Harvey Lawrence Pekar (//; October 8, 1939 – July 12, 2010) was an American underground comic book writer, music critic, and media personality, best known for his autobiographical American Splendor comic series. In 2003, the series inspired a well-received film adaptation of the same name.
|Born||Harvey Lawrence Pekar|
October 8, 1939
Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.
|Died||July 12, 2010 (aged 70)|
Cleveland Heights, Ohio, U.S.
|Cause of death||Accidental drug overdose|
|Occupation||Comic book writer, filing clerk, music and literary critic|
|Notable works||American Splendor|
Our Cancer Year
(m. 1960; div. 1972)
Helen Lark Hall
(m. 1977; div. 1981)
Joyce Brabner (m. 1984)
|Children||Danielle Batone (foster child)|
Frequently described as the "poet laureate of Cleveland", Pekar "helped change the appreciation for, and perceptions of, the graphic novel, the drawn memoir, the autobiographical comic narrative." Pekar described his work as "autobiography written as it's happening. The theme is about staying alive, getting a job, finding a mate, having a place to live, finding a creative outlet. Life is a war of attrition. You have to stay active on all fronts. It's one thing after another. I've tried to control a chaotic universe. And it's a losing battle. But I can't let go. I've tried, but I can't."
Harvey Pekar and his younger brother Allen were born in Cleveland, Ohio, to a Jewish family. Their parents were Saul and Dora Pekar, immigrants from Białystok, Poland. Saul Pekar was a Talmudic scholar who owned a grocery store on Kinsman Avenue, with the family living above the store. Although Pekar said he wasn't close to his parents due to their dissimilar backgrounds and because they worked all the time, he still "marveled at how devoted they were to each other. They had so much love and admiration for one another."
Pekar said he did not have friends for the first few years of his life. The neighborhood he lived in had once been all white but became mostly black by the 1940s. One of the only white kids still living there, Pekar was often beaten up. He later believed this instilled in him "a profound sense of inferiority." This experience, however, also taught him to become a "respected street scrapper."
Pekar graduated from Shaker Heights High School in 1957. He then briefly served in the United States Navy. After being discharged he attended Case Western Reserve University, where he dropped out after a year. He worked odd jobs before he was hired as file clerk at the Veterans Administration Hospital in 1965. He held this job after becoming famous, refusing all promotions, until he retired in 2001.
Pekar was married from 1960 to 1972 to his first wife, Karen Delaney. His second wife was Helen Lark Hall, who appeared (as "Lark") in a number of early issues of American Splendor. (They married in 1977 and divorced in 1981.) Pekar's third wife (whom he married in 1984) was writer Joyce Brabner with whom he collaborated on Our Cancer Year, a graphic novel autobiography of his harrowing yet successful treatment for lymphoma. He lived in Cleveland Heights, Ohio, with Brabner and their foster daughter Danielle Batone.
Early comics workEdit
Pekar's friendship with Robert Crumb led to the creation of the self-published, autobiographical comic book series American Splendor. Crumb and Pekar became friends through their mutual love of jazz records. It took Pekar a decade to do so: "I theorized for maybe ten years about doing comics." Pekar's influences from the literary world included James Joyce, Arthur Miller, George Ade, Henry Roth, and Daniel Fuchs.
Around 1972, Pekar laid out some stories with crude stick figures and showed them to Crumb and another artist, Robert Armstrong. Impressed, they both offered to illustrate. Pekar & Crumb's one-pager "Crazy Ed" was published as the back cover of Crumb's The People's Comics (Golden Gate Publishing Company, 1972), becoming Pekar's first published work of comics. Including "Crazy Ed" and before the publication of American Splendor #1, Pekar wrote a number of other comic stories that were published in a variety of outlets:
- "Crazy Ed", with Robert Crumb, in The People's Comics (Golden Gate Publishing Company, 1972)
- "A Mexican Tale," with Greg Budgett and Munan, in Flaming Baloney X (Propaganda Ink, c. 1975)
- "It Pays to Advertise" with Willy Murphy, in Flamed-Out Funnies #1 (Keith Green, Aug. 1975)
- "Ain' It the Truth" with Willy Murphy, in Flamed-Out Funnies #1 (Keith Green, Aug. 1975)
- "The Boys on the Corner: A Good Shit Is Best" with Willy Murphy, in Flamed-Out Funnies #1 (Keith Green, Aug. 1975)
- "The Kinsman Cowboys: How'd Ya Get Inta This Bizness Ennyway?" with Greg Budgett & Gary Dumm, in Bizarre Sex #4 (Kitchen Sink Press, Oct. 1975)
- "Famous Street Fights: The Champ" with Robert Armstrong in Comix Book #4 (Kitchen Sink Press, Feb. 1976)
- "Don't Rain on My Parade" with Robert Armstrong in Snarf #6 (Kitchen Sink Press, Feb. 1976)
The first issue of Pekar's self-published American Splendor series appeared in May 1976, with stories illustrated by Crumb, Dumm, Budgett, and Brian Bram. American Splendor documented Pekar's daily life in the aging neighborhoods of his native Cleveland.
Pekar and his work came to greater prominence in 1986 when Doubleday collected much of the material from the first ten issues in American Splendor: The Life and Times of Harvey Pekar, which was positively reviewed by, among others, The New York Times. (1986 was also the year Pekar began appearing on Late Night with David Letterman.)
Pekar self-published 15 issues of American Splendor from 1976 to 1991 (issue #16 was co-published with Tundra Publishing). Dark Horse Comics took on the publishing and distribution of Pekar's comics from 1993 to 2003.
In 2006, Pekar released a four-issue American Splendor miniseries through the DC Comics imprint Vertigo. This was collected in the American Splendor: Another Day paperback. In 2008 Vertigo released a second four-issue "season" of American Splendor that was later collected in the American Splendor: Another Dollar paperback.
Pekar's best-known and longest-running collaborators include Crumb, Dumm, Budgett, Spain Rodriguez, Joe Zabel, Gerry Shamray, Frank Stack, Mark Zingarelli, and Joe Sacco. In the 2000s, he teamed regularly with artists Dean Haspiel and Josh Neufeld. Other cartoonists who worked with him include Jim Woodring, Chester Brown, Alison Bechdel, Gilbert Hernandez, Eddie Campbell, David Collier, Drew Friedman, Ho Che Anderson, Rick Geary, Ed Piskor, Hunt Emerson, Bob Fingerman, and Alex Wald; as well as such non-traditional illustrators as Pekar's wife, Joyce Brabner, and comics writer Alan Moore.
In addition to his autobiographical work on American Splendor, Pekar wrote a number of biographies. The first of these, American Splendor: Unsung Hero (Dark Horse Comics, 2003), illustrated by David Collier, documented the Vietnam War experience of Robert McNeill, one of Pekar's African-American coworkers at Cleveland's VA hospital.
Stories from the American Splendor comics have been collected in many books and anthologies.
American Splendor filmEdit
A film adaptation of American Splendor was released in 2003, directed by Robert Pulcini and Shari Springer Berman. It starred Paul Giamatti as Pekar, as well as appearances by Pekar himself (and his wife Joyce, foster daughter Danielle, and co-worker Toby Radloff). American Splendor won the Grand Jury Prize for Dramatic Film at the 2003 Sundance Film Festival, in addition to the award for Best Adapted Screenplay from the Writers Guild of America. At the 2003 Cannes Film Festival, the film received the FIPRESCI critics award. American Splendor was given the Guardian New Directors Award at the 2003 Edinburgh International Film Festival. It was also nominated for Best Adapted Screenplay at the 2003 Academy Awards. Pekar wrote about the effects of the film in American Splendor: Our Movie Year.
Other comics workEdit
In 2006, Ballantine/Random House published his biography Ego & Hubris: The Michael Malice Story about the life of Michael Malice, founding editor of Overheard in New York. In June 2007, Pekar collaborated with student Heather Roberson and artist Ed Piskor on the book Macedonia, which centers on Roberson's studies in that country. In January 2008 the biographical Students for a Democratic Society: A Graphic History was published by Hill & Wang. In March 2009, he published The Beats, a history of the Beat Generation, including Jack Kerouac and Allen Ginsberg, illustrated by Ed Piskor. In May 2009 he published Studs Terkel's Working: A Graphic Adaptation.
In 2010, Pekar started the webcomic The Pekar Project with the online magazine Smith. In 2011, Abrams Comicarts published Yiddishkeit, co-edited by Pekar with Paul Buhle and Hershl Hartman. The book depicts aspects of Yiddish language and culture. Artists in this anthology include many of Pekar's previous collaborators.
Pekar was an assiduous record collector as well as a freelance book and jazz critic, focusing on significant figures from jazz's golden age but also championing out-of-mainstream artists such as Scott Fields, Fred Frith and Joe Maneri. He published his first criticism in The Jazz Review in 1959. Pekar wrote hundreds of articles for DownBeat, JazzTimes, The Village Voice, and The Austin Chronicle; as well as liner notes for Verve Records and other labels.
Theater, music and media appearancesEdit
Pekar's comic book success led to a guest appearance on Late Night with David Letterman on October 15, 1986. Pekar was invited back repeatedly and made five more appearances in quick succession. These appearances were notable for verbal altercations between Pekar and Letterman, particularly on the subject of General Electric's ownership of NBC. The most heated of these was in the August 31, 1988, episode of Late Night, in which Pekar accused Letterman of appearing to be a shill for General Electric and Letterman promised never to invite Pekar back on the show. However, Pekar did appear on Late Night again on April 20, 1993, and appeared on the Late Show With David Letterman in 1994.
He appeared in Alan Zweig's 2000 documentary film about record collecting, Vinyl. In August 2007, Pekar was featured on the Cleveland episode of Anthony Bourdain: No Reservations with host Anthony Bourdain.
While American Splendor theater adaptations had previously occurred, in 2009, Pekar made his theatrical debut with Leave Me Alone!, a jazz opera for which Pekar wrote the libretto. Leave Me Alone! featured music by Dan Plonsey and was co-produced by Real Time Opera and Oberlin College, premiering at Finney Chapel on January 31, 2009.
Death and work released posthumouslyEdit
Shortly before 1 a.m. on July 12, 2010, Pekar's wife found Pekar dead in their Cleveland Heights, Ohio, home. No immediate cause was determined. In October the Cuyahoga County coroner's office ruled it was an accidental overdose of antidepressants fluoxetine and bupropion. Pekar had been diagnosed with cancer for the third time and was about to undergo treatment.
Some Pekar works were to be released posthumously, including two collaborations with Joyce Brabner, The Big Book of Marriage and Harvey and Joyce Plumb the Depths of Depression, as well as a collection of the webcomics that ran as a part of The Pekar Project. As of 2019, however, none of those projects have yet seen print. Working with illustrator Summer McClinton, Pekar also finished a book on American Marxist Louis Proyect tentatively called The Unrepentant Marxist, after Proyect's blog. In the works since 2008, the book was to be published by Random House. After a conflict between Proyect and Joyce Brabner, Brabner announced that she would hold the book back indefinitely.
In December 2010, the last story Pekar wrote, "Harvey Pekar Meets the Thing", in which Pekar has a conversation with Ben Grimm, was published in the Marvel Comics anthology Strange Tales II; the story was illustrated by Ty Templeton.
Four Pekar-authored graphic novels have been released since his death:
- Yiddishkeit: Jewish Vernacular and the New Land, co-edited with Paul Buhle
- Huntington, West Virginia: "On the Fly", with Summer McClinton
- Not the Israel My Parents Promised Me, with JT Waldman
- Harvey Pekar's Cleveland, with Joseph Remnant
"I think probably the most important thing about American Splendor, in all its incarnations, is that there were very few people in the earlier days of comics prepared to put their work where their mouth was. Harvey believed there was no limit to how good comics could be. To chronicle his life from these tiny wonderful moments of magic and of heartbreak — and the most important thing was that he did it."
Frequently described as the "poet laureate of Cleveland," Pekar "helped change the appreciation for, and perceptions of, the graphic novel, the drawn memoir, the autobiographical comic narrative."
His American Splendor "remains one of the most compelling and transformative series in the history of comics." In addition, Pekar was the first author to publicly distribute "memoir comic books." While it is common today for people to publicly write about their lives on blogs, social media platforms, and in graphic novels, "In the mid-seventies, Harvey Pekar was doing all this before it was ubiquitous and commercialized."
- 1986: Inkpot Award
- 1987: American Book Award for American Splendor: The Life and Times of Harvey Pekar
- 1995: Harvey Award Best Graphic Album of Original Work (for Our Cancer Year)
- 2000: PRNDI (Public Radio News Directors Incorporated) Commentary/Essay first prize for the essay, "What's in a Name"
- 2001: RTNDA (Radio-Television News Directors Association) Regional Edward R. Murrow Award for Best Writing for the essay, "Father's Day"
- 2011: Eisner Award Hall of Fame
- American Splendor: The Life and Times of Harvey Pekar (Doubleday, 1986)
- More American Splendor (Doubleday, 1987) ISBN 0-385-24073-2
- The New American Splendor Anthology (Four Walls Eight Windows, 1991) ISBN 0-941423-64-6
- Our Cancer Year, with Joyce Brabner and Frank Stack (Four Walls Eight Windows, 1994) ISBN 1-56858-011-8
- American Splendor Presents: Bob & Harv's Comics, with R. Crumb (Four Walls Eight Windows, 1996) ISBN 1-56858-101-7
- American Splendor: Unsung Hero, with David Collier (Dark Horse Comics, 2003) ISBN 1-59307-040-3
- American Splendor: Our Movie Year (Ballantine Books, 2004) ISBN 0-345-47937-8
- Best of American Splendor (Ballantine Books, 2005) ISBN 0-345-47938-6
- The Quitter, with Dean Haspiel (DC/Vertigo, 2005) ISBN 1-4012-0399-X
- Ego & Hubris: The Michael Malice Story, with Gary Dumm (Ballantine Books, 2006) ISBN 0-345-47939-4
- Macedonia, with Heather Roberson and Ed Piskor (Ballantine Books, 2006) ISBN 0-345-49899-2
- American Splendor: Another Day (DC/Vertigo, 2007) ISBN 978-1-4012-1235-3
- Students for a Democratic Society: A Graphic History, edited by Paul Buhle, with art (mostly) by Gary Dumm (Hill & Wang, 2008) ISBN 978-0-8090-9539-1
- American Splendor: Another Dollar (DC/Vertigo, 2009) ISBN 978-1-4012-2173-7
- The Beats: A Graphic History, mostly by Pekar with contributions by other writers (including Joyce Brabner). Art mostly by Ed Piskor, with additional art by Jay Kinney, Nick Thorkelson, Summer McClinton, Peter Kuper, Mary Fleener, Gary Dumm, Lance Tooks, Jeffrey Lewis, and others. Edited by Paul Buhle (Hill & Wang, 2009) ISBN 978-0-285-63858-7
- Studs Terkel's Working: A Graphic Adaptation, edited by Paul Buhle. With art by Sharon Rudahl, Terry LaBan, Gary Dumm, Peter Gullerud, Pablo G. Callejo, et al. (The New Press, 2009) ISBN 978-1-59558-321-5
- Yiddishkeit: Jewish Vernacular and the New Land, co-edited with Paul Buhle. With art by Barry Deutsch, Peter Kuper, Spain Rodriguez, Sharon Rudahl, et al. (Harry N. Abrams, 2011) ISBN 978-0-8109-9749-3
- Huntington, West Virginia: "On the Fly", with Summer McClinton (Villard, 2011) ISBN 978-0-345-49941-7
- Not the Israel My Parents Promised Me, with JT Waldman. Epilogue by Joyce Brabner. (Hill & Wang, 2012) ISBN 978-0-8090-9482-0
- Harvey Pekar's Cleveland, illustrated by Joseph Remnant. Introduction by Alan Moore. Edited by Jeff Newelt (ZIP Comics and Top Shelf Productions, 2012) ISBN 978-1-60309-091-9
- Circus Parade by Jim Tully. Foreword by Harvey Pekar. Introduction by Paul J. Bauer and Mark Dawidziak. (Kent State Univ. Press, 2009) 978-1-60635-001-0
- "United States Social Security Death Index," index, FamilySearch Familysearch.org Accessed 19 Mar 2013, Harvey L Pekar, 12 July 2010.
- Bourdain, Anthony (July 13, 2010). "The Original (Goodbye Splendor)". Travel Channel.
- "Harvey Pekar Dies: Comic book writer was 'poet laureate of Cleveland'" by Marc Tracy, Tablet, July 12, 2010
- "HARVEY PEKAR: Remembering the man — and legacy — one year later" by Michael Cavna, The Washington Post, 7/13/2011
- "Harvey Pekar" (obituary), The Daily Telegraph, July 13, 2010
- Schumer, Arlen. "The 13 Most Influential Jewish Creators and Execs, PART 4," 13th Dimension (Sep 22, 2015).
- Connors, Joanna (July 12, 2010). "Cleveland Comic-Book Legend Harvey Pekar Dead at Age 70". The Plain Dealer. Cleveland, Ohio. Archived from the original on August 4, 2010.
He was recently diagnosed with prostate cancer, and also suffered high blood pressure, asthma and clinical depression, which fueled his art but often made his life painful.
- Pekar, Harvey; Remnant, Joseph (illustrations) (2012). Cleveland. Zip Comics and Top Shelf Productions. p. 53.
- "Exclusive: A Smorgasbord of Art and Comics Celebrating Harvey Pekar's Yiddishkeit | Heeb". Heebmagazine.com. Retrieved April 24, 2012.
- Cleveland by Harvey Pekar, illustrated by Joseph Remnant, Zip Comics and Top Shelf Productions, 2012, page 42.
- "Grimes, William (July 12, 2010). "Harvey Pekar, 'American Splendor' Creator, Dies at 70". The New York Times.
- Pekar entry, Britannica Book of the Year 2011 (Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., 2011), p. 149.
- Rhode, Michael G., editor. Harvey Pekar: Conversations (Conversations with Comic Artists Series) (University Press of Mississippi, 2008), pp. xiii-xiv.
- Connors, Joanna (July 12, 2010). "Harvey Pekar, Cleveland comic-book legend, dies at age 70". The Plain Dealer. Cleveland.com.
- Ulaby, Neda (July 12, 2010). "Harvey Pekar Dies; Authored 'American Splendor'". NPR.
- "Who is Harvey Pekar?" Archived July 11, 2006, at the Wayback Machine, WKSU.org
- "Harvey Pekar" Archived March 1, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, Metajam.mobi
- American Splendor: Harvey Pekar, Paul Giamatti, Shari Springer Berman, and Robert Pulcini, Charlie Rose (August 19, 2003).
- Rhode. Harvey Pekar: Conversations, p. 19.
- Rosenthal, David. "THE COSMIS MEETS THE ORDINARY. POW!," New York Times (May 11, 1986).
- Irvine, Alex (2008). "American Splendor". In Dougall, Alastair (ed.). The Vertigo Encyclopedia. New York: Dorling Kindersley. p. 21. ISBN 0-7566-4122-5. OCLC 213309015.
- "FIPRESCI - Awards: 2003". Retrieved January 2, 2018.
- Pulver, Andrew. "The albino, the mineshaft or the comic-book artist?", The Guardian (August 25, 2003).
- "The Voice of the City". Overheard in New York. Retrieved April 24, 2012.
- "Sequart Research & Literacy Organization Columns – High-Low #15: Pekar, Piskor and a Preview of Macedonia". Sequart.com. Retrieved April 24, 2012.
- "The Pekar Project". Smithmag.net. Retrieved July 12, 2010.
- Tucker, Ken. "Harvey Pekar, a great writer, comics innovator: His splendid American life is over," EW (July 12, 2010).
- Ramsey, Doug. "Harvey Pekar, Jazz Critic," ArtsJournal: Rifftides (July 14, 2010).
- Park, Ed. "Losing His Voice," Village Voice (JULY 29, 2003): "John O’Brien, ... editor of The Review of Contemporary Fiction, home to many of Pekar’s articles..."
- "About Harvey Pekar," Ego & Hubris: The Michael Malice Story official website. Accessed July 29, 2019.
- Hynes, James. "The Big Shill," In These Times (SEPTEMBER 21, 1988).
- "David Letterman brought Harvey Pekar, his Cleveland cool and a big blow-up to 'Late Night'". cleveland.com.
- "SHOOTING MYSELF IN THE MIRROR: The Obsessive Cinema of Alan Zweig". Winnipeg Film Group. Archived from the original on February 7, 2011. Retrieved February 12, 2011.
- "Harvey Pekar Meets Anthony Bourdain". Potrzebie.blogspot.com. August 18, 2007. Retrieved April 24, 2012.
- Kistler, Alan (July 13, 2010). "Harvey Pekar: A Timeline of a Comic Book Icon – ComicsAlliance | Comic book culture, news, humor, commentary, and reviews". ComicsAlliance. Archived from the original on May 14, 2012. Retrieved April 24, 2012.
- "NPR: Harvey Pekar Makes His Opera Debut". NPR.org. Retrieved April 16, 2014.
- "The Cartoonist: Jeff Smith, Bone and the Changing Face of Comics". Thecartoonistmovie.com. Archived from the original on August 15, 2012. Retrieved July 12, 2010.
- Grimes, William (July 12, 2010). "Harvey Pekar, 'American Splendor' Creator, Dies at 70". The New York Times. Retrieved September 2, 2010.
A spokesman for the Cuyahoga County coroner's office said that no cause of death had yet been determined. Capt. Michael Cannon of the Cleveland Heights Police Department, which was summoned to Mr. Pekar's home by his wife, Joyce Brabner, told The Associated Press that Mr. Pekar had suffered from prostate cancer, asthma, high blood pressure and depression.
- Galbinca, Pat (October 20, 2010). "Coroner rules that Harvey Pekar's death due to 'natural causes'". The Plain Dealer. Cleveland, Ohio. Retrieved October 20, 2010.
- Grzegorek, Vince (October 19, 2011). "Harvey Pekar Memorial Will Be at Library, Not Lake View Cemetery". Cleveland Scene. Retrieved January 2, 2020.
- Itzkoff, Dave (September 1, 2010). "The Unsettled Afterlife of Harvey Pekar". The New York Times.
- Dueben, Alex (October 19, 2010). "NYCC: Remembering Harvey Pekar". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on January 9, 2014. Retrieved January 9, 2014. Archive version requires blocking-off text in order to make black-on-black text visible.
- "Articles tagged 'Pekar' on Louis Proyect's blog, Unrepentant Marxist". Unrepentant Marxist. Retrieved April 7, 2014.
- What I Bought (15 December 2010), by Greg Burgas, at Comic Book Resources; published 17 December 2010; retrieved 25 June 2014
- "The Reading Life: Harvey Pekar's Jewish question" by David L. Ulin, Jacket Copy, The LA Times, July 12, 2012.
- "Graphic Memoir: The Legacy of Harvey Pekar" by JT Waldman, The Prosen People, The Jewish Book Council, July 3, 2012.
- Harvey Pekar Estate. "Harvey Pekar Library Statue: Comics as Art & Literature Desk," KickStarter. Funding period: Nov. 2, 2011 - Dec. 5, 2011.
- "Harvey Pekar statue unveiled at library is tribute to the late graphic novelist from Cleveland" by Tom Breckenridge, The Plain Dealer, October 14, 2012.
- "The Harvey Awards". The Harvey Awards. Archived from the original on July 16, 2010. Retrieved July 12, 2010.
- "Dirks, Lucey Chosen for Eisner Hall of Fame". comic-con.org. San Diego Comic-Con International. 2012. Archived from the original on May 24, 2012. Retrieved March 7, 2017.
- Harvey Pekar on IMDb
- Interview on The Sound of Young America: MP3 Link
- Article by James Hynes about Pekar's last appearance on Late Night with David Letterman
- "I Don't Know, Man — A Tribute to Harvey Pekar" at Scholars and Rogues, October 8, 2010
- November 10, 2005 Interview on Fresh Air with Terry Gross
- Boppin' With Pekar, a one-hour public radio program on jazz history with Harvey Pekar, Jerry Zolten, and Phoebe Gloeckner
- on YouTube
- "Harvey Pekar dead: American Splendor comic writer was 70" Terence McArdle, The Washington Post, July 13, 2010