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The Fuzhou people or the Fuzhounese (Chinese: 福州人; Foochow Romanized: Hók-ciŭ-nè̤ng), also known as, Foochowese, Hokchew, Hokchia, Hokchiu, Fuzhou Shiyi people (福州十邑人), Eastern Min or Mindong are a dialect group who originate from the Fuzhou and Mindong regions and the Gutian and Pingnan counties of Fujian province and Matsu Islands. Fuzhounese are a part of the Min Chinese-speaking group that speaks Eastern Min or specifically Fuzhou dialect. There is also a significant overseas Fuzhounese population, particularly distributed in Malaysia, Indonesia, Japan, United States (Fuzhou Americans), Singapore and the United Kingdom.[2]

Fuzhounese people
  • 福州人
  • 福州儂 (Hók-ciŭ-nè̤ng)
  • 福州十邑儂
Life and light for woman (1873) (14763995591).jpg
Hockchew women in Bible Women's Training School during a women's class in Fuzhou, 1873.
Total population
~10,000,000[1]
Regions with significant populations
Languages
Fuzhou language (Min county dialect 闽县话 (prestige), Gutian dialect 古田话, Ningde dialect 宁德话 and Fuqing dialect 福清话)
Religion
Predominantly Mahayana Buddhism and Chinese folk religions (including Taoism, Confucianism, ancestral worship and others), with many non religious. Minority: Christianity
Related ethnic groups
Fuzhou Americans, Northern Min speakers, She people, Taiwanese indigenous peoples, Ryukyuan people, Wu Chinese-speaking people, Putian people, Hoklo people, Ancient Minyue people† and other Han Chinese

Despite their relatively small population size in comparison to other Han Chinese groups, Fuzhounese people have contributed significantly to both Chinese academics and science; there has been 17 Fuzhounese Zhuangyuans (scholar who is ranked first in the imperial examinations), mathematicians and scientists such as Zhang Yuzhe (the father of modern Chinese astronomy), Guo Kexin (the main pioneer of electron microscopy of China), Chih-Tang Sah, Hsien Wu, and Min Zhuo are Fuzhounese.

Native location of Fuzhounese people (includes Gutian County and Pingnan County which are unrepresented in this map.

LanguageEdit

Fuzhou dialect is a tonal language that has extensive sandhi rules in the initials, rimes, and tones. These complicated rules make Fuzhou dialect one of the most difficult Chinese varieties.[3]

During the Second World War, some Japanese scholars became passionate about studying Fuzhou dialect, believing that it could be beneficial to the rule of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere. One of their most famous works was the Japanese-Chinese Translation: Fuzhou Dialect (日華對譯: 福州語) published in 1940 in Taipei, in which katakana was used to represent Fuzhou pronunciation.

Fuzhounese dialectsEdit

List of dialects of the Fuzhounese language (福州语的方言):

Fuzhou City HistoryEdit

Fuzhou throughout the 1800's had many missionaries from the West coming in and out of the city.[4] The lack of communication between government officials and local town people led to uproar among local residence regarding missionaries.[4] Although around 1850 five major port were allowing foreigners to reside temporarily for missionary work, Fuzhounese people believed only their city was allowing this.[4] Fuzhou natives were against missionaries as well as confronting Europeans in regards to business arrangements. At the same time Fuzhou had missionaries present, other cities such as Guangzhou started rebelling against foreigners. Daoist people as well as monks showed hospitality towards missionaries unlike most other residents. Following the lead of Guangzhou people, Fuzhounese natives soon also rebelled. Miscommunication was a large part of misunderstanding by Fuzhounese people. During the 1800's there were five port cities that were of interest of Europeans. Shanghai and Ningbo in addition of Fuzhou, were also allowing residency for missionaries during this time. The western powers felt similar resentment towards China as China did on the West.[5]

Fuzhou's Educational and Technological HistoryEdit

Throughout the Ming and Qing Dynasties, local lineages were of high importance. The success rate regarding education throughout Fuzhou was often linked to the lineage members. As part of a lineage, it was the responsibility of a community to ensure successful education occurred. Education began as a private matter and not regulated throughout different lineages. The ability for a lineage to teach the fundamentals would determine people's later success with examinations given throughout much of China. Shu-yuan were considered highly educated people who succeeded on given examinations. Many of these shu-yuan, around eighteen, were associated with Fuzhou province throughout Ming and Qing Dynasty. Some of the eighteen may have been from Song Dynasty. However, there is less evidence to back up those claims. [6]

Although over time southern Fujian Province (Minnan region) is more developed in terms of technology and resources, Fujian decided on the capital Fuzhou which is in North Fujian.[5] Fujian has had a lower rate of urbanization in comparison to China as a whole. As a result, in provinces such as Fuzhou, the locals tend to be behind on methods in regards to agriculture and technological advancements. Fujian is rich in their ability to fish due to their location along the coastline. Fuzhou can not only participate in fishing itself but also the transporting of goods along the sea. Due to the richness of resources, the desire for migration to Fuzhou is high. As a result, people desiring to move to Fuzhou must have high education levels as well as skills necessary to contribute to the society. [5]

Emigration and diasporaEdit

 
A native Fuzhou detective, 1898.

HistoryEdit

Fuzhou's history of emigration began since the Ming dynasty with Zheng He's voyages overseas. As the result of immigration of Fuzhouese to southeast Asia, Fuzhou dialect is found in Singapore, Malaysia and Indonesia. The city of Sibu of Malaysia is called "new Fuzhou" due to a large wave of Fuzhounese immigration in the early 1900s. They are referred to as "Hockchiu" or "Hokchew" in Singapore and Malaysia.[7]

Southeast AsiaEdit

The Hockchius and Hockchias migrated to Nanyang (South-East Asia) in much smaller numbers compared to the Hokkien, Cantonese, hakkas and Hainanese but achieved remarkable success. Amongst others, Robert Kuok (Hockchiu) rose to become the "Sugar King" of Malaysia and is currently ranked the richest man in south-east Asia[8] whereas Liem Sioe Liong (Sudono Salim) who was of Hockchia origin, was once the richest man in Indonesia, controlling a vast empire in the industry of flour, cement and food manufacturing.[9] The famous leader of the Malayan Communist Party, Chin Peng was also Hockchia.[10]

United StatesEdit

Fuzhounese people first started immigrating to America during the late Qing dynasty. Some of these immigrants were students who, after completing their studies returned to back to their fatherland (Fuzhou).

After the lifting of emigration restriction from the People's Republic of China in the 1980s, a small wave of Fuzhounese settled in America. These new Fuzhounese immigrants set up their own separated communities such as "Little Fuzhou" in Manhattan, away from other non-linguistically related Chinese people.

Notable Fuzhounese peopleEdit

Scientists, mathematicians and inventorsEdit

Politicians and revolutionariesEdit

Writers and poetsEdit

BusinessmenEdit

OthersEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Peoples Listing: MinDong People". Joshua Project. Retrieved 2009-10-18.
  2. ^ 福州市志(第八册). 方志出版社. December 2000. ISBN 978-7-80122-605-1.
  3. ^ Khoon Choy Lee (2005). Pioneers of Modern China: Understanding the Inscrutable Chinese. World Scientific. p. 20. ISBN 978-98-127-0090-2.
  4. ^ a b c Chin-keong, Ng (2017). Boundaries and Beyond. Singapore: NUS Press. pp. 147–174.
  5. ^ a b c Chen, Aimin (January 2006). "Urbanization in China and the Case of Fujian Province". Modern China. 32: 99–130. doi:10.1177/0097700405283503 – via JSTOR.
  6. ^ Zurndorfer, Harriet (1992). "Learning, Lineages, and Locality in Late Imperial China. A Comparative Study of Education in Huichow (Anhwei) and Foochow (Fukien) 1600-1800. Part II". Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient. 35 (3): 209–238. doi:10.2307/3632732. JSTOR 3632732.
  7. ^ Chinese Overseas: Comparative Cultural Issues. Hong Kong University Press. p. 92.
  8. ^ Leo Suryadinata (2006). Southeast Asia's Chinese Businesses in an Era of Globalization: Coping with the Rise of China. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 184. ISBN 978-98-123-0401-8.
  9. ^ Timothy Brook & Hy V. Luong (1999). Culture and Economy: The Shaping of Capitalism in Eastern Asia. University of Michigan Press. p. 163. ISBN 978-04-720-8598-9.
  10. ^ Jessieca Leo (2015). Global Hakka: Hakka Identity in the Remaking. BRILL. p. 291. ISBN 978-90-043-0027-9.
  11. ^ [1]
  12. ^ 邓叔群. dangan.njau.cn.
  13. ^ Roberts, Siobhan (2015-07-14). Genius At Play: The Curious Mind of John Horton Conway. p. 62. ISBN 9781620405949.