The Western Hemisphere is a geographical term for the half of Earth which lies west of the prime meridian (which crosses Greenwich, London, United Kingdom) and east of the antimeridian. The other half is called the Eastern Hemisphere. In geopolitical terms, the context in which the term is most often used, the Encyclopædia Britannica defines it as "North and South America and the surrounding waters. Longitudes 20°W and 160°E are often considered its boundaries."  It may be used in a cultural or geopolitical sense as a synonym for the "New World".
The Western Hemisphere consists of the Americas, the western portions of Europe and Africa, the extreme eastern tip of Siberia (Russia), numerous territories in Oceania, and a portion of Antarctica, while excluding some of the Aleutian Islands to the southwest of the Alaskan mainland.
The center of the Western Hemisphere is located in the Pacific Ocean at the intersection of the 90th meridian west and the Equator, among the Galápagos Islands. The nearest land is Genovesa Island at .
Proposed revision of hemispheric bordersEdit
In an attempt to define the Western Hemisphere as the parts of the world which are not part of the Old World, there also exist projections which use the 20th meridian west and the diametrically opposed 160th meridian east to define the hemisphere. This projection excludes the European and African mainlands and a small portion of northeast Greenland, but includes more of eastern Russia and Oceania.
Sovereign states in both hemispheresEdit
Below is a list of the sovereign states which are in both the Western and Eastern Hemispheres on the IERS Reference Meridian, in order from north to south:
- Denmark, due to Greenland and the Faroe Islands; Denmark proper lies entirely within the Eastern Hemisphere.
- Norway, due to Jan Mayen; mainland Norway, Svalbard and Bouvet Island lie entirely within the Eastern Hemisphere.
- United Kingdom, passing through Greenwich, London. Most of the country lies within the Western Hemisphere.
- France, passing through Puynormand (Gironde.) About 1/3 of the country, including cities like Nantes or Bordeaux, as well as the overseas regions of Guadeloupe, Martinique, and French Guiana lie within the Western Hemisphere.
- Spain, passing through Castelló de la Plana (Valencian Community.) Most of Spain, including the capital Madrid, the Canary Islands and the southern half of its Mediterranean territorial waters, lies within the Western Hemisphere. Spanish, Moroccan and Algerian Mediterranean waters are the only part of the Mediterranean Sea located in the Western Hemisphere.
- Algeria, passing through Stidia. About 1/4 of the country including Oran, Algeria's second largest city, lies within the Western Hemisphere.
- Mali, passing through the municipal area of Gao. Most of Mali, including the capital Bamako, lies within the Western Hemisphere.
- Burkina Faso, passing through Lalgaye. Most of the country, including the capital Ouagadougou, lies within the Western Hemisphere.
- Ghana, passing through Tema. Most of Ghana, including the capital Accra, lies within the Western Hemisphere.
- Togo, passing near Tami (Tône Prefecture in Savanes Region).
Below is a list of the sovereign states which are in both the Western and Eastern Hemispheres along the 180th meridian, in order from north to south. With the exception of the United States (due to Wake Island, Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands), all of them are located on just one side of the International Date Line, which is curved around them.
- Russia, only the easternmost portion of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug lies east of the 180th meridian.
- United States, except Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Wake Island and a portion of the Aleutian Islands, most of the country lies east of the 180th meridian.
- Kiribati, the only country in the world with both the Equator and the antimeridian crossing through its territory.
- New Zealand, most of New Zealand proper lies within the Eastern Hemisphere; only the Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau, the Chatham Islands and the Kermadec Islands lie east of the 180th meridian.
One sovereign state has territory in both hemispheres, but neither the prime meridian nor the 180th meridian passes through its territory:
Countries, dependencies and other territories in the Western Hemisphere but not in the AmericasEdit
The following countries and territories lie outside the Americas yet are entirely, mostly or partially within the Western Hemisphere:
- Olson, Judy M (1997), "Projecting the hemisphere", in Robinson, Arthur H; Snyder, John P (eds.), Matching the map projection to the need, Bethesda, MD: Cartography and Geographic Information Society, American Congress on Surveying and Mapping.
- "Western Hemisphere", Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary (3rd ed.), Springfield, Massachusetts: Merriam-Webster, 2001, p. 1294.
- Oxford Dictionary of English (2nd ed.), London, UK: Oxford University Press, 2006, p. 2001
- "Western /western%20hemisphere", Merriam Webster's Online Dictionary (based on Collegiate vol., 11th ed.), Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster, 2006
- "Western Hemisphere". Britannica.com.
- Bureau of Western Hemisphere Affairs, United States Department of State.
- Western Hemisphere, United States Department of the Treasury.
- Western Hemisphere, Office of the United States Trade Representative.
- Joe Biden: The Western Hemisphere Needs U.S. Leadership, Americas Quarterly, 17 December 2018.
- Western Hemisphere, United States Department of Justice.
- Western Hemisphere, United States Department of Agriculture.
- Western Hemisphere, United States Fish and Wildlife Service.
- Western Hemisphere, Fulbright Program.
- "Informe científico que estudia el Aconcagua, el Coloso de América mide 6960,8 metros" [Scientific Report on Aconcagua, the Colossus of America measures 6960,8m] (in Spanish). Universidad Nacional de Cuyo. 2012. Archived from the original on September 8, 2012. Retrieved September 3, 2012.
- Media related to Western Hemisphere at Wikimedia Commons