4, 2017). "Google adds phishing protection to Gmail on Android". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved May 4, 2017.
- Vincent, James (May 17, 2017). "Smart Reply is coming to Gmail for Android and iOS". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved May 17, 2017.
- Ingraham, Nathan (May 17, 2017). "Google’s impersonal-but-handy Smart Replies come to the Gmail app". Engadget. AOL. Retrieved May 17, 2017.
- "Inbox by Gmail on the iOS App Store". iTunes. Apple. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- "Inbox by Gmail on the Google Play Store". Google Play. Google. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- "Read Gmail messages on other email clients using POP". Gmail Support. Google. Retrieved November 24, 2016.
- Pichai, Sundar (October 22, 2014). "An inbox that works for you". Official Gmail Blog. Google. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- Bohn, Dieter (October 22, 2014). "Inbox is a total reinvention of email from Google". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- Etherington, Darrell (October 22, 2014). "Google’s Inbox is A New Email App From The Gmail Team Designed Not To Be Gmail". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- Gawley, Alex (May 28, 2015). "Thanks to you, Inbox by Gmail is now open to everyone". Official Gmail Blog. Google. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- Frank, Stefan (September 19, 2016). "See more, plan less – try Google Trips". The Keyword Google Blog. Google. Retrieved November 29, 2016.
- Newton, Casey (September 19, 2016). "Google Trips is a killer travel app for the modern tourist". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved November 29, 2016.
- Perez, Sarah (April 26, 2017). "Personalized travel planner Google Trips gets better at handling your reservations". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved April 26, 2017.
- Kastrenakes, Jacob (April 26, 2017). "Google’s Trips app is becoming an even better travel companion". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved April 26, 2017.
- Rideout, Ariel (July 24, 2008). "Making security easier". Official Gmail Blog. Google. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- Kirk, Jeremy (January 2, 2007). "Google closes Gmail cross-site scripting vulnerability". InfoWorld. International Data Group. Archived from the original on January 4, 2007. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- Schillace, Sam (January 12, 2010). "Default https access for Gmail". Official Gmail Blog. Google. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- Grosse, Eric (June 5, 2012). "Security warnings for suspected state-sponsored attacks". Google Security Blog. Google. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- "Google to warn users of 'state-sponsored attacks'". CBC News. June 6, 2012. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- Lidzborski, Nicolas (March 20, 2014). "Staying at the forefront of email security and reliability: HTTPS-only and 99.978% availability". Official Gmail Blog. Google. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- "Check the security of your emails". Gmail Help. Google. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- "Some file types are blocked". Gmail Help. Google. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- Lardinois, Frederic (May 31, 2017). "Google says its machine learning tech now blocks 99.9% of Gmail spam and phishing messages". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved June 1, 2017.
- Locklear, Mallory (May 31, 2017). "Google beefs up Gmail security to fight phishing attempts". Engadget. AOL. Retrieved June 1, 2017.
- "Email encryption in transit". Google Transparency Report. Google. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- "Google 2-Step Verification". Google. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- "Google 2-Step Verification". Google. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- Shah, Nishit (October 21, 2014). "Strengthening 2-Step Verification with Security Key". Google Security Blog. Google. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- Turner, Adam (November 5, 2014). "Google security keys may offer extra layer of online protection". The Sydney Morning Herald. Fairfax Media. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- Google (2010). "My account has been locked". Archived from the original on May 22, 2009. Retrieved March 23, 2010.
- Perez, Sarah (August 6, 2014). "Why The Gmail Scan That Led To A Man’s Arrest For Child Porn Was Not A Privacy Violation". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved March 22, 2017.
- McCracken, Harry (April 1, 2014). "How Gmail Happened: The Inside Story of Its Launch 10 Years Ago". Time. Time Inc. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- "Google Gets the Message, Launches Gmail". Google. April 1, 2004. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- Oswald, Ed (November 2006). "Google Offers Java-based Mobile Gmail". BetaNews. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- Pupius, Dan (October 29, 2007). "Code changes to prepare Gmail for the future". Official Gmail Blog. Google. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- Jones, K.C. (October 24, 2007). "Gmail Now Has IMAP Support". InformationWeek. UBM Tech. Archived from the original on October 1, 2008. Retrieved November 24, 2016.
- Pupius, Dan (January 29, 2008). "Gmail/Greasemonkey API issue". Official Gmail Blog. Google. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- Glotzbach, Matthew (July 7, 2009). "Google Apps is out of beta (yes, really)". Official Google Blog. Google. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- Rae-Grant, John (December 12, 2013). "Images Now Showing". Official Gmail Blog. Google. Retrieved November 26, 2016.
- "Google: Gmail Image Change May Improve Open Rate Data, But Will Strip Other User Data". MarketingLand. December 12, 2013. Retrieved November 26, 2016.
- Tate, Ryan (December 12, 2013). "With the New Gmail, People Will Know When You Open That Message". Wired. Condé Nast. Retrieved November 26, 2016.
- Ryan Teague Beckwith, "Typo is Web page's windfall: Traffic looking for e-mail service Gmail winds up at Gamil", News & Observer, Dec. 16, 2006.
- Pichai, Sundar (June 28, 2012). "Chrome & Apps @ Google I/O: Your web, everywhere". Official Google Blog. Google. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- Lardinois, Frederic (May 28, 2015). "Gmail Now Has 900M Active Users, 75% On Mobile". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- Lardinois, Frederic (February 1, 2016). "Gmail Now Has More Than 1B Monthly Active Users". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- Miller, Ross (February 1, 2016). "Gmail now has 1 billion monthly active users". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- Frommer, Dan (August 1, 2014). "Google is stealing away Microsoft’s future corporate customers". Quartz. Atlantic Media. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- Gibbs, Samuel (May 16, 2014). "Gmail Android app is first to hit one billion installations". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- Guynn, Jessica (February 9, 2010). "Google aims to take on Facebook with new social feature called 'Buzz'". Los Angeles Times. tronc. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- Cheredar, Tom (July 11, 2011). "Google says Google+ integration for Gmail is coming; users sound off". VentureBeat. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- Horowitz, Bradley (October 14, 2011). "A fall sweep". Official Google Blog. Google. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- Striebeck, Mark (December 8, 2011). "Gmail and Contacts get better with Google+". Official Gmail Blog. Google. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- Horowitz, Bradley (July 27, 2015). "Everything in its right place". Official Google Blog. Google. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- "Gmail for business". G Suite by Google Cloud. Google. Retrieved December 10, 2016.
- Panchapakesan, Venkat (April 3, 2013). "Pure and Proven Cloud: Gmail Availability in 2012". Official Google Cloud Blog. Google. Retrieved December 10, 2016.
- As, Thijs van (March 9, 2017). "Bring the power of your apps into Gmail with Add-ons". G Suite Developers Blog. Google. Retrieved March 10, 2017.
- Bohn, Dieter (March 9, 2017). "Native Gmail add-ons are coming — but they’ll be business focused to start". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved March 10, 2017.
- Lardinois, Frederic (March 9, 2017). "Google adds add-on support to Gmail". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved March 10, 2017.
- Wei, Coach (August 11, 2005). "AJAX: Asynchronous Java + XML?". Developer.com. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- PCWorld.com — The 100 Best Products of 2005, retrieved May 14, 2006
- Bottom Line Design Awards Archived March 30, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. Honorable Mentions. Retrieved February 14, 2007.
- "The Best Web-Based Computer Applications For Small Business". Forbes. September 7, 2006. Retrieved February 5, 2015.
- "Google Award". Archived from the original on May 14, 2011.
- "How Gmail ads work". Gmail Help. Google. Retrieved November 26, 2016.
- "Gmail Privacy FAQ". Electronic Privacy Information Center. Retrieved November 26, 2016.
- Gibbs, Samuel (April 15, 2014). "Gmail does scan all emails, new Google terms clarify". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved November 26, 2016.
- Givens, Beth; Dixon, Pam (April 6, 2004). "Thirty-One Privacy And Civil Liberties Organizations Urge Google To Suspend Gmail". Privacy Rights Clearinghouse. Retrieved November 26, 2016.
- Rasch, Mark (June 15, 2004). "Google's Gmail: spook heaven?". The Register. Situation Publishing. Retrieved November 26, 2016.
- McMillan, Robert (January 13, 2010). "Google attack part of widespread spying effort". Computerworld. International Data Group. Retrieved November 26, 2016.
- Lardinois, Frederic (June 23, 2017). "Google now has all the data it needs, will stop scanning Gmail inboxes for ad personalization". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved June 23, 2017.
- Claburn, Thomas (March 9, 2011). "Google Again Sued Over Gmail Content Scanning". InformationWeek. UBM Tech. Retrieved November 26, 2016.
- Abellin (July 2, 2012). "Lawsuit: Gmail, Yahoo Email Invade Privacy, Even Non-Users'". ABC News. Retrieved November 26, 2016.
- Morisy, Michael (August 14, 2013). "GMail a little too open? Google says users should have no ‘expectation of privacy’". Boston.com. Retrieved November 26, 2016.
- Rushe, Dominic (August 15, 2013). "Google: don't expect privacy when sending to Gmail". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved November 26, 2016.
- Wingfield, Nick (February 6, 2013). "Microsoft Attacks Google on Gmail Privacy". The New York Times. Retrieved November 26, 2016.
- Drummond, David (January 12, 2010). "A new approach to China". Official Google Blog. Google. Retrieved November 26, 2016.
- Zetter, Kim (January 14, 2010). "Google Hack Attack Was Ultra Sophisticated, New Details Show". Wired. Condé Nast. Retrieved November 26, 2016.
- "Google Buzz Has Serious Privacy Flaws". Fox News. February 12, 2010. Retrieved November 26, 2016.
- Jackson, Todd (February 11, 2010). "Millions of Buzz users, and improvements based on your feedback". Official Gmail Blog. Google. Retrieved November 26, 2016.
- "New Gmail messaging feature causes privacy concerns". BBC News. January 10, 2014. Retrieved November 26, 2016.
- Angwin, Julia (October 21, 2016). "Google Has Quietly Dropped Ban on Personally Identifiable Web Tracking". ProPublica. Retrieved November 26, 2016.
- Bradley, Tony (September 24, 2009). "Google Outages Damage Cloud Credibility". PC World. International Data Group. Retrieved February 23, 2017.
- Siegler, MG (February 24, 2009). "Where were you during the great Gmail outage of February 2009?". VentureBeat. Retrieved February 23, 2017.
- Treynor, Ben (February 28, 2011). "Gmail back soon for everyone". Official Gmail Blog. Google. Retrieved February 23, 2017.
- Needleman, Rafe (April 17, 2012). "Gmail users experience outage". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved February 23, 2017.
- D'Orazio, Dante (September 24, 2013). "Yesterday's Gmail outage delayed millions of messages by over two hours". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved February 23, 2017.
- Etherington, Darrell (January 24, 2014). "Gmail And Google+ Go Down Across The World, Service Returns After Roughly 50 Minutes". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved February 23, 2017.
- Treynor, Ben (September 1, 2009). "More on today's Gmail issue". Official Gmail Blog. Google. Retrieved February 23, 2017.
- Manjoo, Farhad (May 4, 2009). "Maintaining A True Universal Inbox on Gmail Remains Elusive". The New York Times. Retrieved February 23, 2017.
- Pellereau, Emmanuel (July 30, 2009). "Send mail from another address without "on behalf of"". Official Gmail Blog. Google. Retrieved February 23, 2017.