Plano (/ˈpln/ PLAY-noh) is a city in the U.S. state of Texas, located in Collin County as largest of the county. Plano is also one of the principal cities of the Dallas-Fort Worth metropolitan area. With a population of 285,494 at the 2020 census,[5] it is the ninth most-populous city in Texas, and, respectively, the 72nd most populous city in the United States.

Legacy Town Center in Plano
Legacy Town Center in Plano
Flag of Plano
Location within Collin County
Location within Collin County
Map of USA
Map of USA
Location within Texas
Map of USA
Map of USA
Location within the United States
Coordinates: 33°01′11″N 96°41′56″W / 33.01972°N 96.69889°W / 33.01972; -96.69889[1]
CountryUnited States
CountiesCollin, Denton
IncorporatedJune 2, 1873[2]
 • TypeCouncil-Manager
 • MayorJohn B. Muns
 • BodyPlano City Council
 • City managerMark Israelson
 • Total72.04 sq mi (186.59 km2)
 • Land71.69 sq mi (185.67 km2)
 • Water0.36 sq mi (0.93 km2)
Elevation719 ft (219 m)
 • Total285,494
 • Density4,012.96/sq mi (1,549.42/km2)
 • Demonym
Time zoneUTC−6 (CST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−5 (CDT)
ZIP Codes
75023-26, 75074-75, 75086, 75093-94
Area codes214, 469, 945, 972
FIPS code48-58016[4]
GNIS feature ID2411437[1]

Plano's economy is a large part of Dallas' economy, home to many large companies such as Frito Lay, JCPenney, Pizza Hut, and other major distributors. Plano has also been named as both one of the fastest growing cities and one of the best places to live in the country.

History edit

Plano, Texas in 1891. Toned lithograph by A.E. Downs, Boston. Published by T. M. Fowler & James B. Moyer. Amon Carter Museum, Fort Worth, Texas

Settlers came to the area near present-day Plano in the early 1840s.[2] Facilities such as a sawmill, a gristmill, and a store soon brought more people to the area. A mail service was established, and after rejecting several names for the nascent town (including naming it in honor of then-President Millard Fillmore),[6] residents suggested the name Plano (from the Spanish word for "flat") in reference to the local terrain, unvaried and devoid of any trees. The post office accepted the name.[6]

In 1872, the completion of the Houston and Central Texas Railway helped Plano grow, and it was incorporated in 1873.[6] By 1874, the population was over 500.[2] In 1881, a fire raged through the business district, destroying most of the buildings.[2][6] Plano was rebuilt and business again flourished through the 1880s. Also in 1881, the city assumed responsibility for what would eventually become Plano Independent School District (PISD), ending the days of it being served only by private schools.[2]

At first, Plano's population grew slowly, reaching 1,304 in 1900 and 3,695 in 1960.[2] By 1970, Plano began to feel some of the boom its neighbors had experienced after World War II. A series of public works projects and a change in taxes that removed the farming community from the town helped increase the population. In 1970, the population reached 17,872,[2] and by 1980, it had exploded to 72,000.[2] Sewers, schools, and street development kept pace with this massive increase, largely because of Plano's flat topography, grid layout, and planning initiatives.

During the 1980s, many large corporations, including J. C. Penney and Frito-Lay, moved their headquarters to Plano, spurring further growth. By 1990, the population reached 128,713,[2] dwarfing the county seat, McKinney. In 1994, Plano was recognized as an All-America City.[7] By 2000, the population grew to 222,030,[2] making it one of Dallas's largest suburbs. Plano is surrounded by other municipalities and so cannot expand in area, and there is little undeveloped land within the city limits. But as of July 2012, one large tract of land was being developed: Turnpike Commons[8] at the intersection of Renner Road and the George Bush Turnpike (also bordered by Shiloh Road to the east). The development is expected to feature apartments, medical facilities, restaurants, a Race Trac gas station, and a hotel.

On June 15, 2015, after five years of disuse, a 178-foot water tower built in 1985 was demolished to make room for Legacy West.[9]

Geography edit

According to the United States Census Bureau, Plano has an area of 71.6 square miles (185.5 km2). Plano is about 17 miles (27 km) from Downtown Dallas.[10]

Plano is in the humid subtropical climate zone. The highest recorded temperature was 118 °F (48 °C) in 1936. On average, the coolest month is January and the warmest is July. The lowest recorded temperature was –7 °F (–22 °C) in 1930. The maximum average precipitation occurs in May.

Demographics edit

Historical population
U.S. Decennial Census[11]
Map of racial distribution in Plano, 2020 U.S. census. Each dot is 25 people:  White  Black  Asian  Hispanic  Other
Plano racial composition as of 2020[12]
(NH = Non-Hispanic)[a]
Race Number Percentage
White (NH) 132,194 46.3%
Black or African American (NH) 25,026 8.77%
Native American or Alaska Native (NH) 845 0.3%
Asian (NH) 68,738 24.08%
Pacific Islander (NH) 133 0.05%
Some Other Race (NH) 1,330 0.47%
Mixed/Multi-Racial (NH) 11,429 4.0%
Hispanic or Latino 45,799 16.04%
Total 285,494

As of the 2020 United States census, there were 285,494 people, 107,320 households, and 76,211 families residing in the city. As of the census of 2010,[4] Plano had 259,841 people, 99,131 households and 69,464 families, up from 80,875 households and 60,575 families in the 2000 census. The population density was 3,629.1 inhabitants per square mile (1,401.2/km2). There were 103,672 housing units at an average density of 1,448.6 per square mile (559.3/km2).

In 2010, the racial makeup of the city was 67% White (58.4% non-Hispanic white),[15] 7.5% Black, 0.36% Native American, 16.9% Asian (6.5% Asian Indian, 5.2% Chinese, 1.2% Vietnamese, 1.2% Korean, 0.6% Filipino, 0.2% Japanese, 1.9% Other), 0.1% Pacific Islander, 3.86% from other races, and 3.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino made up 14.7% of the population (10.6% Mexican, 0.5% Puerto Rican, 0.2% Cuban, 3.5% Other). By 2020, the racial makeup was 46.3% non-Hispanic white, 8.77% Black or African American, 0.3% Native American, 24.08% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.47% some other race, 4.0% multiracial, and 16.04% Hispanic or Latino of any race,[12] reflecting nationwide trends of greater diversification.[16]

Of the 99,131 households in 2010, 35.8% had children under the age of 18. Married couples accounted for 56.7%; 9.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 29.9% were non-families. About 24.4% of all households were individuals, and 5.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61, and the average family size was 3.15. Data indicates that 28.7% of Plano's population was under the age of 18, 7.0% was 18 to 24, 36.5% was 25 to 44, 22.9% was 45 to 64, and 4.9% was 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34. For every 100 females, there were 99.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.2 males.

According to a 2007 estimate, the median income for a household in the city was $84,492, and the median income for a family was $101,616.[17] About 3.0% of families and 4.3% of the population were living below the poverty line, including 4.6% of those under age 18 and 7.8% of those 65 or older. In 2007, Plano had the United States' highest median income among cities with a population exceeding 250,000, at $84,492.[18] According to crime statistics, there were four homicides in Plano in 2006, the lowest rate of all U.S. cities of 250,000 or more people.[19]

Plano also has a substantial Iranian-American community.[20]

Foreign-born residents edit

As of the 2000 U.S. census, of the foreign-born residents, 17% were from China, 9% from India, and 4% from Vietnam;[21] a total of 30% of foreign-born residents came from these three countries. That year, 22% of Plano's foreign-born originated in Mexico.[22]

Chinese Americans edit

Along with Houston, Plano has one of Texas's two major concentrations of Chinese Americans.[23] According to the 2010 U.S. census, there were 14,500 ethnic Chinese in Plano. Of cities with 250,000 or more residents, Plano has the sixth-largest percentage of ethnic Chinese, making up 5.2% of the city's population. Charlie Yue, the executive vice president of the Association of Chinese Professionals, estimated that about 30,000 Plano residents are Chinese and that many "don't participate in government activities, like the census".[24]

Chinese professionals began to settle Plano by 1991.[25] As of 2011, DFW's Chinese restaurants catering to ethnic Chinese are mainly in Plano and Richardson.[26] Most of the DFW-area Chinese cultural organizations are headquartered in Plano and Richardson. Plano has six Chinese churches[24] and supermarkets, including 99 Ranch Market and zTao Marketplace.[27]

Economy edit

Top employers edit

Rent-A-Center headquarters office building in Plano, Texas
The Shops at Willow Bend, Plano's upscale shopping mall[28]

According to the 2023 Corporate Regional Headquarters Report,[29] Plano's top 10 employers were:

# Employer # of Employees
1 JPMorgan Chase               9,500
2 Capital One Finance               7,542
3 Toyota Motor North America, Inc.               4,573
4 AT&T Foundry and Services               2,500
5 Ericsson               2,406
6 Liberty Mutual Insurance Company               2,385
7 Samsung Electronics America, Inc. (a subsidiary of Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.)               1,989
8 PepsiCo               1,881
9 NTT DATA, Inc.               1,867
10 Frito-Lay               1,712

About 80% of Plano's visitors are business travelers, due to its close proximity to Dallas and the many corporations headquartered in Plano. The city also has a convention center owned and operated by the city. Plano has made a concerted effort to draw retail to its downtown area and the Legacy West in an effort to boost sales tax returns. It has two malls, The Shops at Willow Bend and The Shops at Legacy. Collin Creek Mall closed in 2019. There is an area that has apartments, shops, and restaurants constructed with the New Urbanism philosophy.[30] An experimental luxury Walmart Supercenter is at Park Boulevard and the Dallas North Tollway.[31]

Headquarters of major corporations edit

Some of the country's largest and most recognized companies are headquartered in Plano. Legacy Drive in ZIP Code 75024, between Preston Road and Dallas North Tollway, has many corporate campuses. The following companies have corporate headquarters (Fortune 1000 headquarters) or major regional offices in Plano:[32]

In 2014 Toyota Motor North America announced its U.S. headquarters would move from Torrance, California, to Plano.[37] In 2015, Liberty Mutual announced its plans to build a new corporate campus just a few blocks east of Toyota's, bringing an estimated 5,000 jobs to the community.[38] In January 2016, JP Morgan Chase and mortgage giant Fannie Mae announced they would move their regional operations to Plano, bringing a combined 7,000 new jobs to the community.[39]

Arts and culture edit

The Plano Public Library System (PPLS) consists of the W.O. Haggard, Jr. Library, the Maribelle M. Davis Library, the Gladys Harrington Library, the Christopher A. Parr Library, the L.E.R. Schimelpfenig Library, and the Municipal Reference Library. The Haggard Library houses the system's administrative offices.[40]

The Plano Symphony Orchestra is partially funded by the city, performing regularly at St. Andrew United Methodist Church and the Charles W. Eisemann Center for Performing Arts in nearby Richardson.[41]

Historic sites edit

Parks and recreation edit

Haggard Park in October 2015
Dickens in Downtown Plano 2014 Lighting of the Tree

Although Plano is named for the flat plains of the area, large trees abound in the city's many parks.[42] One such tree, estimated to be over 200 years old, is in Bob Woodruff Park, near Rowlett Creek on the city's east side.[43]

There are two main open space preserves: Arbor Hills Nature Preserve (200 acres) which contains a pond in honor of Vasil Levski[44] and Oak Point Park and Nature Preserve (800 acres). Bob Woodruff Park and Oak Point Park and Nature Preserve are connected by biking trails, making the green space one large uninterrupted park space larger than New York City's Central Park (840 acres). Go Ape, a family-friendly place with outdoor activities like ziplining and Tarzan swings, is at Oak Point Park and Preserve.[45] The Plano Balloon Festival, which happens every September, also takes place at Oak Point Park and Preserve. Another open space is Haggard Park, which hosts the annual Plano AsiaFest in May.[46] Acreage of all spaces the Parks Department manages totals 3,830.81. The Plano Master Plan has the acreage growing to 4,092.63 when complete.[47]

There are five recreation centers: Tom Muehlenbeck Recreation Center, Carpenter Park Recreation Center, Oak Point Recreation Center, Liberty Recreation Center, and Douglass Community Center. Carpenter Park Recreation Center, Oak Point Recreation Center, and Tom Muehlenbeck Recreation Center have an indoor pool, while Liberty Recreation Center has an outdoor pool.[48] Plano Senior Recreation Center is a recreation center dedicated to seniors. There are three swimming pools owned by Plano Parks & Recreation: Harry Rowlinson Community Natatorium, Jack Carter Pool, and Plano Aquatic Center. All the pools are indoor except Jack Carter Pool. Douglass Community Center houses the Boys & Girls Club of Collin County. For pet owners, there are The Dog Park at Jack Carter Park, The Dog Park at Bob Woodruff, and Dog Park at Windhaven Meadows Park.

The City of Plano also owns and operates four performing arts venues and a conference center under the auspices of the Parks and Recreation Department: the Courtyard Theater, the Cox Playhouse, the Amphitheater at Oak Point Park, McCall Plaza, and the Oak Point Park Nature and Retreat Center.

Government edit

Local government edit

The Municipal Center in October 2015

Plano has a council-manager form of government, with a part-time city council that sets city policy and a city manager responsible for city operations. The Plano City Council has eight members elected on a nonpartisan basis in staggered odd-year elections every other May. Council members and the mayor are elected by and serve the city at large. Council members serving in places one, two, three, and four must reside in that district, and the mayor always serves in place six. The mayor receives a yearly stipend of $8,400, and each council member receives $6,000.

All council members, including the mayor, serve a maximum of two consecutive four-year terms.[49] The mayor and city council members could serve for a maximum of three consecutive three-year terms until voters approved changes to the city charter in 2011.[50]

The 38th mayor of Plano was businessman Harry LaRosiliere, who was elected the first African-American mayor of Plano in 2013.[51] Plano elected its first African-American city council member, David Perry, in 1990.[52]

On December 8, 2014, the city council passed an amendment to its civil rights act to include sexual orientation and gender identity as protected.[53][54] The ordinance drew the ire of conservative groups such as the Liberty Institute, which argued that it infringed on business owners' religious rights.[55] Many civil rights organizations were not supportive either, such as the Human Rights Campaign, which argued that the policy's exclusion of transgender individuals from being able to use bathrooms and locker rooms that align with their gender identity rendered the ordinance not worth defending.[56]

In the 2008 fiscal year Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, Plano reported $194 million in revenue, $212 million in expenditures, $278 million in total assets, $31.4 million in total liabilities, and $337 million in cash and investments.[57]

Plano is a voluntary member of the North Central Texas Council of Governments association, the purpose of which is to coordinate individual and collective local governments and facilitate regional solutions, eliminate unnecessary duplication, and enable joint decisions.

In 2020, Police Chief Ed Drain announced the Plano Police Department would no longer make arrests for possession of small amounts of marijuana.[58]

Politics edit

Dallas's wealthy northern suburbs were solidly Republican, and in 2005, the Bay Area Center for Voting Research ranked Plano, the largest of them, the United States' fifth-most conservative city.[59] It has recently become more competitive in national elections as its population has diversified, shifting toward the Democratic Party since 2016, when Donald Trump won the city by a narrow margin. In 2018, Beto O'Rourke became the first Democrat to win the city in a statewide election in the 21st century, and in 2020, Joe Biden won the city by an even larger margin. But in local and state elections, Plano still leans Republican, voting to reelect Governor Greg Abbott in 2018 and narrowly reelecting Republicans to the Texas House of Representatives and Texas Senate in 2018 and 2020.

2020 US Presidential Election precinct results
Plano city vote by party in presidential elections[60][61]
Year Democratic Republican Third Parties
2020 53.50% 72,736 44.75% 60,840 1.76% 2,389
2016 45.31% 49,522 50.12% 54,784 4.56% 4,988
2012 37.44% 37,435 60.74% 60,733 1.82% 1,817
2008 39.70% 42,441 59.11% 63,193 1.19% 1,280
2004 31.07% 30,387 68.06% 66,562 0.87% 852
2000 25.65% 20,888 71.78% 58,447 2.57% 2,093
Plano city vote by party in Class I Senate elections[60][61]
Year Democratic Republican Third Parties
2018 52.35% 55,804 46.85% 49,941 0.81% 859
2012 36.94% 35,813 60.01% 58,183 3.06% 2,963
2006 28.75% 15,040 68.91% 36,047 2.34% 1,225
2000 18.22% 14,634 79.29% 63,674 2.49% 1,999
Plano city vote by party in Class II Senate elections[60][61]
Year Democratic Republican Third Parties
2020 48.86% 65,024 48.87% 65,039 2.26% 3,013
2014 31.65% 18,134 64.63% 37,028 3.72% 2,131
2008 35.79% 36,916 61.81% 63,753 2.40% 2,480
2002 30.55% 17,156 68.45% 38,441 1.01% 566
Plano city vote by party in gubernatorial elections[60][61]
Year Democratic Republican Third Parties
2022 50.92% 48,773 47.66% 45,617 1.42% 1,360
2018 44.43% 46,993 53.67% 56,757 1.90% 2,008
2014 37.03% 21,331 61.57% 35,461 1.72% 991
2010 35.62% 18,992 61.71% 32,904 2.67% 1,427
2006 26.11% 13,828 47.15% 24,970 26.74% 14,164
2002 25.07% 14,294 73.52% 41,910 1.93% 1,102

State representation edit

Plano is split between the 33rd, 65th, 66th, 67th, 70th, and 89th Districts in the Texas House of Representatives. The part of Plano in Collin County is wholly contained in Texas Senate, District 8, while the Denton County portion is in Texas Senate, District 30.

Republican Justin Holland represents Texas House District 33, Republican Kronda Thimesch represents Texas House District 65, Republican Matt Shaheen represents Texas House District 66, Republican Jeff Leach has represented Texas House District 67 since 2013, Democrat Mihaela Plesa represents Texas House District 70, and Republican Candy Noble represents Texas House District 89. Republican Angela Paxton represents Texas Senate District 8 and Republican Drew Springer represents Texas Senate District 30.

Federal representation edit

Plano is split between Texas's 3rd, 4th, 26th, and 32nd congressional districts, represented by Republicans Keith Self, Pat Fallon, and Michael Burgess, and Democrat Colin Allred respectively. Plano is represented in the United States Senate by Republicans Ted Cruz and John Cornyn.

Education edit

Plano has 70 public schools, 16 private schools, and two campuses of Collin College.

Primary and secondary schools edit

Plano West Senior High School

The Plano Independent School District serves most of the city.[62] Student enrollment has increased dramatically over the past few decades[which?].[citation needed] Plano has a unique high school system, in which grades 9–10 attend a high school and grades 11–12 attend a senior high.[63] There are three senior high schools (grades 11–12) in PISD: Plano East, Plano, and Plano West.[63] Small portions of Plano are served by the Lewisville Independent School District, Frisco Independent School District, and Allen Independent School District.[62][64]

Plano schools graduate more of their students than comparable districts. In 2010, 93% of Plano Independent School District students graduated from high school, 18 percentage points higher than Dallas ISD's rate.[65] In 2012, Plano Independent School District announced that 128 seniors were selected as National Merit Semifinalists.[66]

Plano has given $1.2 billion in property tax revenue to other school districts through Texas's "Robin Hood" law, which requires school districts designated as affluent to give a percentage of their property tax revenue to other districts outside the county.[67] In 2008, PISD gave $86 million. Controversy erupted when the salaries of teachers in less affluent districts—such as Garland ISD—exceeded the salaries of teachers in districts that had to pay into "Robin Hood".[68]

In the 2013–14 school year, Plano ISD opened two four-year high school academies, one focusing on STEAM (STEM education plus Media Arts) called Plano ISD Academy High School, and the other on health science. Additionally, the district modified its International Baccalaureate program to allow freshmen and sophomores in the program to be housed at Plano East Senior High School.[69]

In addition to Catholic primary and middle schools, the Roman Catholic Diocese of Dallas operates John Paul II High School in Plano. Non-Catholic private schools in Plano include Great Lakes Academy, Spring Creek Academy, Yorktown Education, and Prestonwood Christian Academy. In addition, the Collin County campus of Coram Deo Academy is in the One Church (previously Four Corners Church) facility in Plano.[70]

Colleges and universities edit

Entrance to the Spring Creek campus of Collin College in Plano, Texas

Plano is the home to two campuses of Collin College, one at the Courtyard Center on Preston Park Boulevard and the larger Spring Creek Campus on Spring Creek Parkway at Jupiter.[71] DBU North, a satellite campus of Dallas Baptist University, is in west Plano, and offers undergraduate and graduate courses and houses the admissions and academic counseling offices.[72]

As defined by the Texas Legislature, all of Collin County is in the Collin College district. The portion of Plano within Denton County is zoned to North Central Texas College.[73]

Infrastructure edit

Transportation edit

A DART Red Line train at the Downtown Plano station

Plano is one of 12 suburbs of Dallas that opt into the Dallas Area Rapid Transit (DART) public transportation system. During its early membership in DART, Plano was lightly served by bus lines, but in 2002, the Red Line of the DART Light Rail project opened stations in Downtown Plano and at Parker Road, which provide access to commuters traveling to work elsewhere in the Dallas area. The Orange Line traverses the same route for selected weekday/peak hour trips. Bus routes serve areas of downtown, south central, and west Plano, but no bus routes serve the far north, north central, and far east areas. Instead, DART's GoLink on-demand service serves these areas.[74] The Silver Line is also planned to run through Southern Plano. Approximately 1% of the city's population uses DART. The Parker Road station charged for parking for non-member city residents from April 2, 2012, to April 3, 2014, as a part of the Fair Share Parking initiative. Two DART park-and-ride bus facilities, separate from the rail lines, are in Plano: Jack Hatchell Transit Center and Northwest Plano Park & Ride.

Plano was the first city in Collin County to adopt a master plan for its road system. The use of multi-lane, divided highways for all major roads allows for higher speed limits, generally 40 mph (64 km/h), but sometimes up to 55 mph (89 km/h) on the northern section of Preston Road. Plano is served directly by several major roadways and freeways. Central Plano is bordered to the east by U.S. Highway 75, the west by Dallas North Tollway, the south by President George Bush Turnpike (Texas State Highway 190 (east of Coit Road)), and the north by Sam Rayburn Tollway (Texas State Highway 121). Preston Road (Texas State Highway 289) is a major thoroughfare that runs through the city. Plano is Texas's largest city without an interstate highway.

Plano opened a new interchange at Parker Rd. and U.S. 75 in December 2010. The single-point interchange is the first of its kind in Texas. The design is intended to reduce severe congestion at this interchange. According to reports, traffic congestion has been reduced by 50-75%.

Plano is roughly 30 miles northeast of Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, the primary airport serving Plano residents and visitors.

Fire department edit

Plano Fire-Rescue has 386 full-time firefighters[75] who operate out of 13 stations. The department is responsible for a population of 271,000 residents spread across 72 square miles (190 km2).[76] It is also the 10th largest department (by number of firefighters) in the state of Texas.[77]

Police edit

The Plano Police Department is an accredited agency[78] and Plano's principal law enforcement agency. The department is led by Chief Ed Drain.[79] The department has authorized staff of 414 sworn officers, 178 full-time civilian employees, and 79 civilian part-time employees.[79] It is a member of the North Texas Crime Commission and uses the Crime Stoppers program.

Water edit

Plano is part of the North Texas Municipal Water District, headquartered in Wylie, Texas. Lake Lavon is the district's principal source of raw water. Plano's water distribution system includes:

  • 10 elevated towers
  • 12 ground storage tanks
  • 54.5 million-gallon water storage capacity
  • 5 pump stations
  • 225 million-gallon daily pumping capacity
  • 1,080 miles of water mains
  • 65,965 metered service connections

Notable people edit

Sister cities edit

Plano's sister cities are:[124]

Brampton, Canada, was also a sister city to Plano until 2018.[125]

See also edit

Notes edit

  1. ^ Note: the US Census treats Hispanic/Latino as an ethnic category. This table excludes Latinos from the racial categories and assigns them to a separate category. Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.[13][14]

References edit

  1. ^ a b c U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Plano, Texas
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Plano Timeline" (PDF). Plano, Texas: City of Plano. February 17, 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 4, 2012. Retrieved July 11, 2011.
  3. ^ "2019 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved August 7, 2020.
  4. ^ a b "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved December 16, 2022.
  5. ^ "QuickFacts: Plano city, Texas". U.S. Census Bureau.
  6. ^ a b c d Schell, Shirley; Wells, Frances B. "Plano, TX". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved July 11, 2011.
  7. ^ "All-America Cities by State (1949–2009)" (PDF). All-America City Award. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 10, 2011. Retrieved July 11, 2011.
  8. ^ "Turnpike Commons" (PDF). August 13, 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 7, 2013. Retrieved January 17, 2022.
  9. ^ "Crews Demolish 30-Year-Old Plano Water Tower".
  10. ^ Haag, Matthew. "Maybe Toyota moved to Plano because the suburb is a lot like Torrance, Calif." (Archive). The Dallas Morning News. May 6, 2014. Retrieved on September 4, 2015.
  11. ^ "Census of Population and Housing". Retrieved June 4, 2015.
  12. ^ a b "Explore Census Data". Retrieved May 22, 2022.
  13. ^ Bureau, US Census. "". Retrieved July 19, 2022.
  14. ^ "About the Hispanic Population and its Origin". Retrieved May 18, 2022.
  15. ^ "Plano (city), Texas". State & County QuickFacts. U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on October 23, 2013. Retrieved December 5, 2013.
  16. ^ Ura, Alexa; Kao, Jason; Astudillo, Carla; Essig, Chris (August 12, 2021). "People of color make up 95% of Texas' population growth, and cities and suburbs are booming, 2020 census shows". The Texas Tribune. Retrieved June 2, 2022.
  17. ^ "Plano 2007 Income Estimates". 2007. Archived from the original on February 12, 2020. Retrieved July 11, 2011.
  18. ^ "". Archived from the original on September 22, 2008. Retrieved July 11, 2011.
  19. ^ "Offenses Known to Law Enforcement by State by City, 2006". Uniform Crime Report, 2006. FBI. 2007. Archived from the original on December 22, 2010. Retrieved July 11, 2011.
  20. ^ "Iranian Community in North Texas" (PDF). Retrieved July 19, 2022.
  21. ^ Brettell, Caroline B. '"Big D" Incorporating New Immigrants in a Sunbelt Suburban Metropolis' (Chapter 3). In: Singer, Audrey, Susan Wiley Hardwick, and Caroline Brettell. Twenty-First Century Gateways: Immigrant Incorporation in Suburban America (James A. Johnson metro series). Brookings Institution Press, 2009. ISBN 0815779283, 9780815779285. Start p. 53. CITED: p.64.
  22. ^ Brettell, Caroline B. '"Big D" Incorporating New Immigrants in a Sunbelt Suburban Metropolis' (Chapter 3). In: Singer, Audrey, Susan Wiley Hardwick, and Caroline Brettell. Twenty-First Century Gateways: Immigrant Incorporation in Suburban America (James A. Johnson metro series). Brookings Institution Press, 2009. ISBN 0815779283, 9780815779285. Start p. 53. CITED: p.61.
  23. ^ Railey, Kimberley. "Cornyn seeks to lure Chinese Americans to GOP" (Archive). The Dallas Morning News. September 3, 2014. Retrieved on September 22, 2014.
  24. ^ a b Kripke, Pamela Gwyn. "Why 30,000 Chinese People Call Plano Home" (Archive). D Magazine. June 2012. Retrieved on September 27, 2014.
  25. ^ Meyers, Jessica. "Rare Chinese bilingual program highlights Plano schools' diversity" (Archive). The Dallas Morning News. November 4, 2011. Retrieved on September 22, 2014.
  26. ^ Brenner, Leslie. "Best in DFW: Chinese restaurants" (Archive). The Dallas Morning News. March 9, 2011. Updated February 10, 2013. Retrieved on September 22, 2014.
  27. ^ Connie Dufner (March 24, 2017). "Asian supermarket bonanza: 7 great places to shop in North Texas". Retrieved May 31, 2018.
  28. ^ "Upscale mall Shops at Willow Bend opens today in Plano to offer array of stores new to Texas". The Fort Worth Star-Telegram. August 3, 2001. Retrieved January 8, 2013.
  29. ^ "Leading Employers | Plano Economic Development, TX - Official Website". Retrieved June 20, 2023.
  30. ^ "Legacy Town Center". Plano, Texas: Legacy In Plano. Archived from the original on July 13, 2011. Retrieved July 11, 2011.
  31. ^ Bivins, Ralph (February 13, 2000). "The Woodlands becomes a leader in office construction". Houston Chronicle. pp. Business 8. Retrieved July 11, 2011.
  32. ^ "Headquarters Regional Offices". Retrieved May 3, 2018.
  33. ^ Karen Robinson, "Fogo de Chão plans North Texas expansion to Uptown, Plano" Dallas News, June 4, 2018.
  34. ^ "Huawei Device USA, Inc. HQ".
  35. ^ "Robot Entertainment".
  36. ^ "Software & Services for the Public Sector – Tyler Technologies". Retrieved February 16, 2019.
  37. ^ Hirsch, Jerry and David Undercoffler. "Toyota to move jobs and marketing headquarters from Torrance to Texas." Los Angeles Times. April 27, 2014. Retrieved on April 29, 2014.
  38. ^ "Liberty Mutual to bring up to 5,000 workers to Plano". Dallas News. April 7, 2015. Retrieved February 16, 2019.
  39. ^ "JPMorgan Chase picks Plano's Legacy West for new 6,000-employee campus". Retrieved September 11, 2017.
  40. ^ "General Information". Plano Public Library System. Archived from the original on October 25, 2011. Retrieved October 17, 2011. W.O. Haggard, Jr. Library 2501 Coit Road (75075)" and "Library Administration 2501 Coit Road
  41. ^ "About Plano Symphony Orchestra | Our Mission & History". Plano Symphony Orchestra. Retrieved April 29, 2022.
  42. ^ "Plano's map of big trees". Retrieved August 24, 2014.
  43. ^ "Plano's Bi-centennial Bur Oak". Retrieved September 11, 2017.
  44. ^ "Google Maps". Retrieved July 19, 2022.
  45. ^ "Plano, TX". Retrieved September 11, 2017.
  46. ^ "AsiaFest: Plano Asian American Heritage Festival". City of Plano. Retrieved April 17, 2021.
  47. ^ "Plano Park Master Plan". Retrieved August 24, 2014.
  48. ^ "Plano, TX - Official Website". Retrieved September 11, 2017.
  49. ^ "City Council". Plano, Texas: City of Plano. 2013. Archived from the original on September 20, 2013. Retrieved January 5, 2014.
  50. ^ Boardman, Ananada (2013). "Plano, McKinney to vote on change to city council terms". Dallas Morning News. Retrieved January 5, 2014.
  51. ^ Schnyder, Mark (2013). "Plano Elects First Black Mayor". Retrieved January 5, 2014.
  52. ^ Watkins, Matthew (2013). "David Perry, Plano's first black city council member, has died". Dallas Morning News. Archived from the original on January 6, 2014. Retrieved January 5, 2014.
  53. ^ Ford, Zack. "Plano, Texas Passes LGBT Nondiscrimination Protections Despite Vocal Opposition". Archived from the original on April 9, 2015.
  54. ^ Hundley, Wendy (December 9, 2014). "Plano approves controversial Equal Rights Policy". Dallas Morning News. Retrieved December 9, 2014.
  55. ^ "Opponents of Plano's LGBT policy say petition drive successful".
  56. ^ "HRC Unlikely to Defend Plano Nondiscrimination Ordinance". January 23, 2015. Retrieved April 7, 2015.
  57. ^ "City of Plano CAFR" (PDF). Plano, Texas: City of Plano. 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 21, 2011. Retrieved July 11, 2011.
  58. ^ "Plano police will no longer make arrests for small amounts of marijuana". Dallas Morning News. April 2, 2021. Retrieved November 10, 2022.
  59. ^ Bay Area Center for Voting Research Retrieved January 7, 2014.
  60. ^ a b c d "Election Results". Retrieved May 30, 2021.
  61. ^ a b c d "Denton County, TX Elections". Retrieved May 30, 2021.
  62. ^ a b "2020 CENSUS - SCHOOL DISTRICT REFERENCE MAP: Collin County, TX" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved February 12, 2023.
  63. ^ a b "Secondary schools". Plano, Texas. Archived from the original on July 20, 2011. Retrieved July 11, 2011.
  64. ^ "2020 CENSUS - SCHOOL DISTRICT REFERENCE MAP: Denton County, TX" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved February 12, 2023.
  65. ^ "6 Reasons Why Everyone is Moving to Plano". SpareFoot. November 13, 2014. Archived from the original on November 17, 2014. Retrieved January 19, 2015.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  66. ^ "128 Seniors Named Semifinalists in National Merit Program". Plano ISD. Archived from the original on October 29, 2012. Retrieved November 1, 2012.
  67. ^ "Budget FAQ". Plano, Texas. 2008. Archived from the original on September 28, 2011. Retrieved July 11, 2011.
  68. ^ Plano ISD mutes criticism of 'Robin Hood' as its annual funding hit declines | The Dallas Morning News. Retrieved on July 17, 2013.
  69. ^ "Academy Programs of Plano". Plano ISD. Archived from the original on November 2, 2012. Retrieved November 1, 2012.
  70. ^ "Collin County Campus Archived October 24, 2011, at the Wayback Machine." Coram Deo Academy. Retrieved on October 12, 2011. "Located at One Church- 2400 State Highway 121, Plano, TX"
  71. ^ "Campuses". Plano, Texas. Retrieved July 11, 2011.
  72. ^ "DBU North | Dallas Baptist University". Retrieved September 26, 2015.
  74. ^ "DART System Map" (PDF). Dallas Area Rapid Transit. January 22, 2024. Retrieved February 6, 2024.
  75. ^ "TCFP Regulated Departments by Size". Texas Commission on Fire Protection. Retrieved November 13, 2015.
  76. ^ "About". Plano Fire-Rescue. Archived from the original on March 28, 2015. Retrieved April 9, 2015.
  77. ^ "Regulated departments by size". Texas Commission on Fire Protection. Archived from the original on April 19, 2015. Retrieved April 9, 2015.
  78. ^ "Plano CALEA Accreditation". p. 20. Retrieved November 24, 2014.
  79. ^ a b "Meet the Chief of Police". The City of Plano. Retrieved January 21, 2020.
  80. ^ "Former Plano resident, 7-time Tour de France winner Lance Armstrong retires". Dallas Morning News. Dallas, Texas: Dallas Morning News. February 16, 2011. Retrieved July 11, 2011.
  81. ^ Reisner, Amy (May 29, 2018). "Inaugural Plano Comedy Festival". Plano Magazine. Plano, Texas. Retrieved August 28, 2021.
  82. ^ "Justin Blalock". 2014 NFL Enterprises LLC. Retrieved June 18, 2014.
  83. ^ "Spencer Boldman". Dallas Morning News. Archived from the original on August 13, 2014. Retrieved June 18, 2014.
  84. ^ "UCLA Athletics". Retrieved September 11, 2017.
  85. ^ "Creativity Week Speaker, Jay Chern". Archived from the original on November 19, 2015. Retrieved January 3, 2016.
  86. ^ Los Angeles Times (October 8, 2014). "Comer Cottrell dies at 82; made Jheri curl available to the masses". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 28, 2015.
  87. ^ Mayo, Michael (March 9, 1994). "Injury Puts Couples Out Of Honda". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved June 18, 2014.
  88. ^ "Chace Crawford busted for pot possession". Reuters. June 4, 2010. Retrieved July 11, 2011.
  89. ^ Baby, Ben (November 11, 2016). "Three former D-FW area standouts who will be 'a major factor' for Texas A&M men's basketball". Dallas Morning News. Retrieved February 7, 2020.
  90. ^ "Kenton Duty". Retrieved June 19, 2014.
  91. ^ a b Caldwell, Emily; Gillman, Todd J. (March 3, 2022). "Who is the 'ISIS bride' whose affair with Rep. Van Taylor prompted him to drop reelection bid?". The Dallas Morning News. Dallas, Texas. Retrieved March 3, 2022.
  92. ^ "Bob Guccione". 2014, The Dallas Morning News Inc. Retrieved June 19, 2014.
  93. ^ "Fred E. Haynes, 89; Marine General from Iwo Jima". The Dallas Morning News Websites. July 30, 2010. Retrieved June 29, 2018.
  94. ^ Porter, Britney. "Lorraine Heath". Plano Profile. Archived from the original on May 7, 2015. Retrieved June 8, 2015.
  95. ^ Nguyen, Ethan. "Elise Hu going live". Wildcat Tales. Retrieved May 7, 2019.
  96. ^ Matt Schudel (May 27, 2020). "Sam Johnson, Vietnam POW who became a Texas congressman, dies at 89". Washington Post.
  97. ^ Diggs, Kim. "Update: Hollywood remembers the Alamo Collin County natives represent Texas in new History Channel series". Retrieved May 24, 2015.
  98. ^ "Jimmy King". 2002–2011 Archived from the original on July 22, 2014. Retrieved June 19, 2014.
  99. ^ "John Leake". 2000–2014 Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved June 19, 2014.
  100. ^ "Li, Ruifeng FIDE Chess Profile – Players Arbiters Trainers". Retrieved February 7, 2017.
  101. ^ "School Records | Plano Wildcat Swimming & Diving". Archived from the original on May 18, 2018. Retrieved August 22, 2019.
  102. ^ "Nastia Liukin". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved June 19, 2014.
  103. ^ "Kevin McHale". 2014 CBS Interactive Inc. Retrieved June 19, 2014.
  104. ^ "Big Brother Cast: Cody Nickson". CBS. Retrieved March 10, 2018.
  105. ^ "Joseph Noteboom". Retrieved January 25, 2019.
  106. ^ "Hunter Parrish". 2011 USA TODAY, a division of Gannett Co. Inc. Retrieved June 19, 2014.
  107. ^ Kafai, Arman (September 30, 2016). "Plano teen takes different route to make professional debut in Portugal". Dallas News Sports Day. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
  108. ^ "Charlie Peprah". 2014 ESPN Internet Ventures. October 25, 2012. Retrieved June 19, 2014.
  109. ^ Varley, Alan. "Alan Varley, Fort Pierce, FL Florida currently in Dallas, TX USA", danmccarty70, September 12, 2011. Retrieved on January 12, 2017.
  110. ^ "Boz Scaggs". 2011. Retrieved July 11, 2011.
  111. ^ Fong-Torres, Ben (2011). "Boz Scaggs: The Lowdown". Retrieved July 11, 2011.
  112. ^ "Spurred by success: Meenakshi bares her claws!". Stardust. October 31, 2013. Archived from the original on January 13, 2016. Retrieved May 19, 2014.
  113. ^ "Biographical Profile for Matt Shaheen". Archived from the original on November 27, 2018. Retrieved December 6, 2014.
  114. ^ "Florence Shapiro". SMU. Archived from the original on December 15, 2014. Retrieved June 18, 2014.
  115. ^ "Abby Smith". University of Texas. Retrieved November 23, 2016.
  116. ^ "Inductee Details Smith, Billy Ray, Jr". Archived from the original on August 1, 2021. Retrieved July 19, 2022.
  117. ^ Thurber, Jon (November 13, 2000). "L. Sprague de Camp; Prolific Sci-Fi Writer". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 18, 2014.
  118. ^ "Jonathan Stickland's Biography". Retrieved March 18, 2014.
  119. ^ "Tyson Sullivan". IMDb. Retrieved March 12, 2019.
  120. ^ Tice, Debra and Marc (August 13, 2014). "Austin Tice, two years later". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 4, 2014.
  121. ^ "Little-Known Actor Mulls Three High-Profile Film Offers (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved May 9, 2018.
  122. ^ "Alan Tudyk". Dallas Morning News. Retrieved June 19, 2014.
  123. ^ "Michael Urie". New York Observer. Retrieved June 19, 2014.
  124. ^ "International Resources". City of Plano. Archived from the original on August 4, 2021. Retrieved February 7, 2021.
  125. ^ "Brampton Councillors Vote to End Sister City Agreements". In Brampton. April 26, 2018. Retrieved February 7, 2021.

Bibliography edit

External links edit