Google Docs, Sheets and Slides(Redirected from Google Docs)
Google Docs, Google Sheets and Google Slides are a word processor, a spreadsheet and a presentation program respectively, all part of a free, web-based software office suite offered by Google within its Google Drive service. The three apps are available as web applications, and as mobile apps for Android and iOS. The apps are compatible with Microsoft Office file formats. The suite also consists of Google Forms (survey software), Google Drawings (diagramming software) and Google Fusion Tables (database manager; experimental).
The Google Docs, Sheets, and Slides icons
An example of a document in Google Docs
|Initial release||March 9, 2006|
|Operating system||Web, Android, iOS|
|Available in||83 languages|
|Initial release||October 31, 2012|
The suite allows users to create and edit files online while collaborating with other users in real-time. Edits are tracked by user with a revision history presenting changes. An editor's position is highlighted with an editor-specific color and cursor. A permissions system regulates what users can do. Updates have introduced features using machine learning, including "Explore", offering search results based on the contents of a document, answers based on natural language questions in a spreadsheet, and dynamic design suggestions based on contents of a slideshow, and "Action items", allowing users to assign tasks to other users.
While Google Docs has been criticized for lacking the functionality of Microsoft Office, it has received praise for its simplicity, ease of collaboration and frequent product updates.
Google Docs originated from two separate products, Writely and Google Spreadsheets.
Writely was a web-based word processor created by the software company Upstartle and launched in August 2005. It began as an experiment by programmers Sam Schillace, Steve Newman and Claudia Carpenter, trying out the then-new Ajax technology and the "content editable" function in browsers. On March 9, 2006, Google announced that it had acquired Upstartle.
Meanwhile, Google developed Google Spreadsheets using the technology it had acquired from 2Web Technologies in 2005 and launched Google Labs Spreadsheets on June 6, 2006, as the first public component of what would eventually become Google Sheets. It was initially made available to only a limited number of users, on a first-come, first-served basis. The limited test was later replaced with a beta version available to all Google Account holders, around the same time as an official announcement press release was issued.
In January 2010, Google Docs started allowing users to upload any file type up to 250 MB, with 1 GB of free space and paid storage available for $0.25 per GB per year. This cloud storage feature was eventually reworked when Google Drive was introduced in 2012. Google Drive now serves as the cloud storage service from Google, while Docs, Sheets and Slides serve as the office suite inside Google Drive.
In March 2010, Google acquired DocVerse, an online document collaboration company. DocVerse allowed multiple user online collaboration on Microsoft Office-compatible document formats such as Word, Excel, and PowerPoint. Improvements based on DocVerse were announced and deployed in April 2010.
In October 2012, Google Documents, Spreadsheets and Presentations were renamed Google Docs, Sheets and Slides, respectively. At the same time, Chrome apps were released, which provided shortcuts to the services on Chrome's new tab page. Google announced in August 2016 that support for Chrome apps would end on Microsoft Windows, Apple macOS, and Linux computers between 2017 and 2018.
Users can access all documents, spreadsheets and presentations, among other files, collectively through the Google Drive website. In June 2014, Google started rolling out dedicated website homepages for Docs, Sheets and Slides that contain only files created with each respective service.
In 2015, the mobile websites for Docs, Sheets and Slides were updated with "simpler, more uniform" interfaces for each, and while users can read files through the mobile websites, users trying to edit will be redirected towards the dedicated mobile apps, thus preventing editing on the mobile web.
In January 2017, Google announced that certain legacy versions of the Google Docs, Sheets and Slides mobile apps would be shut down on April 3, 2017, delivering a prompt that requires users to update to newer versions. App versions being shut down include:
- Docs versions for Android earlier than 1.6.292 and for iOS earlier than 1.2016.12204
- Sheets versions for Android earlier than 1.6.292 and for iOS earlier than 1.2016.12208
- Slides versions for Android earlier than 1.6.292 and for iOS earlier than 1.2016.12203
Collaboration and revision historyEdit
The suite serves as a collaborative tool for cooperative editing of documents, spreadsheets and presentations in real-time. Documents can be shared, opened, and edited by multiple users simultaneously and users are able to see character-by-character changes as other collaborators make edits. Changes are automatically saved to Google's servers, and a revision history is automatically kept so past edits may be viewed and reverted to. An editor's current position is represented with an editor-specific color/cursor, so if another editor happens to be viewing that part of the document they can see edits as they occur. A sidebar chat functionality allows collaborators to discuss edits. The revision history allows users to see the additions made to a document, with each author distinguished by color. Only adjacent revisions can be compared, and users cannot control how frequently revisions are saved. Files can be exported to a user's local computer in a variety of formats (ODF, HTML, PDF, RTF, Text, Office Open XML). Files can be tagged and archived for organizational purposes.
- In Google Docs, Explore shows relevant Google search results based on information in the document, simplifying information gathering. Users can also mark specific document text, press Explore and see search results based on the marked text only.
- In Google Sheets, Explore enables users to ask questions, such as "How many units were sold on Black Friday?", and Explore will return the answer, without requiring formula knowledge from the user.
- In Google Slides, Explore dynamically generates design suggestions based on the contents of each slide.
In December 2016, Google introduced a quick citations feature to Google Docs. The quick citation tool allows users to "insert citations as footnotes with the click of a button" on the web through the Explore feature introduced in September. The citation feature also marked the launch of the Explore functionalities in G Suite for Education accounts.
In June 2014, Google introduced "Suggested edits" in Google Docs; as part of the "commenting access" permission, participants can come up with suggestions for edits that the author can accept or reject, in contrary to full editing ability.
In October 2016, Google announced "Action items" to Docs, Sheets, and Slides. If a user writes phrases such as "Ryan to follow up on the keynote script", the respective service will intelligently assign that action to "Ryan". Google states this will make it easier for other collaborators to see which person is responsible for what task. When a user visits Google Drive, Docs, Sheets or Slides, any files with tasks assigned to them will be highlighted with a badge.
In March 2014, Google introduced add-ons; new tools from third-party developers that add more features for Google Docs and Google Sheets.
In order to view and edit documents, spreadsheets and presentations offline on a computer, users need to be using the Google Chrome web browser. A Chrome extension, Google Docs Offline, allows users to enable offline support for Docs, Sheets and Slides files on the Google Drive website.
Supported file formatsEdit
Files in the following formats can be viewed and converted to Docs, Sheets or Slides formats:
- For documents: .doc (if newer than Microsoft Office 95), .docx, .docm .dot, .dotx, .dotm, .html, plain text (.txt), .rtf, .odt
- For spreadsheets: .xls (if newer than Microsoft Office 95), .xlsx, .xlsm, .xlt, .xltx, .xltm .ods, .csv, .tsv, .txt, .tab
- For presentations: .ppt (if newer than Microsoft Office 95), .pptx, .pptm, .pps, .ppsx, .ppsm, .pot, .potx, .potm
- For drawings: .wmf
- For optical character recognition: .jpg, .gif, .png, .pdf
- Documents (Google Docs)
- Up to 1.02 million characters, regardless of the number of pages or font size. Document files converted to .gdoc Docs format cannot be larger than 50 MB. Images inserted cannot be larger than 50 MB, and must be in either .jpg, .png, or non-animated .gif formats.
- Spreadsheets (Google Sheets)
- Up to 2 million cells.
- Presentations (Google Slides)
- Presentation files converted to .gslides Slides format cannot be larger than 100 MB. Images inserted cannot be larger than 50 MB, and must be in either .jpg, .png, or non-animated .gif formats.
The Google Docs, Sheets, and Slides suite is free to use for individuals, but it is also available as part of the business-centered G Suite service by Google, which is a monthly subscription that enables additional business-focused functionality.
A simple find and replace tool is available.
Google Docs includes a web clipboard tool that allows users to copy and paste content between Google Docs, Sheets, Slides and Drawings. The web clipboard can also be used for copying and pasting content between different computers. Copied items are stored on Google's servers for up to 30 days. For most copying and pasting, Google Docs also supports keyboard shortcuts.
Google offers an extension for the Google Chrome web browser called Office editing for Docs, Sheets and Slides that enables users to view and edit Microsoft Office documents on Google Chrome, via the Docs, Sheets and Slides apps. The extension can be used for opening Office files stored on the computer using Chrome, as well as for opening Office files encountered on the web (in the form of email attachments, web search results, etc.) without having to download them. The extension is installed on Chrome OS by default.
Google Cloud Connect was a plug-in for Microsoft Office 2003, 2007 and 2010 that could automatically store and synchronize any Word document, PowerPoint presentation, or Excel spreadsheet to Google Docs (before the introduction of Drive) in Google Docs or Microsoft Office formats. The online copy was automatically updated each time the Microsoft Office document was saved. Microsoft Office documents could be edited offline and synchronized later when online. Google Cloud Connect maintained previous Microsoft Office document versions and allowed multiple users to collaborate by working on the same document at the same time.
However, Google Cloud Connect has been discontinued as of April 30, 2013, as Google Drive achieves all of the above tasks, with better results.
Google Forms and Google DrawingsEdit
Google Forms is a tool that allows collecting information from users via a personalized survey or quiz. The information is then collected and automatically connected to a spreadsheet. The spreadsheet is populated with the survey and quiz responses.
The Forms service has also received updates over the years. New features include, but are not limited to, menu search, shuffle of questions for randomized order, limiting responses to once per person, shorter URLs, custom themes, automatically generating answer suggestions when creating forms, and an "Upload file" option for users answering to share content through.
In October 2014, Google introduced add-ons for Google Forms, that enable third-party developers to make new tools for more features in surveys.
Google Drawings allows users to collaborate creating, sharing, and editing images or drawings. Google Drawings can be used for creating charts, diagrams, designs, flow-charts, etc. It contains a subset of the features in Google Slides but with different templates. Its features include laying out drawings precisely with alignment guides, snap to grid, auto distribution, and inserting drawings into other Google documents, spreadsheets, or presentations.
In a December 2016 review of the software suite, Edward Mendelsohn of PC Magazine wrote that the suite was "visually elegant" with "effortless collaboration", but that Docs, Sheets and Slides were "less powerful than desktop-based suites". Comparing Google's office suite with Microsoft's and Apple's, he stated that "Docs exists only in your Web browser", meaning that users have "more limited feature set" than "the spacious, high-powered setting of a desktop app". He wrote that offline support required a plug-in, describing it as "less convenient than a desktop app, and you have to remember to install it before you need it". Mendelsohn praised the user interface, describing it as "elegant, highly usable" with "fast performance", and that the revision history "alerts you to recent changes, and stores fine-grained records of revisions". Regarding the Explore functionality, he credited it for being the "niftiest new feature" in the suite and that it surpassed comparable features in Microsoft Office. He described the quality of imports of Office files as "impressive fidelity". In summarization, he praised the suite for having "the best balance of speed and power, and the best collaboration features, too", while noting that "it lacks a few features offered by Microsoft Office 365, but it was also faster to load and save in our testing". In 2011, Paul Sawers of The Next Web described Google Docs as a "pretty robust set of free tools that are improving every month". In a 2016 review of Google's G Suite business subscription service, Eric Grevstad of PC Magazine stated that Google Docs follows the "80/20" rule: "that is, 80 percent of users will never need more than 20 percent of the features".
2009 document sharing incidentEdit
In early March 2009, a privacy error caused documents to be shared without user consent. Google released a statement, specifying that "sharing was limited to people with whom you, or a collaborator with sharing rights, had previously shared a document." The issue was fixed by Google, and followed by a statement that "less than 0.05% of documents" had been affected by the issue. Furthermore, Google said it has "extensive safeguards in place to protect all documents, and are confident this was an isolated incident."
However, later the same month, security consultant Ade Barkah wrote on his blog about security issues with the software suite. Issues included that embedded images in private documents could be viewed publicly on the Internet (even after document deletion); when users got access to a document that included a diagram (a new feature at the time), the new user could see any previous version of the diagram (including any sensitive information that was removed before sharing); and in some scenarios, users who had access rights removed from a document could still access the document without the owner's knowledge. Google released a statement that it takes "the security of our users’ information very seriously", but "based on the information we’ve received, we do not believe there are significant security issues with Google Docs". The statement finished with, "We will share more information as soon as it’s available."
2017 phishing incidentEdit
In May 2017, a phishing attack impersonating a Google Docs sharing email spread on the Internet. The attack sent emails pretending to be someone the target knew, requesting to share a document with them. Once the link in the email was pressed, users were directed to a real Google account permissions page where the phishing software, a third-party app named "Google Docs", requested access to the user's Google account. Once granted, the software received access to the user's Gmail messages and address book, and sent new fraudulent document invitations to their contacts. The phishing attack was described by media outlets as "massive" and "widespread", and The Next Web's Napier Lopez wrote that it's "very easy to fall for". One of the reasons the attack was so effective was that its email messages passed through spam and security software, and used a real Google address. Within hours, the attack was stopped and fixed by Google, with a spokesperson stating that "We have taken action to protect users against an email impersonating Google Docs, and have disabled offending accounts. We’ve removed the fake pages, pushed updates through Safe Browsing, and our abuse team is working to prevent this kind of spoofing from happening again". On the same day, Google updated Gmail on Android to feature protection from phishing attacks. Media outlets noticed that, while the added protection was announced on the same day as the attack, it "may not have prevented this week’s attack, however, as that attack involved a malicious and fake “Google Docs” app that was hosted on Google’s own domain". In early May 2017, Ars Technica reported that "at least three security researchers" had raised issues about the threat, one of them in October 2011, and that the attacker or attackers behind the actual incident "may have copied the technique from a proof of concept posted by one security researcher to GitHub in February". Furthermore, the report noted that Google had been repeatedly warned by researchers about the potential threat, with security researcher Greg Carson telling Ars Technica that "I don't think Google fully understood how severely this could be abused, but certainly hackers did".
- "Google Docs". APKMirror. Android Police. April 11, 2017. Retrieved April 12, 2017.
- "Google Sheets". APKMirror. Android Police. April 10, 2017. Retrieved April 12, 2017.
- "Google Slides". APKMirror. Android Police. April 11, 2017. Retrieved April 12, 2017.
- "Google Docs". App Store. Apple Inc. April 19, 2017. Retrieved April 19, 2017.
- "Google Sheets". App Store. Apple Inc. April 19, 2017. Retrieved April 19, 2017.
- "Google Slides". App Store. Apple Inc. April 19, 2017. Retrieved April 19, 2017.
- Hill, Ian (June 18, 2013). "18 New Languages for Drive, Docs, Sheets, and Slides". Google Drive Blog. Google. Retrieved October 29, 2016.
- "About Fusion Tables". Fusion Tables Help. Google. Retrieved January 14, 2017.
- Sawers, Paul (September 2, 2011). "15 tips to get the most out of Google Docs". The Next Web. Retrieved March 27, 2017.
- Chang, Emily (October 5, 2005). "eHub Interviews Writely". eHub. Archived from the original on July 22, 2011. Retrieved October 29, 2016.
- Hamburger, Ellis (July 3, 2013). "Google Docs began as a hacked together experiment, says creator". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved October 29, 2016.
- Marshall, Matt (March 9, 2006). "Google acquires online word processor, Writely". VentureBeat. Retrieved June 1, 2017.
- Hinchcliffe, Dion (March 9, 2006). "It's official: Google acquires Writely". ZDNet. CBS Interactive. Retrieved June 1, 2017.
- "Google Announces limited test on Google Labs: Google Spreadsheets". Google. June 6, 2006. Retrieved October 29, 2016.
- Dawson, Christopher (October 30, 2010). "Google's 40 acquisitions in 2010: What about integration?". ZDNet. CBS Interactive. Retrieved June 1, 2017.
- Rochelle, Jonathan (June 6, 2006). "It's nice to share". Official Google Blog. Google. Retrieved October 29, 2016.
- "Google Announces Google Docs & Spreadsheets". Google. October 11, 2006. Retrieved October 29, 2016.
- Bodis, Attila (September 17, 2007). "Our feature presentation". Official Google Blog. Google. Retrieved October 30, 2016.
- Trapani, Gina (September 18, 2007). "Google Docs Adds Presentations". Lifehacker. Univision Communications. Retrieved October 30, 2016.
- Schillace, Sam (April 17, 2007). "We're expecting". Official Google Blog. Google. Retrieved December 11, 2016.
- Glotzbach, Matthew (July 7, 2009). "Google Apps is out of beta (yes, really)". Official Google Blog. Google. Retrieved October 30, 2016.
- Bangaru, Vijay (January 12, 2010). "Upload and store your files in the cloud with Google Docs". Google Drive Blog. Google. Retrieved December 14, 2016.
- Pichai, Sundar (April 24, 2012). "Introducing Google Drive... yes, really". Official Google Blog. Google. Retrieved October 30, 2016.
- Jackson, Rob (March 5, 2010). "Google Buys DocVerse For Office Collaboration: Chrome, Android & Wave Implications?". Phandroid. Retrieved October 20, 2016.
- Belomestnykh, Olga (April 15, 2010). "A rebuilt, more real time Google documents". Google Drive Blog. Google. Retrieved October 30, 2016.
- Warren, Alan (June 5, 2012). "Google + Quickoffice = get more done anytime, anywhere". Official Google Blog. Google. Retrieved October 30, 2016.
- Sawers, Paul (October 23, 2012). "Google Drive apps renamed "Docs, Sheets and Slides", now available in the Chrome Web Store". The Next Web. Retrieved October 30, 2016.
- Welch, Chris (August 19, 2016). "Google will end support for Chrome apps on Windows, Mac, and Linux". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved January 14, 2017.
- "System requirements and browsers". Docs editors Help. Google. Retrieved December 16, 2016.
- "Dedicated desktop home pages for Google Docs, Sheets & Slides". G Suite Updates. Google. June 25, 2014. Retrieved December 16, 2016.
- Levee, Brian (April 30, 2014). "New mobile apps for Docs, Sheets and Slides—work offline and on the go". Official Google Blog. Google. Retrieved December 16, 2016.
- Tabone, Ryan (June 25, 2014). "Work with any file, on any device, any time with new Docs, Sheets, and Slides". Google Drive Blog. Google. Retrieved December 16, 2016.
- "New Google Slides, Docs, and Sheets apps for iOS". G Suite Updates. Google. August 25, 2014. Retrieved December 16, 2016.
- "A new look for the Google Docs, Sheets, and Slides viewers on the mobile web". G Suite Updates. Google. July 27, 2015. Retrieved December 16, 2016.
- "Legacy versions of Google Drive, Docs, Sheets, and Slides mobile apps shutting down on April 3, 2017". G Suite Updates. Google. January 19, 2017. Retrieved January 20, 2017.
- "See the history of changes made to a file". Docs editors Help. Google. Retrieved February 20, 2017.
- Ranjan, Ritcha (September 29, 2016). "Explore in Docs, Sheets and Slides makes work a breeze — and makes you look good, too". Google Docs Blog. Google. Retrieved December 16, 2016.
- Novet, Jordan (September 29, 2016). "Google updates Calendar, Drive, Docs, Sheets, and Slides with machine intelligence features". VentureBeat. Retrieved December 16, 2016.
- Allan, Darren (September 30, 2016). "Google wants to better challenge Microsoft Office with these new features". TechRadar. Future plc. Retrieved December 16, 2016.
- Duddu, Sarveshwar (May 15, 2012). "Find facts and do research inside Google Documents". Official Google Cloud Blog. Google. Retrieved December 14, 2016.
- Robertson, Adi (May 15, 2012). "Google Docs Research sidebar looks up terms, adds images, quotes, and citations". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved December 14, 2016.
- Weber, Harrison (May 15, 2012). "Useful! Google Docs introduces new sidebar research tool". The Next Web. Retrieved December 14, 2016.
- "Quickly and easily cite your sources with Explore in Google Docs". G Suite Updates. Google. December 5, 2016. Retrieved December 6, 2016.
- Palmer, Jordan (December 5, 2016). "Explore in Google Docs gets new quick source citations". Android Police. Retrieved December 6, 2016.
- Garun, Natt (December 5, 2016). "Google Docs adds a quick citation button just in time for finals season". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved December 6, 2016.
- Lardinois, Frederic (June 1, 2017). "Google Sheets now uses machine learning to help you visualize your data". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved June 1, 2017.
- Carman, Ashley (June 1, 2017). "Google Sheets is making it easier to create charts through natural language commands". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 1, 2017.
- Weber, Ryan (October 19, 2016). "Five new ways to reach your goals faster with G Suite". The Keyword Google Blog. Google. Retrieved December 14, 2016.
- Gupta, Saurabh (March 11, 2014). "Bring a little something extra to Docs and Sheets with add-ons". Google Drive Blog. Google. Retrieved October 30, 2016.
- "Work on Google files offline". Drive Help. Google. Retrieved January 14, 2017.
- "Work on Google files offline". Drive Help. Google. Retrieved January 14, 2017.
- "Work on Google files offline". Drive Help. Google. Retrieved January 14, 2017.
- "Work with Office files". Docs editors Help. Google. Retrieved October 30, 2016.
- "Files you can store in Google Drive". Drive Help. Google. Retrieved October 22, 2016.
- "Insert or delete images or videos". Docs editors Help. Google. Retrieved October 22, 2016.
- "G Suite - Choose a Plan". Retrieved October 30, 2016.
- "Copy and paste text and images". Retrieved October 30, 2016.
- "Office Editing for Docs, Sheets & Slides". Chrome Web Store. Google. Retrieved October 30, 2016.
- Sinha, Shan (February 24, 2011). "Google Cloud Connect for Microsoft Office available to all". Google Drive Blog. Google. Retrieved October 30, 2016.
- White, Charlie (February 24, 2011). "Now Anyone Can Sync Google Docs & Microsoft Office". Mashable. Retrieved October 30, 2016.
- "Migrate from Google Cloud Connect to Google Drive". Apps Documentation and Support. Google. Archived from the original on March 17, 2013. Retrieved October 30, 2016.
- "Create a survey using Google Forms". Docs editors Help. Google. Retrieved October 30, 2016.
- "More ways to build and share Google Forms". G Suite Updates. Google. September 29, 2014. Retrieved December 12, 2016.
- "Custom themes in Google Forms". G Suite Updates. Google. September 2, 2014. Retrieved December 12, 2016.
- "Add-ons for Google Forms". G Suite Updates. Google. October 23, 2014. Retrieved December 12, 2016.
- "Create & edit drawings". Docs editors Help. Google. Retrieved October 30, 2016.
- Mendelsohn, Edward (December 6, 2016). "Google Docs, Sheets, and Slides". PC Magazine. Ziff Davis. Archived from the original on March 10, 2017. Retrieved March 27, 2017.
- Grevstad, Eric (October 17, 2016). "At Home With Google G Suite". PC Magazine. Ziff Davis. Retrieved March 27, 2017.
- Kincaid, Jason (March 7, 2009). "Google Privacy Blunder Shares Your Docs Without Permission". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved November 27, 2016.
- Ade (March 26, 2009). "Security issues with Google Docs". Peekay.org. Retrieved November 27, 2016.
- Wauters, Robin (March 26, 2009). "More Security Loopholes Found In Google Docs". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved November 27, 2016.
- Robertson, Adi (May 3, 2017). "Google Docs users hit with sophisticated phishing attack". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved May 4, 2017.
- Lopez, Napier (May 3, 2017). "Massive Google Docs phishing attack swept the internet today [Updated]". The Next Web. Retrieved May 4, 2017.
- Warren, Tom (May 3, 2017). "Google has fixed the massive Google Docs phishing attack". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved May 4, 2017.
- Levin, Sam (May 3, 2017). "Google Docs users hit with sophisticated phishing attack in their inboxes". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved May 4, 2017.
- Steinberg, Joseph (May 3, 2017). "Do Not Open the Google Docs Email You Receive Today: It May Be a Scam". Inc. Mansueto Ventures. Retrieved May 7, 2017.
- Morse, Andrew; Ng, Alfred (May 3, 2017). "Google shuts down massive Google Docs phishing scam". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved May 4, 2017.
- Lawler, Richard (May 4, 2017). "Now the Android Gmail app keeps an eye out for phishing links". Engadget. AOL. Retrieved May 4, 2017.
- Tung, Liam (May 4, 2017). "Google gives Android Gmail users new shady link warnings amid fake Docs attack". ZDNet. CBS Interactive. Retrieved May 4, 2017.
- Perez, Sarah (May 4, 2017). "Google adds phishing protection to Gmail on Android". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved May 4, 2017.
- Gallagher, Sean (May 5, 2017). "Google phishing attack was foretold by researchers—and it may have used their code". Ars Technica. Condé Nast. Retrieved May 9, 2017.