Chinese Americans are Americans who are descendants of Chinese, particularly Han Chinese ancestry, which also includes American-born Chinese persons. Chinese Americans constitute one group of overseas Chinese and also a subgroup of East Asian Americans, which is a further subgroup of Asian Americans. Many Chinese Americans are immigrants along with their descendants from mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan, as well as from other regions that include large populations of the Chinese diaspora, especially Southeast Asia and some Western countries like Canada, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand and France.
1.5% of the U.S. population (2017)
|Regions with significant populations|
|New York City Area, Boston, Philadelphia, Washington D.C., Northern New Jersey, San Francisco, Los Angeles, San Diego, Sacramento, St. Louis, Houston, Dallas, Cleveland, Austin, Tampa, Orlando, Baltimore, Seattle, Atlanta, Miami, Detroit, Honolulu, Kansas City, Portland, Las Vegas, Minneapolis, Columbus, Chicago, Milwaukee, Denver, Phoenix, New Orleans, Salt Lake City|
|Predominantly English, varieties of Chinese: |
Mandarin, Cantonese, Hokkien, Fuchow, Hakka, Wu Chinese (Taihu Wu, Oujiang Wu), Languages of China
|Related ethnic groups|
|Hong Kong Americans • Taiwanese Americans|
Chinese Canadians • Overseas Chinese
|Alternative Chinese name|
The Chinese American community is the largest overseas Chinese community outside Asia. It is also the third largest community in the Chinese diaspora, behind the Chinese communities in Thailand and Malaysia. The 2016 Community Survey of the US Census estimates a population of Chinese Americans of one or more races to be 5,081,682. The Chinese American community comprises the largest ethnic group of Asian Americans, comprising 25.9% of the Asian American population as of 2010. Americans of Chinese descent, including those with partial Chinese ancestry constitute 1.5% of the total U.S. population as of 2017. According to the 2010 census, the Chinese American population numbered approximately 3.8 million. In 2010, half of Chinese-born people living in the United States resided in the states of California and New York.
- 1 History
- 2 Demographics
- 3 Social status and assimilation
- 4 Discrimination and stereotypes
- 5 Languages
- 6 Religion
- 7 Politics
- 8 Immigration
- 9 Socioeconomics
- 10 Ethnic minorities
- 11 Genetics
- 12 Notable Chinese Americans
- 13 See also
- 14 References
- 15 Further reading
- 16 External links
The first Chinese immigrants arrived in 1820, according to U.S. government records. 325 men are known to have arrived before the 1849 California Gold Rush, which drew the first significant number of laborers from China who mined for gold and performed menial labor. There were 25,000 immigrants by 1852, and 105,465 by 1880, most of whom lived on the West Coast. They formed over a tenth of California's population. Nearly all of the early immigrants were young males with low educational levels from six districts in Guangdong Province.
In the 1850s, Chinese workers migrated to the United States, first to work in the gold mines, but also to take agricultural jobs, and factory work, especially in the garment industry. Chinese immigrants were particularly instrumental in building railroads in the U.S. west, and as Chinese laborers grew successful in the United States, a number of them became entrepreneurs in their own right. As the numbers of Chinese laborers increased, so did the strength of anti-Chinese attitude among other workers in the U.S. economy. This finally resulted in legislation that aimed to limit future immigration of Chinese workers to the United States, and threatened to sour diplomatic relations between the United States and China through the Chinese Exclusion Act.
The Chinese came to California in large numbers during the California Gold Rush, with 40,400 being recorded as arriving from 1851–1860, and again in the 1860s, when the Central Pacific Railroad recruited large labor gangs, many on five-year contracts, to build its portion of the Transcontinental Railroad. The Chinese laborers worked out well and thousands more were recruited until the railroad's completion in 1869. Chinese labor provided the massive workforce needed to build the majority of the Central Pacific's difficult route through the Sierra Nevada mountains and across Nevada. By 1869, the ethnic Chinese population in the U.S. numbered at least 100,000.
Nativist objections to Chinese immigration to the U.S. took many forms, and generally stemmed from economic and cultural tensions, as well as ethnic discrimination. Most Chinese laborers who came to the United States did so in order to send money back to China to support their families there. At the same time, they also had to repay loans to the Chinese merchants who paid their passage to North America. These financial pressures left them little choice but to work for whatever wages they could. Non-Chinese laborers often required much higher wages to support their wives and children in the United States, and also generally had a stronger political standing to bargain for higher wages. Therefore, many of the non-Chinese workers in the United States came to resent the Chinese laborers, who might squeeze them out of their jobs. Furthermore, as with most immigrant communities, many Chinese settled in their own neighborhoods, and tales spread of Chinatowns as places where large numbers of Chinese men congregated to visit prostitutes, smoke opium, or gamble. Some advocates of anti-Chinese legislation therefore argued that admitting Chinese into the United States lowered the cultural and moral standards of American society. Others used a more overtly racist argument for limiting immigration from East Asia, and expressed concern about the integrity of American racial composition.
To address these rising social tensions, from the 1850s through the 1870s the California state government passed a series of measures aimed at Chinese residents, ranging from requiring special licenses for Chinese businesses or workers to preventing naturalization. Because anti-Chinese discrimination and efforts to stop Chinese immigration violated the 1868 Burlingame-Seward Treaty with China, the federal government was able to negate much of this legislation.
The Chinese population rose from 2,716 in 1851 to 63,000 by 1871. In the decade 1861–70, 64,301 were recorded as arriving, followed by 123,201 in 1871–80 and 61,711 in 1881–1890. 77% were located in California, with the rest scattered across the West, the South, and New England. Most came from Southern China looking for a better life to escape a high poverty as a result of the Taiping Rebellion.
In 1879, advocates of immigration restriction succeeded in introducing and passing legislation in Congress to limit the number of Chinese arriving to fifteen per ship or vessel. Republican President Rutherford B. Hayes vetoed the bill because it violated U.S. treaty agreements with China. Nevertheless, it was still an important victory for advocates of exclusion. Democrats, led by supporters in the West, advocated for all-out exclusion of Chinese immigrants. Although Republicans were largely sympathetic to western concerns, they were committed to a platform of free immigration. In order to placate the western states without offending China, President Hayes sought a revision of the Burlingame-Seward Treaty (Burlingame Treaty) in which China agreed to limit immigration to the United States.
In 1880, the Hayes Administration appointed U.S. diplomat James B. Angell to negotiate a new treaty with China. The resulting Angell Treaty permitted the United States to restrict, but not completely prohibit, Chinese immigration. In 1882, Congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act, which, per the terms of the Angell Treaty, suspended the immigration of Chinese laborers (skilled or unskilled) for a period of 10 years. The Act also required every Chinese person traveling in or out of the country to carry a certificate identifying his or her status as a laborer, scholar, diplomat, or merchant. The 1882 Act was the first in American history to place broad restrictions on immigration.
For American presidents and Congressmen addressing the question of Chinese exclusion, the challenge was to balance domestic attitudes and politics, which dictated an anti-Chinese policy, while maintaining good diplomatic relations with China, where exclusion would be seen as an affront and a violation of treaty promises. The domestic factors ultimately trumped international concerns. In 1888, Congress took exclusion even further and passed the Scott Act, which made reentry to the United States after a visit to China impossible, even for long-term legal residents. The Chinese Government considered this act a direct insult, but was unable to prevent its passage. In 1892, Congress voted to renew exclusion for ten years in the Geary Act, and in 1902, the prohibition was expanded to cover Hawaii and the Philippines, all over strong objections from the Chinese Government and people. Congress later extended the Exclusion Act indefinitely.
The initial immigration group may have been as high as 90% male due to the Chinese Exclusion act, resulting in most immigrants coming with the thought of earning money, and then returning to China to start a family. Those that stayed in America faced the lack of suitable Chinese brides, because Chinese women were not allowed to immigrate to the US in significant numbers after 1872. As a result, many isolated mostly-bachelor communities slowly aged in place with very low Chinese birth rates. Later, as a result of the Fourteenth Amendment and the 1898 United States v. Wong Kim Ark Supreme Court decision, ethnic Chinese born in the United States became American citizens.
The Chinese Exclusion Acts were not repealed until 1943, and then only in the interests of aiding the morale of a wartime ally during World War II. With relations already complicated by the Opium Wars and the Treaties of Wangxia and Tianjian, the increasingly harsh restrictions on Chinese immigration, combined with the rising discrimination against Chinese living in the United States in the 1870s-early 1900s, placed additional strain on the diplomatic relationship between the United States and China.
In the mid 1850s, 70 to 150 Chinese were living in New York City and 11 of them married Irish women. In 1906, The New York Times (6 August) reported that 300 white women (Irish American) were married to Chinese men in New York, with many more cohabited. In 1900, based on Liang research, of the 120,000 men in more than 20 Chinese communities in the United States, he estimated that one out of every twenty Chinese men (Cantonese) was married to white women. In the 1960s census showed 3500 Chinese men married to white women and 2900 Chinese women married to white men. Originally at the start of the 20th century there was a 55% rate of Chinese men in New York engaging in interracial marriage which was maintained in the 1920s but in the 1930s it slid to 20%.
During and after World War II, severe immigration restrictions were eased as the United States allied with China against Japanese expansionism. Later reforms in the 1960s placed increasing value on family unification, allowing relatives of U.S. citizens to receive preference in immigration.
This section needs additional citations for verification. (February 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
According to the 2012 Census estimates, the three metropolitan areas with the largest Chinese American populations were the Greater New York Combined Statistical Area at 735,019 people, the San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland Combined Statistical Area at 629,243 people, and the Los Angeles Area Combined Statistical Area at about 566,968 people. New York City contains by far the highest ethnic Chinese population of any individual city outside Asia, estimated at 628,763 as of 2017. The Los Angeles County city of Monterey Park has the highest percentage of Chinese Americans of any municipality, at 43.7% of its population, or 24,758 people.
The states with the largest estimated Chinese American populations, according to both the 2010 Census, were California (1,253,100; 3.4%), New York (577,000; 3.0%), Texas (157,000; 0.6%), New Jersey (134,500; 1.5%), Massachusetts (123,000; 1.9%), Illinois (104,200; 0.8%), Washington (94,200; 1.4%), Pennsylvania (85,000; 0.7%), Maryland (69,400; 1.2%), Virginia (59,800; 0.7%), and Ohio (51,033; 0.5%). The state of Hawaii has the highest concentration of Chinese Americans at 4.0%, or 55,000 people.
The New York metropolitan area, consisting of New York City, Long Island, and nearby areas within the states of New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, and Pennsylvania, is home to the largest Chinese American population of any metropolitan area within the United States and the largest Chinese population outside of China, enumerating an estimated 893,697 in 2017 and including at least 12 Chinatowns. Continuing significant immigration from Mainland China, both legal and illegal in origin, has spurred the ongoing rise of the Chinese American population in the New York metropolitan area; this immigration continues to be fueled by New York's status as an alpha global city, its high population density, its extensive mass transit system, and the New York metropolitan area's enormous economic marketplace. The Manhattan Chinatown contains the largest concentration of ethnic Chinese in the Western hemisphere; while the Flushing Chinatown in Queens has become the world's largest Chinatown, but conversely, has also emerged as the epicenter of organized prostitution in the United States.
Also on the East Coast, Greater Boston and the Philadelphia metropolitan area have significant Chinese American communities, with Chinatowns in Boston and Philadelphia hosting important and diverse cultural centers. Significant populations can also be found in the Washington metropolitan area, with Montgomery County, Maryland, and Fairfax County, Virginia, being 3.9% and 2.4% Chinese American, respectively. Boston's Chinatown is the only historical Chinese neighborhood within New England. The Boston suburb of Quincy also has a prominent Chinese American population, especially within the North Quincy area.
San Francisco, California has the highest per capita concentration of Chinese Americans of any major city in the United States, at an estimated 21.4%, or 172,181 people, and contains the second-largest total number of Chinese Americans of any U.S. city. San Francisco's Chinatown was established in the 1840s, making it the oldest Chinatown in North America and one of the largest neighborhoods of Chinese people outside of Asia, composed in large part by immigrants hailing from Guangdong province and also many from Hong Kong. The San Francisco neighborhoods of Sunset District and Richmond District also contain significant Chinese populations.
In addition to the big cities, smaller pockets of Chinese Americans are also dispersed in rural towns, often university-college towns, throughout the United States. For example, the number of Chinese Americans, including college professors, doctors, professionals, and students, has increased over 200% from 2005 to 2010 in Providence, Rhode Island, a small city with a large number of colleges.
Income and social status of these Chinese-American locations vary widely. A third of a million Chinese Americans are not United States citizens. Although many Chinese Americans in Chinatowns of large cities are often members of an impoverished working class, others are well-educated upper-class people living in affluent suburbs. The upper and lower-class Chinese are also widely separated by social status and class discrimination. In California's San Gabriel Valley, for example, the cities of Monterey Park and San Marino are both Chinese American communities lying geographically close to each other but they are separated by a large socioeconomic gap.
A list of large cities (250,000+ residents) with a Chinese-American population in excess of 1% of the general population in 2010.
|5||New York City||New York||486,463||6.0|
Social status and assimilationEdit
Some noteworthy historical Chinese contributions include building the western half of the Transcontinental Railroad, and levees in the Sacramento River Delta; the popularization of Chinese American food; and the introduction of Chinese and East Asian culture to America, such as Buddhism, Taoism, and Kung fu.
Chinese immigrants to the United States brought many of their ideas and values with them. Some of these have continued to influence later generations. Among them are Confucian respect for elders. Similarly, education and the civil service were the most important path for upward social mobility in China. The first Broadway show about Asian Americans was Flower Drum Song which premiered on Broadway in 1958; the hit Chinglish premiered on Broadway in 2011.
In most American cities with significant Chinese populations, the new year is celebrated with cultural festivals and other celebrations. In Seattle, the Chinese Culture and Arts Festival is held every year. Other important festivals include the Dragon Boat Festival and the Mid-Autumn Festival.
Discrimination and stereotypesEdit
Analysis indicated that most non-Asian Americans do not differentiate between Chinese Americans and East Asian Americans generally, and perceptions of both groups are nearly identical. A 2001 survey of Americans' attitudes toward Asian Americans and Chinese Americans indicated that one fourth of the respondents had somewhat or very negative attitude toward Chinese Americans in general. The study did find several positive perceptions of Chinese Americans: strong family values (91%); honesty as entrepreneurs (77%); high value on education (67%).
Early Chinese Americans struggled to survive in the United States because of discrimination and stereotypes. In 1871, 17-20 Chinese immigrants were murdered in Los Angeles by a mob of around 500 men. This racially motivated massacre was one of the largest mass lynchings in United States, and took place after the accidental killing of Robert Thompson, a local rancher.
The Rock Springs massacre occurred in 1885, in which at least 28 Chinese immigrants were killed and 15 were injured. Many enraged white miners in Sweetwater County felt threatened by the Chinese and blamed them for their unemployment. As a result of the job competition, white miners expressed their frustration in physical violence where they robbed, shot, and stabbed at Chinese in Chinatown. The Chinese quickly tried to flee but in doing so, many ended up burned alive in their homes, starved to death in hidden refuge, or exposed to animal predators of the mountains; some were successfully rescued by a passing train. A total of 78 homes were burned.
During the Hells Canyon massacre in 1887, at least 34 Chinese miners were killed. An accurate account of the event is still unclear, but it is speculated that the dead Chinese miners were victims of gun shot wounds during a robbery committed by a gang of seven armed horse thieves.
Other acts of violence against Chinese immigrants include the San Francisco riot of 1877, the Issaquah and Tacoma riot of 1885, the attack on Squak Valley Chinese laborers in 1885, the Seattle riot of 1886, and the Pacific Coast race riots of 1907.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the various varieties of Chinese, collectively referred to as just Chinese, is the third most-spoken language in the United States. It is almost completely spoken within Chinese American populations and by immigrants or the descendants of immigrants, especially in California. Over 2 million Americans speak some variety or dialect of Chinese, with Standard Chinese (Mandarin) becoming increasingly common due to immigration from China and supplanting the previous widespread Cantonese and Taishanese.
In New York City at least, although Standard Chinese (Mandarin) is spoken as a native language among only 10% of American born Chinese speakers, it is used as a secondary dialect to English. In addition, immigration from Fuzhou, Fujian is bringing large numbers of Fuzhounese (Eastern Min), particularly Changle dialect speakers. People who comes from Fujian (Minnan region), Chaoshan, Taiwan and Southeast Asia mainly use Southern Min dialect (Hokkien and Teochew) as their mother tongue. Varieties of Wu Chinese, particularly Shanghainese and the mutually unintelligible Wenzhounese, are now spoken by a minority of recent Chinese immigrants hailing from Jiangsu, Zhejiang, and Shanghai.
Although Chinese Americans grow up learning English, some teach their children Chinese for a variety of reasons: preservation of an ancient civilization, preservation of a group identity, preservation of their cultural ancestry, desire for easy communication with each other and their relatives, and the perception that Chinese is a very useful language, regardless of China's economic strength. Although Simplified Chinese is the most oft-written language in China, United States public notices and signage in Chinese are generally in Traditional Chinese.
The Chinese American community is different from the rest of the population in that the majority of Chinese Americans do not report a religious affiliation. 43% of Chinese Americans switched to a different religion and 54% stayed within their childhood religion within their lifetime. According to the Pew Research Center's 2012 Asian-American Survey, 52% of Chinese Americans aged 15 and over said that they did not have any religious affiliation. This is also compared with the religious affiliation of Asian American average of 26% and a national average of 19%.
Of the survey respondents, 15% were Buddhist, 8% were Catholic, and 22% belonged to a Protestant denomination. Fully half of Chinese Americans (52%)—including 55% of those born in the U.S. and 51% of those born overseas—describe themselves as religiously unaffiliated. Because Chinese Americans are the largest subgroup of Asian Americans, nearly half of all religiously unaffiliated Asians in the U.S. are of Chinese descent (49%).
There are also many Chinese who identify as Jewish, mainly because of the higher marriage rates of Jews and Chinese. Also, Judaism has similar habits as Confucianism, such as the emphasis on scholarship, and Judaism's lack of patriarchal system[clarification needed] which is the most important thing in Confucianism. This has also attracted many Chinese converts to conservative Judaism. Judging from the marriage rate and the records of the Jewish synagogues, about 1% of Chinese Americans are Jewish.
There is a significantly higher percentage of Chinese Christians in the United States than there is in China, as a large amount of Chinese Christians fled and are still fleeing to the United States under Communist persecution. Many Chinese fled to the United States in the mid-1900s, bringing with them the church organization format that had been brought to them by Western missionaries years before, with the structure almost perfectly preserved. Due to this, there is a large amount of Chinese churches in the United States that are much more similar to earlier Christian churches than American churches themselves, which have generally evolved into a more laid back and carefree environment to accommodate the younger generations.
Chinese Americans are divided among many subgroups based on factors such as age, nativity, and socioeconomic status and politics between China and the United States, or about Chinese nationalism. Different subgroups of Chinese Americans also have radically different and sometimes very conflicting political priorities and goals.
In 2013, Chinese Americans were the least likely Asian American ethnicity to be affiliated with a political party.
Nonetheless, Chinese Americans are clustered in majority-Democratic states and have increasingly voted Democratic in recent presidential elections, following the trend for Asian Americans in general. Polling just before the 2004 U.S. Presidential Election found John Kerry was favored by 58% of Chinese Americans and George W. Bush by only 23%, as compared with a 54/44 split in California, a 58/40 split in New York, and a 48/51 split in America as a whole on Election Day itself. In the 2012 presidential election, 81% of Chinese American voters selected Barack Obama over Mitt Romney.
Chinese Americans were an important source of funds for Han revolutionaries during the later Qing dynasty, and Sun Yat-sen was raising money in America at the time of the Xinhai Revolution, which established the Republic of China. During the Cultural Revolution, Chinese Americans, as overseas Chinese in general, were viewed as capitalist traitors by the PRC government. This attitude changed dramatically in the late 1970s with the reforms of Deng Xiaoping. Increasingly, Chinese Americans were seen as sources of business and technical expertise and capital who could aid in China's economic and other development.
Economic growth in the People's Republic of China has given mainland Chinese more opportunities to emigrate. A 2011 survey showed that 60% of Chinese millionaires plan to emigrate, with 40% of Chinese millionaires selecting the United States as the top destination for immigration. The EB-5 Investment Visa allows many Chinese to seek U.S. citizenship. It has a yearly quota of around 10,000 applicants or families, and recent reports show that 75% of applicants for this visa in 2011 were Chinese. Under this program, applicants, together with their spouses and unmarried children under 21 years old will be eligible to apply for US permanent residency as a group. Because the EB-5 program allows applicants to apply as a family, it has been reported to be a significant method for Chinese students to obtain authorization to work in the United States. Chinese multimillionaires benefited most from the EB-5 Immigrant Investor Program in the U.S. Now, as long as one has at least US$500,000 to invest in projects listed by United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS), where it is possible to get an EB-5 green card that comes with permanent U.S. residency rights, but only in states specified by the pilot project. The H-1B visa is also becoming one of the main immigration pathways for the Chinese with 9% of the approved petitions in 2016.
The history of illegal immigration of Chinese to the United States go back to the 19th century. Smuggling of immigrants without authorization increased during 1990s following policy changes by the American government, but by the 21st century some have returned to China due to its growing economy. By 2017, it is estimated that more than a quarter million immigrants reside in the United States without authorization from China. In 2015, there were about 39,000 Chinese nationals who were supposed to be deported; however, the People's Republic of China government had not provided paperwork to verify their citizenship. China has become one of the leading sources of new immigrants without authorization in the 21st century.
Overall, as a demographic group, Chinese Americans have a higher educational attainment, have a higher percentage of people working in select white collar and professional occupations, and earn higher median household incomes when compared to other demographic groups in the United States. Educational achievements of Chinese in the United States are one of the highest among Asian Americans and also among all ethnic groups in the United States. Chinese Americans often have some of the highest averages in tests such as SAT, ACT, GRE etc. in the United States. Although verbal scores lag somewhat due to the influx of new immigrants, combined SAT scores have also been higher than for most Americans. With their above average SAT and ACT scores as well as GPA's, Chinese Americans are more likely to apply to competitively elite higher education institutions.
International students studying at various higher education institutions around the United States account for a significant percentage of the international student body. According to a Brookings Institution report analyzing foreign student visa approvals from 2008–2012, Michigan State University has the highest enrollment of Chinese international students in the United States, with roughly 4,700 Chinese citizens enrolled during the period of the study making up 62 percent of the 7,568 international students enrolled at MSU. International undergraduates, who make up 38 percent of Purdue's undergraduate body, come from China more than any other country. International Chinese students make up 49.8 percent of all international students at the University of Southern California. International Chinese students also comprise 60 percent of the 6039 international students enrolled at Ohio State University. Mainland China is the top sending country of international students to the United States. After the 1970s, the globalization and Chinese Reform and Opening-Up Act resulted in a growing economy, more middle-class families from China are able to afford American college tuition, bringing an influx of Chinese students to study abroad in the United States. With a more diverse educational background and higher level of English proficiency, international Chinese students also value American degrees, as it gives them a notable advantage over their college-educated counterparts in China by the time they return to their native country to seek employment.
Due to cultural factors, many Chinese international students are brand name conscious, choosing nationally ranked elite higher education institutes throughout the United States as their target schools. International Chinese students are also widely found at many elite liberal arts colleges such as Barnard College and Mount Holyoke College. Students from China gravitate towards Americans colleges and universities for their high quality and the style of education which stresses interdisciplinary approaches, creativity, student participation and critical thinking.
China is the leading country in sending international students to the U.S, which comprise 33.2% of the international student population. In the 2017–2018 school year, there were close to 363,000 enrolled students in higher education. Chinese students also make up 32.2% of the undergraduate students and 48.8% of the graduate students. Chinese international students tend to gravitate towards technical and scientific majors that involve heavy use of mathematics, engineering and the natural sciences. 27.5% of international Chinese students study business management, finance, or economics, 19.2% study engineering, 11.5% study the life sciences and 10.6% study math or computer science.
According to the 2017 U.S. Census Bureau of Labor Statistics, 55.3% of all Chinese Americans have attained at least a bachelor's degree, compared with 32.0% nationally and 53.8% for all Asian American groups. The Census reports that 57.8% of Chinese American men attained a bachelor's degree and 53.2% of Chinese American women attained a bachelor's degree. In addition, 28.4% of all Chinese Americans in the United States possess a master's, doctorate or other professional degree, compared to 23.6% for all Asian Americans, and is roughly two times above the national average of 12.3%.
|Ethnicity||Percent of Population|
|Total US Population||32.0%|
There has been a significant change in the perceptions about Chinese Americans. In as little as 100 years of American history, stereotypes of Chinese Americans have changed to portraying a hard working and educated minority. Thus, most Chinese Americans work as white collar professionals, many of whom are highly educated, salaried professionals whose work is largely self-directed in management, professional, and related occupations such as engineering, medicine, investment banking, law, and academia. 56.2% of Chinese Americans work in many white collar professions compared with 52.1% for all Asian Americans and a national average of 38.2%. They make up 2% of working physicians in the United States. Chinese Americans also make up a third of the Asian American high tech professional workforce and a tenth of the entire Silicon Valley workforce. Chinese Americans also hold lower unemployment rates than the population average with a figure of 4.7% compared to a national rate of 5.9% in 2010.
Many Chinese Americans have turned to the high tech center to jump-start potential computer science and programming startups to capitalize on the region's wealth of venture capital, business expertise, and cultural and financial incentives for innovation. Ethnic Chinese have been successful in starting new firms in technology centers across the United States, including California's Silicon Valley. Chinese Americans have been disproportionately successful in high technology sectors, as evidenced by the Goldsea 100 Compilation of America's Most Successful Asian Entrepreneurs. Chinese Americans accounted for 4% of people listed in the 1998 Forbes Hi Tech 100 List.
Annalee Saxenian, a UC Berkeley professor, whose research interests include the contribution of Chinese immigrants on America's technology concludes that in Silicon Valley, carried out a study that showed that since 1998, one out of five high tech start-ups in Silicon Valley were led by Chinese Americans. During the same year, 5 of the 8 fastest growing companies had Chinese American CEOs, except for Yahoo, whose Jerry Yang was a founder but not a CEO. In Silicon Valley there are at least 2 to 3 dozen Chinese American organizations according to professional interests each with at least 100 members, one prominent organization of which is the Committee of 100. Immigrants from mainland China and Taiwan were key founders in 12.8% of all Silicon Valley start-ups between 1995 and 2005. Almost 6% of the immigrants who founded companies in the innovation/manufacturing-related services field are from China.
Research funded by the Public Policy Institute of California indicates that in 1996, 1,786 Silicon Valley technology companies with $12.5 billion in sales and 46,000 employees were run by Indian or Chinese executives. Moreover, the pace of entrepreneurship among local immigrants is increasing rapidly. While Chinese or Indian executives are at the helm of 13% of the Silicon Valley technology businesses started between 1980 and 1985, they are running 27% of the more than 4,000 businesses started between 1991 and 1996. Start-up firms remain a primary source for new ideas and innovation for Chinese American internet entrepreneurs. Many of them are employed or directly engaged in new start-up activities. The proportional share of start-up firms by ethnic Chinese in Silicon Valley skyrocketed from 9% in 1980-1984 to about 20% between 1995 and 1998. By 2006, Chinese American internet entrepreneurs continued to start 20% of all Silicon Valley start-up firms, leading 2000 Silicon Valley companies, and employing 58,000 workers. They still continue to own about 20% of all information technology companies that were founded in Silicon Valley since 1980.
Numerous professional organizations in perspective in the 1990s as a support network for fellow Chinese American high tech start-ups in the valley. Between 1980 and 1999, 17% of the 11,443 high-tech firms in Silicon Valley - including some 40 publicly traded firms were controlled by ethnic Chinese. In 1990, Chinese Americans made up a third of the Asian American high tech professional workforce or 11% of the entire Silicon Valley professional workforce. In 1998, Chinese Americans managed 2001 firms, employing 41,684 workers, and ran up 13.2 billion in sales. They also account for 17% of all Silicon Valley firm owners, 10% of the professional workforce in the Valley, and 13.5% of the total sales accounting for less than 1% of the U.S. population at the time.
Chinese Americans are also noted for their high rates of self-employment, as they have an extensive history of self-employment dating back to the California Gold Rush in the 1880s. However, as more Chinese Americans seek higher education to elevate themselves socioeconomically, rates of self-employment are generally lower than population average. In 2007, there were over 109,614 Chinese-owned employer firms, employing more than 780,000 workers, and generating more than $128 billion in revenue.
Among Chinese-owned U.S. firms, 40% were in the professional, scientific, and technical services sector, the accommodation and food services sector, and the repair, maintenance, personal, and laundry services sector. Chinese-owned U.S. firms comprised 2% of all U.S. businesses in these sectors. Wholesale trade and accommodation and food services accounted for 50.4% of Chinese-owned business revenue. 66,505 or 15.7% of Chinese-owned firms had receipts of $250,000 or more compared with 2% for all U.S. businesses.
With their above average educational attainment rates, Chinese Americans from all socioeconomic backgrounds have achieved significant advances in their educational levels, income, life expectancy, and other social indicators as the financial and socioeconomic opportunities offered by the United States have lifted many Chinese Americans out of poverty, bringing them into the ranks of America's middle class, upper middle class, as well as the enjoyment of substantial well being.
Chinese Americans are more likely to own homes than the general American population. According to the 2000 U.S. Census, 65% of Chinese Americans owned a home, higher than the total population's rate of 54%. In 2003, real estate economist Gary Painter of the University of Southern California Lusk Center for Real Estate Research found out that when comparing homeowners with similar income levels Los Angeles, the Chinese-American home-ownership rate is 20% higher than Whites; in San Francisco, 23% higher; and in the New York metropolitan area, 18% higher. A 2008 Asian Real Estate Association of America report released on behalf of the American community survey, Chinese Americans living in the states of Texas, New York, and California all had high home ownership rates that were significantly near or above the general population average.
According to the 2017 U.S. Census, Chinese American men had a full-time median income of $71,096 and Chinese American women had a median income of $60,157. Chinese Americans also have one of the highest median household incomes among most demographic groups in the United States, which is almost 30% higher than the national average but is slightly lower compared with the Asian American population.
|Chinese from mainland||$77,136|
|Total US population||$60,336|
Despite positive economic indicators, a number of economic deterrents have been noted to afflict the Chinese American community. While median income remains above some ethnic groups in the United States, studies in the wake of the 2008 financial crisis revealed that Asian men have the highest rate of persistent long-term unemployment. In addition, studies have shown that Asian Americans have been discriminated in companies with lower pay grades; even in larger corporate settings such as Google.
While the vast majority of Chinese Americans are of the Han ethnicity, there are also some ethnic minorities in China who have immigrated to the United States directly from the People's Republic of China.
A community numbering 20,000 Korean-Chinese is centered in Flushing, Queens, while New York City is also home to the largest Tibetan population outside China, India, and Nepal, also centered in Queens. There are some Zhuang people, the largest ethnic minority of China, in the United States. The presence of Miao Uyghur and Manchu Americans has also been attested.
Although considered ethnically the same as other Han Chinese, the Muslim Hui people are registered as an ethnic minority by the Chinese government. There are some Hui in the United States, and some have retained their religious and cultural practices in America.[failed verification] There are some restaurants serving Hui cuisine such as Ma's Restaurant (馬家館) in the San Francisco area.
A research on the whole genome patterns of common DNA variation in different human populations (African-American, Asian-American and European American) finds some common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these three populations with diverse ancestry. In the samples of Han Chinese in America, 74% of the total SNPs have two alleles, and majority of the segregating SNPs have a minor allele frequency (MAF) greater than 10%. Another noticeable point is that MAFs show similar distributions in European-American and Han Chinese populations. Besides, rarer haplotype is found to be absent in the samples of Han Chinese, and they also possess a high level of redundancy.
A study analyzing East Asian Genetic Substructure using genome-wide SNP arrays is carried out with greater than 200,000 genotypes from people of East Asian ancestry. The continental populations are from the Human Genome Diversity Panel (Cambodian, Yi, Daur, Mongolian, Lahu, Dai, Hezhen, Miaozu, Naxi, Oroqen, She, Tu, Tujia, Naxi, Xibo, and Yakut), HapMap (Han Chinese and Japanese), as well as East Asian or East Asian American subjects of Vietnamese, Korean, Filipino and Chinese ancestry. A clear understanding of the genetic substructure of any population helps in the studies of complex diseases, as well as the design and execution of association tests. Results of this study have identified markers that can not only reduce type 1 errors in future genetic disease studies, but also identify homogeneous groups and hence make this study more powerful.
The group of Chinese American in the same study consists of subjects with origins from North China, South China and Taiwan. This group is paired with Han Chinese from Beijing, and results indicate that the population differentiation values was small (<0.0025). There is substantially less genetic substructure between Han Chinese and Chinese American, compared with that between Han Chinese, Japanese and Korean groups, yet there is still a substructure in principal component, according to the split half reliability test.
Another study aiming to estimate cardiometabolic risk profile of Chinese adults with diabetes is also useful to reveal the personal genomics of Chinese Americans. In this study, all subjects are over 18 years old and non-institutionalized. Results derived from a complex, multistage, probability sampling design show that 12,607 out of 98,658 Chinese adults are suffering from diabetes, based on the criteria of 2010 American Diabetes Association. In addition, the study reaches a conclusion that for those Chinese adults defined with diabetes, cardiometabolic risk factors are highly prevalent, including metabolic syndrome, systolic blood pressure that is higher than 140mmHg, low fruit and vegetable intake, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol that is higher than 110 mg/dL.
The circumstance of Asian American population is informative in a way that some knowledge about Chinese American can be inferred from it. The statistics of diabetes in Asian American population reveals that approximately 10% of the entire population are diabetic, and in which 90-95% are type 2 diabetes. The current situation is that there are some challenges in diagnosing diabetes in many Asian Americans. The main obstacle is that many clinical features along with risks factors associated with diabetes are obtained from studies that focus on Caucasian populations, which might result in misdiagnoses between type 1 and type 2 diabetes for Asian Americans. In fact, the reason why classic features of type 1 and type 2 diabetes in America might not apply to Asian American population is about shared absence of common HLA DR-DQ genotype, low prevalence of positive anti-islet antibodies and low BMI in both types of diabetes.
Some other studies have pointed out that for people of Asian descent and without diabetes, their insulin resistance levels are higher than non-diabetic people of Caucasian descent. Thus, Asian Americans are relatively more predisposed to develop type 2 diabetes. This suggests that insulin resistance, rather than body mass index (BMI) should be targeted while making diagnoses. A potential biomarker to identify diabetes in young Asian American population is adipocyte fatty acid binding protein that has a strong association with insulin resistance but is independent of adiposity. Nevertheless, more research studies should be carried out in order to confirm such finding. With further applying the above outcome on the population of Chinese Americans, it is rational that there is a higher tendency for type 2 diabetes among this group of people, who also face the challenge of correct diagnosis in America.
Genetic mental illness is stigmatized in China. A study compares the attitude of Chinese American towards mental illness with genetic causes and that of European American. It finds out that there is a perception of eugenics existing among Chinese Americans. Consequently, in order to reduce the stigma in the society, more efforts should be devoted to this population.
The journal launched by the above study highlights the idea of genetic essentialism, namely, genes are largely deterministic of individual characteristics and behavior. There is a separation between the normal and the deviant, which drives the process of stigma labeling. On the other hand, since genetic diseases can be passed on from one generation to another, some mental illnesses are shared in a family, stigmatizing all members involved. Another viewpoint relevant to genetic essentialism is that, since genes are perceived by the common people as difficult to modify, genetic mental illness is likely to persist, and so is the stigma. As a result, the mindset of many Chinese Americans is formulated as diseases with genetic causes being more serious than those without.
The same journal also delivers some hypotheses made on the basis of the long history of eugenics in China. First, Chinese Americans are more in favor of eugenic policies than European Americans. Secondly, more stigma would be generated towards genetic attributions of any diseases in Chinese American population. China used to implement restrictions on marriage licenses to people with genetic illnesses, which has made the attitude of Chinese American towards premarital genetic screening more supportive, especially when facing a chance of genetic defects. Moreover, from the perspective of this group of people, knowing whether a marriage partner has family history of mental illness with genetic basis is fairly important.
Notable Chinese AmericansEdit
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (December 2019)
Shiing-Shen Chern, Wolf Prize winner, considered one of the greatest mathematicians of the 20th century
Roger Y. Tsien, Nobel prize winner in chemistry, 2009
Bruce Lee, famed actor, director and martial artist.
- "American FactFinder - Results". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 16 September 2018.
- "Ethnologue report for language code: cdo". Ethnologue.com. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
- "Ethnologue report for language code: wuu". Ethnologue.com. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
- "Asian Americans: A Mosaic of Faiths". The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. Pew Research Center. 19 July 2012. Retrieved 15 February 2013.
Unaffiliated 52%, Protestant 22%, Buddhist 15%, Catholic 8%
- Ng, Franklin (1998). The Taiwanese Americans. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 2, 118, 126. ISBN 978-0-313-29762-5.
- Bureau, U.S. Census. "American FactFinder - Results". factfinder.census.gov.
- "Race Reporting for the Asian Population by Selected Categories: 2010". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 17 January 2012.
- "Chinese Immigrants in the United States". Migration Policy Institute. January 2012. Retrieved 30 June 2012.
- Bill Bryson, Made In America, page 154
- Ronald Takaki (1998). Strangers From a Different Shore. Little, Brown and Company. p. 28. ISBN 978-0-316-83109-3.
- Iris Chang (2003). The Chinese in America. Penguin Books. pp. 34–35. ISBN 978-0-670-03123-8.
- Peter Kwong and Dusanka Miscevic (2005). Chinese America. The New Press. p. 44. ISBN 978-1-56584-962-4.
- International World History Project. Asian Americans Archived 27 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Accessed 2014-03-14.
- "Milestones: 1866–1898 - Office of the Historian". History.state.gov. Retrieved 15 December 2017.
- Takaki, Ronald (1998). Strangers From A Different Shore: A History of Asian Americans. New York: Back Bay Books.
- Benson Tong (2004). Asian American children: a historical handbook and guide. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 38–. ISBN 978-0-313-33042-1. Retrieved 2 March 2012.
- Love's revolution: interracial marriage by Maria P.P. Root. Page 180
- Steven Gregory (1994). Steven Gregory; Roger Sanjek (eds.). Race (illustrated, reprint ed.). Rutgers University Press. p. 123. ISBN 978-0813521091. Retrieved 17 May 2014.
- US Census: Race and Hispanic or Latino: 2000 ; US Census: 1990 ; US Census: Population 1790-1990 ; Comparison of Asian Populations during the Exclusion Years ; Estimation of the US-Census for the year 2004 
- Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States Archived 24 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine
- "U.S. Census Bureau Delivers Illinois' 2010 Census Population Totals, Including First Look at Race and Hispanic Origin Data for Legislative Redistricting". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 19 February 2011. Retrieved 20 February 2011.
- "ACS DEMOGRAPHIC AND HOUSING ESTIMATES 2012 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates New York-Newark-Bridgeport, NY-NJ-CT-PA CSA". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- "ACS DEMOGRAPHIC AND HOUSING ESTIMATES 2017 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates Chinese alone - New York City, New York". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 12 February 2019.
- "SELECTED POPULATION PROFILE IN THE UNITED STATES 2017 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates New York-Newark, NY-NJ-CT-PA CSA Chinese alone". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 12 February 2019.
- "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2011 Supplemental Table 2". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved 16 April 2012.
- "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2010 Supplemental Table 2". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved 10 April 2011.
- John Marzulli (9 May 2011). "Malaysian man smuggled illegal Chinese immigrants into Brooklyn using Queen Mary 2: authorities". New York: © Copyright 2012 NY Daily News.com. Retrieved 6 April 2012.
- "Chinatown New York City Fact Sheet" (PDF). www.explorechinatown.com. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
- Sarah Waxman. "The History of New York's Chinatown". Mediabridge Infosystems, Inc. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
- David M. Reimers. Still the golden door: the Third ... – Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved 11 April 2016.
- Lawrence A. McGlinn, Department of Geography SUNY-New Paltz. "Beyond Chinatown: Dual immigration and the Chinese population of metropolitan New York City, 2000, Page 4" (PDF). Middle States Geographer, 2002, 35: 110–119, Journal of the Middle States Division of the Association of American Geographers. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 October 2012. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
- David M. Reimers. Still the golden door: the Third ... – Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved 11 April 2016.
- Nicholas Kulish, Frances Robles, and Patricia Mazzei (2 March 2019). "Behind Illicit Massage Parlors Lie a Vast Crime Network and Modern Indentured Servitude". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 6 March 2019. Retrieved 2 March 2019.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. 2010. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
- "USA". Chinatownology.com. Retrieved 15 December 2017.
- "Intern program". community.ups.com. Archived from the original on 23 August 2010.
- Hayoun, Massoud (7 March 2012). "What China's Talking About Today: Is American Citizenship Still Desirable?". The Atlantic. Atlantic Media Company. Retrieved 1 February 2013.
- "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2013 Supplemental Table 2". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved 19 June 2014.
- "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2012 Supplemental Table 2". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved 5 May 2013.
- "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2011 Supplemental Table 2". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved 5 May 2013.
- "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2010 Supplemental Table 2". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved 5 May 2013.
- John Marzulli (9 May 2011). "Malaysian man smuggled illegal Chinese immigrants into Brooklyn using Queen Mary 2: authorities". New York: NY Daily News.com. Retrieved 5 May 2013.
- Vivian Yee (22 February 2015). "Indictment of New York Officer Divides Chinese-Americans". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 February 2015.
- "Chinese New Year 2012 in Flushing". QueensBuzz.com. 25 January 2012. Retrieved 23 February 2015.
- "SELECTED POPULATION PROFILE IN THE UNITED STATES 2017 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates New York-Newark, NY-NJ-CT-PA CSA Chinese alone". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
- Haiming Liu (2005) "Asian-American Ideas (Cultural Migration)" In Horowitz, Maryanne Cline (editor) (2005) New Dictionary of the History of Ideas Charles Scribner's Sons, Detroit, Michigan, volume 1, pp. 158-160, ISBN 0-684-31377-4
- Semple, Kirk (21 August 2008) "Among Chinese-Americans, a Split on Sports" The New York Times page B-2
- Berson, Misha. "A 'Drum' with a Difference" Archived 28 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine. American Theatre magazine, Theatre Communications Group, 2002. Retrieved 9 November 2010.
- David Henry Hwang, directed by Leigh Silverman. "Chinglish". Broadway's Best Shows, Longacre Theatre. Retrieved 5 May 2013.
- Committee of 100 (25 April 2001). "Committee of 100 Announces Results of Landmark National Survey on American Attitudes towards Chinese Americans and Asian Americans". Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 14 June 2007.
- Matthew Yi; et al. (27 April 2001). "Asian Americans seen negatively". The San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 14 June 2007.
- Lai, H. Mark (2004). Becoming Chinese American: A History of Communities and Institutions. AltaMira Press. ISBN 978-0-7591-0458-7.
- García, Ofelia; Fishman, Joshua A. (2002). The Multilingual Apple: Languages in New York City. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-017281-2.
- Lai, H. Mark (2004). Becoming Chinese American: A History of Communities and Institutions. AltaMira Press. ISBN 978-0759104587. need page number(s)
- See, for instance, https://www.irs.gov/irm/part22/irm_22-031-001.html (Internal Revenue Manual 22.214.171.124.3 - "The standard language for translation is Traditional Chinese."
- "Chinese Americans". Projects.pewforum.org. 18 July 2012. Archived from the original on 3 August 2017. Retrieved 15 December 2017.
- "Group: Officials destroying crosses, burning bibles in China". AP NEWS. 10 September 2018. Retrieved 9 December 2019.
- University, Berkley Center for Religion, Peace and World Affairs at Georgetown. "Freedom of Religion in China: A Historical Perspective". berkleycenter.georgetown.edu. Retrieved 9 December 2019.
- Matthew Hilburn (17 January 2013). "Asian-American Vote Reveals Nuances". Voice of America. Retrieved 24 January 2013.
Chinese-Americans were the least likely to affiliate with a party. Magpantay suggested that only one third of Chinese-Americans belong to a party, compared with 71% among all Asian-Americans, because of the negative association of the word party with the Communist Party in China.
-  Archived 10 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- "Asian-Americans lean toward Kerry". Asia Times. 16 September 2004. Retrieved 22 September 2007.
- Hing, Julianne (18 January 2013). "Asian-American Voters Really, Really Loved Barack Obama in Election 2012". Colorlines. Archived from the original on 21 January 2013. Retrieved 11 November 2015.
- "As China's rich grow in numbers, so do their mobile aspirations - CNN.com". CNN. 21 November 2011.
- "Chinese millionaires seek for overseas activities- China Business Network". China-invests.net. Retrieved 15 December 2017.
- "Plan B for China's Wealthy: Moving to the U.S., Europe - WSJ.com". The Wall Street Journal.
- "Report: Half of China's millionaires want to leave". CNN. 1 November 2011. Archived from the original on 11 July 2012.
- Chinese rich are keen to emigrate, China Daily, 3 November 2011
- "The Mass Migration of the Super-Rich - U.S. Business News". Cnbc.com. Archived from the original on 3 April 2015. Retrieved 15 December 2017.
- "Rich Chinese seeking overseas residency". BBC News. 22 August 2012.
- 美国投资移民中国人占四分三 [3/4 of Investment Immigrants to the USA are Chinese] (in Chinese and English). Thinking Chinese. November 2011. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
- "U.S., Canada favored by China's third wave of emigrants - Headlines, features, photo and videos from". ecns.cn. Retrieved 7 May 2012.
- "Subscribe to read". Financial Times. Retrieved 15 December 2017.
- "Homepage". USCIS. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
- Lipin, Michael (28 June 2016). "US Media Scrutinize Wave of Chinese Migrants Illegally Crossing From Mexico". Voice of America News. Retrieved 1 March 2018.
- Xiaoqing, Rong (4 January 2017). "The Fading American Dreams of China's Most Notorious 'Snakehead'". Foreign Policy. Washington, DC. Retrieved 1 March 2018.
- Yee, Vivian; Davis, Kenan; Patel, Jugal K. (6 March 2017). "Here's the Reality About Illegal Immigrants in the United States". New York Times. Retrieved 1 March 2018.
- Hasenball, Mark; Reid, Tim (10 September 2015). "Exclusive - U.S. to China: Take back your undocumented immigrants". Reuters. Retrieved 1 March 2018.
- Wang, Hansi Lo (25 April 2017). "Mexicans No Longer Make Up Majority Of Immigrants In U.S. Illegally". The Two-Way. National Public Radio. Retrieved 1 March 2018.
"Mexicans, Chinese among 30 illegal immigrants arrested by Border Patrol outside new San Diego smuggling tunnel". Fox News. 27 August 2017. Retrieved 1 March 2018.
Davis, Kristina (25 September 2017). "Growing number of Chinese immigrants smuggled through San Diego border". San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved 1 March 2018.
- Ticker, Neil (12 November 2008). "Major Study of Chinese Americans Debunks 'Model Minority' Myth". University of Maryland. Archived from the original on 18 May 2012. Retrieved 10 May 2012.
- Choi, Daniel. "The Other Side of the Model Minority Myth". Yisei Magazine. Retrieved 2 December 2013.
- "Why Asian-Americans score so highly in the SAT & ACT". Study International. 30 November 2018. Retrieved 3 September 2019.
- Dharma, Tiffany (2011). "The Model Minority: Asian-American Youth and the Harmful Perpetuation of a Cultural Myth". Inquiries Journal. 3 (9): 2.
- "Traditional Chinese parenting". Parenting Science. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
- "Awards". Arthurhu.com. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
- Scott Jaschik (22 August 2011). "Who Applies (and Gets in)". Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved 26 February 2012.
Then there is the question of who applies to competitive colleges: the NELS data show that 30 percent of Asian American applicants do, compared to 18 percent of white students and 10 percent of black and Latino students.
- Ruiz, Neil. "The Geography of Foreign Students in U.S. Higher Education: Origins and Destinations". Brookings Institution. Archived from the original on November 23, 2014. Retrieved November 24, 2014.
- Segalini, Antonio (10 September 2018). "Purdue celebrates more students than ever seeking high-quality, affordable education". Purdue University.
- "All International Students by Country of Citizenship". University of Southern California. Retrieved 3 September 2019.
- Chenetski, Hannah (22 January 2014). "Majority of Ohio State Students Come from China". The Atlantic. Retrieved 3 September 2019.
- Peter Murray (16 November 2010). "China becomes No. 1 source for international students in U.S." Xinhua. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
- The number of students studying in the US is rising even faster than China's GDP. During the 2010-11 academic year, 157,588 Chinese students were studying in the US – an increase of 23% from the previous year, according to the Institute of International Education.
- "Chinese students enrolling in U.S. colleges in record numbers". Chicago Sun Times. 4 August 2011. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
- Jenna Johnson (14 November 2011). "Chinese students enroll in record numbers at U.S. colleges". Post Local. Retrieved 2 December 2013.
- Adrienne Mong (17 February 2013). "Chinese applications to U.S. schools skyrocket". Archived from the original on 7 May 2012. Retrieved 30 May 2012.
- Megan Gates (11 January 2012). "China's growing middle class means influx of students for U.S. colleges". USA Today College. Archived from the original on 6 September 2013. Retrieved 17 February 2013.
- Daniel de Vise (4 January 2012). "Pitching U.S. liberal arts in China". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2 December 2013.
- Joe Vaccarello (19 January 2011). "Chinese student loving life in U.S. college". CNN. Archived from the original on 7 April 2012. Retrieved 30 May 2012.
- "Europe opens its arms to Chinese students". 9 June 2019. Retrieved 3 September 2019.
- Seaton, Debanina (4 March 2012). "American universities see an influx of students from China". The South End. Archived from the original on 9 March 2012. Retrieved 14 November 2018.
- Yung, Judy; Chang, Gordon H.; Mark Lai, H. (20 March 2006). Chinese American Voices: From the Gold Rush to the Present - Judy Yung, Gordon H. Chang, H. Mark Lai. ISBN 9780520243095. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
- "Foreign-Born Entrepreneurs: An Underestimated American Resource". Kauffman.org. 30 September 2006. Archived from the original on 28 May 2012. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
- "Doctors and Nurses: A Demographic Profile". Cis.org. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
- "Chinese American Contributions to Silicon Valley". Modelminority.com. 31 March 2003. Archived from the original on 16 September 2013. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
- "100 Most Successful Asian American Entrepreneurs".
- "Awards". Arthurhu.com. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
- "Chinese American Contributions to Silicon Valley". Archived from the original on 16 September 2013. Retrieved 10 March 2012.
- "Immigrant Entrepreneurs". Careerbright. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
- "Asia Times Online :: South Asia news - More foreign cogs in the US engine". Atimes.com. 12 January 2007. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
- "A Valley Asset: Chinese, Indians Creating Businesses, Jobs, Wealth As Successful Entrepreneurs (PPIC Commentary)". Ppic.org. 21 June 1998. Archived from the original on 27 May 2013. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
- Wong, Raymond Sin-Kwok (14 August 2008). Chinese Entrepreneurship in a Global Era - Raymond Sin-Kwok Wong. ISBN 9780203894880. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
- Zinzius, Birgit (2004). Doing Business in the New China: A Handbook and Guide - Birgit Zinzius. ISBN 9780275980313. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
- Koehn, Peter H.; Yin, Xiao-Huang (31 May 2002). The Expanding Roles of Chinese Americans in U.S.-China Relations ... - Peter H. Koehn, Xiao-Huang Yin. ISBN 9780765609502. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
- Võ, Linda Trinh; Bonus, Rick (2009). Contemporary Asian American Communities: Intersections And Divergences - Linda Trinh Vő, Rick Bonus. ISBN 9781439901243. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
- Steven J. Gold (October 2006). "The Second Generation and Self-Employment". Migration Policy Institute. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
- "Survey of Business Owners". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 7 January 2012. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
- "Chinese-Owned Firms" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
- "Number of Firms by Receipts Size of Firm: 2007" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
- "Obama's Tax Plan and Small Businesses". FOX News. 21 April 2011. Archived from the original on 10 May 2011. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
- "Facts About Small Business Taxpayers". Small Business Trends. 20 December 2010. Retrieved 2 December 2013.
- "Romney Rejects Buffett's Call To Tax The Rich, Falsely Claims It Would Hurt Small Businesses". Think Progress. 15 August 2011. Archived from the original on 1 August 2012. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
- U.S. Government. "U.S. economics" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 March 2010. Retrieved 25 March 2012.
- "ASIAN AMERICAN CHARACTERISTICS.doc". ASIAN AMERICAN CHARACTERISTICS.doc. Retrieved 10 May 2012.
- Bureau, U.S. Census (2000). Chinese American Demographics. Améredia Incorporated.
- Dooley, Tom (January 2003). "| -A A +A Industry Watch: Chinese Lead Immigrant Groups in Homeownership". National Association of Realtors. Retrieved 10 May 2012.
- Bryan, Chiu; Melany Dela Cruz-Viesca (2008). "Following the Path to Asian American Home-ownership" (PDF). Asian Real Estate Association of America (AREAA) Via American Community Survey: 9–11. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 October 2012. Retrieved 10 May 2012.
- [permanent dead link]
- Wakabayashi, Daisuke (4 March 2019). "Google Finds It's Underpaying Many Men as It Addresses Wage Equity". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 21 June 2019.
- "Most Significant Unreached People Group Communities in Metro NY". GLOBAL GATES. 17 July 2012. Retrieved 27 October 2014.
- Palmer Kaup, Katherine. Creating the Zhuang: Ethnic Politics in China. p. 175.
- "Uyghur American Association". Uyghuramerican.org. Retrieved 15 December 2017.
- Shaw, Yu-ming. An American Missionary in China.
- "A Chinese Muslim in the U.S.: Religion and Nationality". Muslimobserver.com. 28 January 2010. Retrieved 15 December 2017.
- "Ma's Restaurant - Authentic Chinese Muslim Cusine". Ma's Restaurant - Authentic Chinese Muslim Cuisine. Retrieved 15 December 2017.
- Hinds, David A.; Stuve, Laura L.; Nilsen, Geoffrey B.; Halperin, Eran; Eskin, Eleazar; Ballinger, Dennis G.; Frazer, Kelly A.; Cox, David R. (18 February 2005). "Whole-Genome Patterns of Common DNA Variation in Three Human Populations". Science. 307 (5712): 1072–1079. Bibcode:2005Sci...307.1072H. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.115.3580. doi:10.1126/science.1105436. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 15718463.
- Tian, Chao; Kosoy, Roman; Lee, Annette; Ransom, Michael; Belmont, John W.; Gregersen, Peter K.; Seldin, Michael F. (5 December 2008). "Analysis of East Asia Genetic Substructure Using Genome-Wide SNP Arrays". PLOS One. 3 (12): e3862. Bibcode:2008PLoSO...3.3862T. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003862. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 2587696. PMID 19057645.
- Ding, Lin; Xu, Yu; Wang, Limin; Xu, Min; Jiang, Yong; Zhang, Mei; Li, Yichong; Lu, Jieli; Wang, Tiange (26 October 2016). "The cardiometabolic risk profile of Chinese adults with diabetes: A nationwide cross-sectional survey". Journal of Diabetes and its Complications. 31 (1): 43–52. doi:10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2016.10.023. ISSN 1873-460X. PMID 27838099.
- "Overcoming the obstacles of diagnosing diabetes in Asian Americans | Public Health". Public Health. 27 November 2012. Retrieved 4 December 2016.
- Hsu, William C.; Okeke, Eyiuche; Cheung, Sophia; Keenan, Hillary; Tsui, Tracy; Cheng, Kyle; King, George L. (2 December 2011). "A Cross-Sectional Characterization of Insulin Resistance by Phenotype and Insulin Clamp in East Asian Americans with Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes". PLOS One. 6 (12): e28311. Bibcode:2011PLoSO...628311H. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0028311. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 3229556. PMID 22164267.
- WonPat-Borja, Ahtoy J.; Yang, Lawrence H.; Link, Bruce G.; Phelan, Jo C. (4 December 2016). "Eugenics, genetics, and mental illness stigma in Chinese Americans". Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. 47 (1): 145–156. doi:10.1007/s00127-010-0319-7. ISSN 0933-7954. PMC 3141094. PMID 21079911.
- Chang, Iris. The Chinese in America: A Narrative History (Viking, 2003) 496 pages, ISBN 0-670-03123-2
- Chen, Shehong. Being Chinese, Becoming Chinese American (U. of Illinois Press, 2002) ISBN 0-252-02736-1
- Cheng, Cindy I-Fen. Citizens of Asian America: Democracy and Race during the Cold War (New York U. Press, 2013). 285p.
- Gillenkirk, Jeff and Motlow, James, "Bitter Melon: Inside America's Last Rural Chinese Town" (San Francisco, Nine Mile Press, 2015). 140 pp.
- Hsu, Madeline Y. The Good Immigrants: How the Yellow Peril Became the Model Minority (Princeton U. Press, 2015). xvi, 335 pp.
- Isaacs, Harold R. Scratches on Our Minds: American Images Of China And India (1958) online
- Kwong, Peter and Dusanka Miscevic. Chinese America: The Untold Story of America's Oldest New Community (2005)
- Lee, Jonathan H. X. ed. Chinese Americans: The History and Culture of a People (ABC-CLIO, 2016.) 498 pages.
- Ling, Huping, and Allan W. Austin, eds. Asian American History and Culture: An Encyclopedia (Routledge, 2015)
- Louie, Vivian S. Compelled To Excel: Immigration, Education, And Opportunity Among Chinese Americans, (Stanford U. Press, 2004) 272 pages, ISBN 0-8047-4985-X
- Meng, Chih. Chinese American Understanding: A Sixty-Year Search, (China Institute in America, 1981, hardcover, 255 pages, OCLC: 8027928
- Miscevic, Dusanka and Peter Kwong, eds. Chinese Americans: The Immigrant Experience, (Hugh Lauter Levin Associates, 2000), 240 pages, ISBN 0-88363-128-8
- See, Lisa. On Gold Mountain: The One-Hundred-Year Odyssey of My Chinese American Family, (1996). ISBN 0-679-76852-1. See also the website for an exhibition based on this book  from the Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Program.
- Song, Jingyi. Shaping and Reshaping Chinese American Identity: New York's Chinese during the Depression and World War II (2010)
- Tung, May Pao-May. Chinese Americans and Their Immigrant Parents: Conflict, Identity, and Values, Haworth Press, 2000.
- Xu Guoqi. Chinese and Americans: A Shared History. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2014.
- Young, Elliott. Alien Nation: Chinese Migration in the Americas from the Coolie Era through World War II. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2014.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Chinese diaspora in the United States.|
- Factfinder Chinese Americans 2005 American Community Survey
- The Rocky Road to Liberty: A Documented History of Chinese American Immigration and Exclusion
- Museum of Chinese in the Americas
- Chinese Culture Center & Chinese Culture Foundation of San Francisco
- Organization of Chinese Americans
- Chinese Historical Society of America
- "Paper Son" - one Chinese American's story of coming to America under the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
- Becoming American: The Chinese Experience a PBS Bill Moyers special. Thomas F. Lennon, Series Producer.
- Chinese American Contribution to Transcontinental Railroad - Central Pacific Railroad Photographic History Museum
- Emerging Information Technology Conference (EITC), organized by several Chinese American organizations
- Famous Chinese Americans Comprehensive list of famous Chinese Americans organized by professions. Includes short biographical notes and Chinese names.
- Chinese Information and Networking Association (CINA)
- Northwest Chinese Professionals Association
- The Yung Wing Project hosts the memoir of the first Chinese American graduate of an American university (Yale 1854).
- Chinese American Museum
- Documentary about the Golden Venture tragedy
- Americans and Chinese : purpose and fulfillment in great civilizations