Non-Hispanic or Latino whites

  (Redirected from Non-Hispanic Whites)

Non-Hispanic whites or Non-Latino whites (also referred to as Anglo-Americans)[4][5][6] are European Americans, Middle Eastern Americans, and North African Americans as defined by the United States Census Bureau.[7][8] Americans of European ancestry represent ethnic groups and more than half of the white population are German, Irish, English, Italian and Polish Americans.

Non-Latino whites
White, not Latino
Non-Hispanic White Americans by state.svg
Total population
191,697,647
57.8% of the total US population (2020)[1] 204,300,000 (White Alone)
61.6% of the total US population (2020)[2]
Regions with significant populations
Throughout the United States, less common in California
Languages
Predominantly American English, with local minorities who speak American French (Louisiana, Vermont, Maine, New Hampshire), and immigrant languages (Russian, Italian, German , Polish and Greek[3])
Religion
Predominantly Protestant Christianity; minorities practice Catholicism, Judaism, and other faiths
Related ethnic groups
European Americans
European diaspora

In the United States, this population was first derived from English (and, to a lesser degree, French) settlement of the Americas, as well as settlement by other Europeans such as the Germans and Dutch that began in the 17th century (see History of the United States). Continued growth since the early 19th century is attributed to sustained very high birth rates alongside relatively low death rates among settlers and natives alike as well as periodically massive immigration from European countries, especially Germany, Ireland, England, Italy, Greece, the Netherlands, France and Wales, as well as Poland, Russia, and many more countries. It typically refers to an English-speaking American in distinction to Spanish speakers in Mexico and the Southwestern states.[9]

HistoryEdit

The first Europeans who came to North America were Norse explorers around the year 1000, however they ultimately were absorbed and killed off, leaving no permanent settlements behind.[10] Later, Pilgrims and colonists came in the 1600s along the East Coast, mainly from England, in search of economic opportunities and religious freedom.[11] Over time emigrants from Europe settled the coastal regions developing a commercial economy. Between one-half and two-thirds of white immigrants to the American colonies between the 1630s and American Revolution had come as indentured servants.[12] The total number of European immigrants to all 13 colonies before 1775 was about 500,000; of these 55,000 were involuntary prisoners. Of the 450,000 or so European arrivals who came voluntarily, an estimated 48% were indentured.[13]

By the time of American Revolution there were about 2.5 million whites in the colonies.[14] The white population was largely of English, Irish, Scotch-Irish, Scottish, German, Dutch and French Huguenot descent at the time.[15] Between the revolution and the 1820s there was relatively little immigration to the United States. Starting after the 1820s large scale migration to the United States began and lasted until the 1920s.[16] Many of the newcomers were Catholics of Irish,[17] Italian,[18] and Polish[19] descent which lead to a nativist backlash. Some Americans worried about the growing Catholic population and wanted to maintain the United States as an Anglo Saxon Protestant nation.[20][21] Over the course of the 19th and early 20th century European mass emigration to the United States and high birthrates grew the white population.[22][23][24] After the American Revolution, white Americans settled the entire nation west of Appalachian Mountains, ultimately displacing the Natives and populating the entire country by the late 19th century. All immigration to the United States declined markedly between the mid 1920s until the 1960s due to a combination of immigration laws, The Great Depression, and The Second World War.[25] Waves of Jewish, Syrian, and Lebanese immigration also occurred around this time.[26][27][28]

Since 1965 white migration to the United States has been relatively minor compared to other racial and ethnic groups. During the 1990s there was a moderate increase from former communist countries in Eastern Europe.[29] At the same time birthrates amongst whites have fallen below replacement level.[30]

CultureEdit

White Americans have developed their own music, art, cuisine, fashion, and political economy largely based on a combination of traditional European ones.[31][32] Most religious white Americans are Christian.[33] Many Europeans often Anglicized their names and over time most Europeans adopted English as their primary language and intermarried with other white groups.[34][35]

Population stagnation and declineEdit

The falling percentage of non-Latino white Americans is due to multiple factors:

1. Immigration. The United States has the largest number of immigrants in the world with the vast majority coming from countries where the population is of non-white and/or Latin American origin. Immigration to the United States from European countries has been in a steady decline since World War II averaging 56% of all immigrants in the 1950s and declining to 35% of all immigrants in the 1960s, 20% in the 1970s, 11% in the 1980s, 14% in the 1990s, and 13% in the 2000s. In 2009, approximately 90% of all immigrants came from non-European countries.[36] The United States does receive a small number of non-Latino white immigrants, mainly from countries such as Canada, Poland, Russia, and the UK.[37]

2. Intermarriage. The United States is seeing an unprecedented increase in intermarriage between the various racial and ethnic groups. In 2008, a record 14.6% of all new marriages in the United States were between spouses of a different race or ethnicity from one another. 9% of non-Latino whites who married in 2008 married either a non-white or Latino. Among all newlyweds in 2008, intermarried pairings were primarily white-Latino of any race (41%) as compared to white-Asian (15%), white-black (11%), and other combinations (33%). Other combinations consists of pairings between different minority groups, multi-racial people, and Native Indigenous Americans.[38] The children of such unions would not automatically be classified as white non-Latino. Note that one self-identifies his or her racial and/or ethnic category.

3. Methodology. In the 2000 Census, people were allowed to check more than one race in addition to choosing "Latino". There was strong opposition to this from some civil rights activists who feared that this would reduce the size of various racial minorities. The government responded by counting those who are white and of one minority race or ethnicity as minorities for the purposes of civil-rights monitoring and enforcement. Hence one could be 1/8th black and still be counted as a minority.[39] Also, because this does not apply to Latino origin (one is either Latino or not, but cannot be both Latino and non-Latino), the offspring of Latinos and non-Latinos are usually counted as Latino.[40] In 2017, the Pew Research Center reported that high intermarriage rates and declining Latin American immigration has led to 11% of US adults with Latino ancestry (5.0 million people) to no longer identify as Latino.[41] First generation immigrants from Latin America identify as Latino at very high rates (97%) which reduces in each succeeding generation, second generation (92%), third generation (77%), and fourth generation (50%).[41]

4. Attrition. Minority populations are younger than non-Latino whites. The national median age in 2011 was 37.3 with non-Latino whites having the oldest median age (42.3) while Latinos have the youngest (27.6). Non-Latino blacks (32.9) and non-Latino Asians (35.9) also are younger than whites.[42] In 2013, the Census Bureau reported that for the first time, due to the more advanced age profile of the non-Latino white population, non-Latino whites died at a faster rate than non-Latino white births.[43]

Although non-Latino whites are declining as a percentage, in actual numbers they have still been growing. From 2000 - 2010 the non-Latino white population grew from 194,552,774 to 196,817,552. This was a growth of 1.2% over the 10-year period, due to residual population momentum.[44]

In 2011, for the first time in US history, Anglo Americans accounted for under half of the births in the country, with 49.6% of total births.[45] This rebounded to over 50% by 2016 according to the NCHIS[46] and was still over 50% as of 2019. In addition to this, between 2016-2019, the birthrate of Latinos dropped exactly twice as much as that of non-Latino whites (0.7 vs 0.14). Before 2016, at least, 50% of children under age one had at least one parent of color or at least one parent who is white Latino.[47][48]

Population by settlementEdit

White non-Latino population by state or territory (1990–2020)[49][50][51][52][53]
State/Territory Pop 1990 % pop
1990
Pop 2000 % pop
2000
Pop 2010 % pop
2010
Pop 2020 % pop
2020
% growth
2010-2020
% pop
1990-2020
  Alabama 2,960,167 73.3% 3,125,819 70.3% 3,204,402 67.0% 3,171,351 65.3% -1.0% -11.0%
  Alaska 406,722 73.9% 423,788 67.6% 455,320 64.1% 421,758 57.5% -7.4% -22.2%
  Arizona 2,626,185 71.7% 3,274,258 63.8% 3,695,647 57.8% 3,816,547 53.4% +13.9% -25.5%
  Arkansas 1,933,082 82.2% 2,100,135 78.6% 2,173,469 74.5% 2,063,550 68.5% -5.0% -16.7%
  California 17,029,126 57.2% 15,816,790 46.7% 14,956,253 40.1% 13,714,587 34.7% -8.3% -39.3%
  Colorado 2,658,945 80.7% 3,202,880 74.5% 3,520,793 70.0% 3,760,663 65.1% +6.8% -19.3%
  Connecticut 2,754,184 83.8% 2,638,845 77.5% 2,546,262 71.2% 2,279,232 63.2% -10.5% -24.6%
  Delaware 528,092 79.3% 567,973 72.5% 586,752 65.3% 579,851 58.6% -1.2% -26.1%
  District of Columbia 166,131 27.4% 159,178 27.8% 209,464 34.8% 261,771 38.0% +25.0% +38.7%
  Florida 9,475,326 73.2% 10,458,509 65.4% 10,884,722 57.9% 11,100,503 51.5% +1.2% -29.6%
  Georgia 4,543,425 70.1% 5,128,661 62.6% 5,413,920 55.9% 5,362,156 50.1% -1.0% -28.5%
  Hawaii 347,644 31.4% 277,091 22.9% 309,343 22.7% 314,365 21.6% +1.6% -31.2%
  Idaho 928,661 92.2% 1,139,291 88.0% 1,316,243 84.0% 1,450,523 81.7% +10.2% -11.4%
  Illinois 8,550,208 74.8% 8,424,140 67.8% 8,167,753 63.7% 7,472,751 58.3% -8.5% -22.1%
  Indiana 4,965,242 89.6% 5,219,373 85.8% 5,286,453 81.5% 5,266,034 75.5% -7.4% -15.7%
  Iowa 2,663,840 95.9% 2,710,344 92.6% 2,701,123 88.7% 2,638,201 82.7% -6.8% -10.9%
  Kansas 2,190,524 88.4% 2,233,997 83.1% 2,230,539 78.2% 2,122,575 72.2% -4.9% -18.3%
  Kentucky 3,378,022 91.7% 3,608,013 89.3% 3,745,655 86.3% 3,664,764 81.3% -2.2% -11.3%
  Louisiana 2,776,022 65.8% 2,794,391 62.5% 2,734,884 60.3% 2,596,702 55.8% -5.1% -15.2%
  Maine 1,203,357 98.0% 1,230,297 96.5% 1,254,297 94.4% 1,245,632 90.2% -2.1% -8.0%
  Maryland 3,326,109 69.6% 3,286,547 62.1% 3,157,958 54.7% 3,035,979 47.2% -7.7% -32.2%
  Massachusetts 5,280,292 87.8% 5,198,359 81.9% 4,984,800 76.1% 4,748,897 67.6% -4.7% -23.0%
  Michigan 7,649,951 82.3% 7,806,691 78.6% 7,569,939 76.6% 7,295,651 72.4% -3.6% -12%
  Minnesota 4,101,266 93.7% 4,337,143 88.2% 4,405,142 83.1% 4,353,880 79.4% -1.2% -15.3%
  Mississippi 1,624,198 63.1% 1,727,908 60.7% 1,722,287 58.0% 1,639,077 55.4% -4.8% -12.2%
  Missouri 4,448,465 86.9% 4,686,474 83.8% 4,850,748 81.0% 4,663,907 75.8% -3.9% -12.8%
  Montana 733,878 91.8% 807,823 89.5% 868,628 87.8% 901,318 83.1% +3.8% -9.5%
  Nebraska 1,460,095 92.5% 1,494,494 87.3% 1,499,753 82.1% 1,484,687 75.7% -1.0% -28.2%
  Nevada 946,357 78.7% 1,303,001 65.2% 1,462,081 54.1% 1,425,952 45.9% -3.5% -41.7%
  New Hampshire 1,079,484 97.3% 1,175,252 95.1% 1,215,050 92.3% 1,200,649 87.2% -1.2% -10.4%
  New Jersey 5,718,966 74.0% 5,557,209 66.0% 5,214,878 59.3% 4,863,535 51.8% -7.6% -30%
  New Mexico 764,164 50.4% 813,495 44.7% 833,810 40.5% 772,952 36.5% -7.3% -26.6%
  New York 12,460,189 69.3% 11,760,981 62.0% 11,304,247 58.3% 10,598,907 52.5% -6.4% -24.2%
  North Carolina 4,971,127 75.0% 5,647,155 70.2% 6,223,995 65.3% 6,312,148 60.5% +1.4% -19.3 pp
  North Dakota 601,592 94.2% 589,149 91.7% 598,007 88.9% 636,160 81.7% +6.4% -13.1%
  Ohio 9,444,622 87.1% 9,538,111 84.0% 9,359,263 81.1% 8,954,135 75.9% -4.3% -12.9%
  Oklahoma 2,547,588 81.0% 2,556,368 74.1% 2,575,381 68.7% 2,407,188 60.8% -6.5% -25%
  Oregon 2,579,732 90.8% 2,857,616 83.5% 3,005,848 78.5% 3,036,158 71.7% +1.0% -21.0%
  Pennsylvania 10,422,058 87.7% 10,322,455 84.1% 10,094,652 79.5% 9,725,769 73.5% -5.4% -16.2%
  Rhode Island 896,109 89.3% 858,433 81.9% 803,685 76.4% 754,050 68.7% -6.2% -23.1%
  South Carolina 2,390,056 68.5% 2,652,291 66.1% 2,962,740 64.1% 3,178,552 62.1% +7.3% -9.3%
  South Dakota 634,788 91.2% 664,585 88.0% 689,502 84.7% 705,583 79.6% +2.3% -12.7%
  Tennessee 4,027,631 82.6% 4,505,930 79.2% 4,800,782 75.6% 4,900,246 70.9% +2.1% -14.2%
  Texas 10,291,680 60.6% 10,933,313 52.4% 11,397,345 45.3% 11,884,773 39.7% +1.6% -34.5%
  Utah 1,571,254 91.2% 1,904,265 85.3% 2,221,719 80.4% 2,465,355 75.4% +11.0% -17.3%
  Vermont 552,184 98.1% 585,431 96.2% 590,223 94.3% 573,201 89.1% -2.9% -9.2%
  Virginia 4,701,650 76.0% 4,965,637 70.2% 5,186,450 64.8% 5,058,363 58.6% -2.5% -29.9%
  Washington 4,221,622 86.7% 4,652,490 78.9% 4,876,804 72.5% 4,918,820 63.8% +0.9% -26.4%
  West Virginia 1,718,896 95.8% 1,709,966 94.6% 1,726,256 93.2% 1,598,834 89.1% -7.4% -7.0%
  Wisconsin 4,464,677 91.3% 4,681,630 87.3% 4,738,411 83.3% 4,634,018 78.6% -2.2% -13.9%
  Wyoming 412,711 91.0% 438,799 88.9% 483,874 85.9% 469,664 81.4% -2.9% -10.5%
  American Samoa 682 1.2% 611 1.1%
  Guam 10,666 6.9% 11,001 6.9%
  Northern Mariana Islands 1,274 1.8% 916 1.7%
  Puerto Rico 33,966 0.9% 26,946 0.7% 24,548 0.8% -8.9%
  U.S. Virgin Islands 8,580 7.9% 3,830 3.6%
  United States of America 188,128,296 75.6% 194,552,774 69.1% 196,817,552 63.7% 191,697,647 57.8% -2.6% –23.5%

In 2020, in 36 out of the 50 US states non-Latino whites made up a greater percentage of the state's population than the US overall share of 57.8%; however, the 14 states with greater shares of non-whites include the four most populous states (California, Texas, New York, and Florida). The total non-Latino white population shrunk between 2010 and 2020 in 34 out of the 50 states, and the relative share of non-Latino whites in the overall state population has declined in all 50 states during that same time period.

As of 2020, six states are majority minority: Hawaii, California, New Mexico, Texas, Nevada and Maryland. All of these states saw larger declines in the relative share of their non-Latino white populations between 1990-2020 than the national average of -23.5% with Nevada dropping by -41.7%, California by -39.3% and Texas by -34.5%.

Historical population by state or territoryEdit

Non-Mexican white (1910-1930) and non-Latino white % of population (1940-2010) by US state[54][55][56]
State/Territory 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2016 2018 2020
  Alabama 65.3% 73.3% 73.3% 73.3% 70.3% 67.0% 65.8% 65.3%
  Alaska 48.3% 77.2% 75.8% 73.9% 67.6% 64.1% 61.2% 60.2%
  Arizona 65.1% 74.3% 74.5% 71.7% 63.8% 57.8% 55.5% 54.3%
  Arkansas 75.2% 81.0% 82.2% 82.2% 78.6% 74.5% 72.9% 72.1%
  California 89.5% 76.3% 66.6% 57.2% 46.7% 40.1% 37.7% 36.6%
  Colorado 90.3% 84.6% 82.7% 80.7% 74.5% 70.0% 68.6% 67.8%
  Connecticut 97.9% 91.4% 88.0% 83.8% 77.5% 71.2% 67.7% 66.3%
  Delaware 86.4% 84.1% 81.3% 79.3% 72.5% 65.3% 62.9% 61.9%
  District of Columbia 71.4% 26.5% 25.7% 27.4% 27.8% 34.8% 36.4% 37.0%
  Florida 71.5% 77.9% 76.7% 73.2% 65.4% 57.9% 54.9% 53.3%
  Georgia 65.2% 73.4% 71.6% 70.1% 62.6% 55.9% 53.4% 52.2%
  Hawaii 31.5% 38.0% 31.1% 31.4% 22.9% 22.7% 22.1% 21.7%
  Idaho 98.4% 95.9% 93.9% 92.2% 88.0% 84.0% 82.4% 81.7%
  Illinois 94.7% 83.5% 78.0% 74.8% 67.8% 63.7% 61.7% 60.9%
  Indiana 96.3% 91.7% 90.2% 89.6% 85.8% 81.5% 79.6% 78.7%
  Iowa 99.2% 98.0% 96.9% 95.9% 92.6% 88.7% 86.2% 85.4%
  Kansas 95.6% 92.7% 90.5% 88.4% 83.1% 78.2% 76.3% 75.6%
  Kentucky 92.5% 92.4% 91.7% 91.7% 89.3% 86.3% 85.0% 84.5%
  Louisiana 63.7% 68.2% 67.6% 65.8% 62.5% 60.3% 59.0% 58.4%
  Maine 99.7% 99.1% 98.3% 98.0% 96.5% 94.4% 93.5% 93.1%
  Maryland 83.3% 80.4% 73.9% 69.6% 62.1% 54.7% 51.5% 50.2%
  Massachusetts 98.6% 95.4% 92.3% 87.8% 81.9% 76.1% 72.7% 70.8%
  Michigan 95.7% 87.1% 84.1% 82.3% 78.6% 76.6% 75.4% 74.8%
  Minnesota 99.0% 97.7% 96.1% 93.7% 88.2% 83.1% 80.6% 79.4%
  Mississippi 50.6% 62.6% 63.6% 63.1% 60.7% 58.0% 56.9% 56.4%
  Missouri 93.4% 88.6% 87.7% 86.9% 83.8% 81.0% 79.7% 79.3%
  Montana 96.2% 94.7% 93.4% 91.8% 89.5% 87.8% 86.5% 85.8%
  Nebraska 98.2% 95.2% 94.0% 92.5% 87.3% 82.1% 79.6% 78.5%
  Nevada 91.6% 86.7% 83.2% 78.7% 65.2% 54.1% 49.9% 48.5%
  New Hampshire 99.9% 99.1% 98.4% 97.3% 95.1% 92.3% 90.8% 89.8%
  New Jersey 94.3% 84.7% 79.1% 74.0% 66.0% 59.3% 55.8% 54.6%
  New Mexico 50.9% 53.8% 52.6% 50.4% 44.7% 40.5% 38.1% 36.9%
  New York 94.6% 80.1% 75.0% 69.3% 62.0% 58.3% 55.8% 55.2%
  North Carolina 71.9% 76.5% 75.3% 75.0% 70.2% 65.3% 63.5% 62.7%
  North Dakota 98.3% 96.9% 95.5% 94.2% 91.7% 88.9% 85.0% 83.8%
  Ohio 95.0% 89.8% 88.2% 87.1% 84.0% 81.1% 79.5% 78.6%
  Oklahoma 89.9% 88.1% 85.0% 81.0% 74.1% 68.7% 66.2% 65.1%
  Oregon 98.6% 95.8% 93.3% 90.8% 83.5% 78.5% 76.4% 75.1%
  Pennsylvania 95.1% 90.3% 89.1% 87.7% 84.1% 79.5% 77.0% 75.9%
  Rhode Island 98.3% 96.1% 93.4% 89.3% 81.9% 76.4% 73.3% 71.4%
  South Carolina 57.1% 69.0% 68.3% 68.5% 66.1% 64.1% 63.9% 63.5%
  South Dakota 96.2% 94.6% 92.3% 91.2% 88.0% 84.7% 82.5% 81.3%
  Tennessee 82.5% 83.7% 83.1% 82.6% 79.2% 75.6% 74.2% 73.6%
  Texas 74.1% 69.6% 65.7% 60.6% 52.4% 45.3% 42.6% 41.4%
  Utah 98.2% 93.6% 92.4% 91.2% 85.3% 80.4% 78.8% 77.8%
  Vermont 99.7% 99.2% 98.5% 98.1% 96.2% 94.3% 93.1% 92.7%
  Virginia 75.3% 80.1% 78.2% 76.0% 70.2% 64.8% 62.4% 61.3%
  Washington 97.7% 93.6% 90.2% 86.7% 78.9% 72.5% 69.5% 67.8%
  West Virginia 93.7% 95.7% 95.6% 95.8% 94.6% 93.2% 92.3% 92.0%
  Wisconsin 99.2% 95.6% 93.6% 91.3% 87.3% 83.3% 81.7% 81.0%
  Wyoming 95.9% 92.1% 92.0% 91.0% 88.9% 85.9% 84.1% 83.9%
  Puerto Rico 0.9% 0.7% 0.6%

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "ACS Demographic and Housing Unit Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. December 2019. Retrieved 2020-03-04.
  2. ^ {{cite web|url=https://www.census.gov/newsroom/press-releases/2021/population-changes-nations-diversity.html
  3. ^ "Table 53. Languages Spoken At Home by Language: 2009", The 2012 Statistical Abstract, U.S. Census Bureau, archived from the original on 2007-12-25, retrieved 2011-12-27
  4. ^ Oxford English Dictionary: "Anglo" North American A white English-speaking person of British or northern European origin, in particular (in the U.S.) as distinct from a Hispanic American or (in Canada) as distinct from a French-speaker.
  5. ^ Mish, Frederic C., Editor in Chief Webster's Tenth New Collegiate Dictionary Springfield, Massachusetts, U.S.A.:1994--Merriam-Webster See original definition (definition #1) of Anglo in English: It is defined as a synonym for Anglo-American--Page 86
  6. ^ "Anglo - Definitions from Dictionary.com; American Heritage Dictionary". Lexico Publishing Group. Archived from the original on 15 March 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-29. Usage Note: In contemporary American usage, Anglo is used primarily in direct contrast to Hispanic or Latino. In this context it is not limited to persons of English or even British descent, but can be generally applied to any non-Hispanic white person, making mother tongue (in this case English) the primary factor. Thus in parts of the United States such as the Southwest United States with large Hispanic populations, an American of Polish, Irish, or German heritage might be termed an Anglo just as readily as a person of English descent. However, in parts of the country where the Hispanic community is smaller or nonexistent, or in areas where ethnic distinctions among European groups remain strong, Anglo has little currency as a catch-all term for non-Hispanic whites. Anglo is also used in non-Hispanic contexts. In Canada, where its usage dates at least to 1800, the distinction is between persons of English and French descent. And in American historical contexts Anglo is apt to be used more strictly to refer to persons of English heritage, as in this passage describing the politics of nation-building in pre-Revolutionary America: "The 'unity' of the American people derived ... from the ability and willingness of an Anglo elite to stamp its image on other peoples coming to this country" (Benjamin Schwarz).
  7. ^ "White persons, percent, 2000". 4 January 2011. Archived from the original on 4 January 2011. Retrieved 19 August 2017.
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  12. ^ Galenson 1984: 1
  13. ^ Christopher Tomlins, "Reconsidering Indentured Servitude: European Migration and the Early American Labor Force, 1600–1775," Labor History (2001) 42#1 pp 5–43, at p.
  14. ^ Wells, R. V. (2015). Population of the British Colonies in America Before 1776: A Survey of Census Data. Princeton University Press.
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  16. ^ "Trends in Migration to the U.S. – Population Reference Bureau". www.prb.org. Retrieved 2018-08-19.
  17. ^ Byrne, James Patrick, Philip Coleman, Jason Francis King, ed. Ireland and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History. Vol. 1. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, 2008. (pg. 31-34) ISBN 1-85109-614-0
  18. ^ "Destination America . When did they come? | PBS". www.pbs.org. Retrieved 2018-08-19.
  19. ^ "Polish Immigration". www2.needham.k12.ma.us. Retrieved 2018-08-19.
  20. ^ "Meet the 19th-century Political Party Founded on Ethnic Hate". 2017-08-16. Retrieved 2018-08-19.
  21. ^ "When America Hated Catholics". POLITICO Magazine. Retrieved 2018-08-19.
  22. ^ Batalova, Jeanne Batalova Elijah Alperin and Jeanne (2018-07-31). "European Immigrants in the United States". migrationpolicy.org. Retrieved 2018-08-19.
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