A comedy film is a category of film which emphasizes humor.[1] These films are designed to make the audience laugh through amusement.[2] Films in this style traditionally have a happy ending (black comedy being an exception).[3][1] Comedy is one of the oldest genres in film and it is derived from the classical comedy in theatre.[4] Some of the earliest silent films were comedies, as slapstick comedy often relies on visual depictions, without requiring sound.[5] When sound films became more prevalent during the 1930s, comedy films took another swing, as laughter could result from burlesque situations but also dialogue.[4]

Comedy, compared with other film genres, puts much more focus on individual stars, with many former stand-up comics transitioning to the film industry due to their popularity.[6][1]

In The Screenwriters Taxonomy (2017), Eric R. Williams contends that film genres are fundamentally based upon a film's atmosphere, character, and story. Therefore the labels "drama" and "comedy" are too broad to be considered a genre.[7] Instead, his comedy taxonomy argues that comedy is a type of film that contains at least a dozen different sub-types.[8]

HistoryEdit

Silent film eraEdit

The first comedy film was L'Arroseur Arrosé (1895), directed and produced by film pioneer Louis Lumière.[9] Less than 60 seconds long, it shows a boy playing a prank on a gardener.[9] The most noted comedy actors of the silent film era (1895-1927) were Charlie Chaplin, Harold Lloyd, and Buster Keaton.[10]

The silent film era also implemented animated comedy films such as Humorous Phases of Funny Faces, which is considered the first animated movie by film historians (1906).[11] This style led to several iconic animated characters such as Felix the Cat, Mickey Mouse, Oswald the Lucky Rabbit, and Betty Boop.[12]

Introduction of soundEdit

Sound was introduced into film towards the end of the 1920s and became much more prevalent through the 1930s and forward.[13] This advancement in technology allowed for comedy acts such as W.C. Fields, the Marx Brothers, and Laurel and Hardy to flourish via verbal humor and auditory sounds instead of complete silence.[14]

Television eraEdit

When television sets became popular in the 1950s, the film industry was forced to make some innovations to compete with at-home entertainment. Some of these innovations include the use of color in film, widescreen formats (Cinerama, CinemaScope, VistaVision), 3D, and surround sound.[15] While these innovations impacted the film industry as a whole, many comedies utilized these technological advancements that were not available on television sets at the time. 3 Ring Circus and Funny Face are two of many comedy films that implemented some of these new technologies.[16]

The modern eraEdit

From the 1960s until present, comedy film has adopted numerous different styles, sub-types, and sub-genres. The 1960s welcomed a more mature, darker humor known as black comedy such as Stanley Kubrick's Dr. Strangelove.[17] Comedy moved towards more parody and satirical humor in the 70s and 80s with directors like Woody Allen, Mel Brooks, and the Monty Python comedy troupe thriving.[18][17] Teen comedies like The Breakfast Club, Sixteen Candles, and Ferris Bueller's Day Off also became popular in the 80s.[19][20] In the 1990s over-the-top, wacky characters succeeded in the comedy scene. Notable actors that played these types of characters include Jim Carrey, Adam Sandler, and Mike Myers.[21] From the 2000s until recent, comedies have leaned towards the trend of incorporating more vulgar or raunchy humor with films like the American Pie series, The 40-Year-Old Virgin, and Superbad.[22] Overall, comedy film has moved away from traditional joke-telling, and now leans more towards eccentric characters finding themselves in unexpected situations.[23]

Sub-typesEdit

Anarchic comedyEdit

The anarchic comedy film, as its name suggests, is a random or stream-of-consciousness type of humour which often lampoons a form of authority.[24] The genre dates from the silent era. Notable examples of this type of film are those produced by Monty Python.[25] Other examples include Duck Soup (1933) and Caddyshack (1980).

Bathroom comedy (or gross-out comedy)Edit

Gross out films are a relatively recent development and rely heavily on vulgar, sexual, or "toilet" humor.[26] They often contain a healthy dose of profanity.[27] Examples include Animal House (1978) and Freddy Got Fingered (2001).

Comedy of ideasEdit

This sub-type uses comedy to explore serious ideas such as religion, sex, or politics.[28] Often, the characters represent particular divergent world views and are forced to interact for comedic effect and social commentary.[29] Some examples include both Ferris Bueller's Day Off (1986) and Swing Vote (2008).

Comedy of mannersEdit

A comedy of manners satirizes the manners and affectations of a social class.[30] The plot of a comedy of manners is often concerned with an illicit love affair or some other scandal. However, the plot is generally less important for its comedic effect than its witty dialogue.[30] This form of comedy has a long ancestry which dates back at least as far as Much Ado about Nothing created by William Shakespeare, published in 1623.[31] Examples for comedy of manners films include Breakfast at Tiffany's (1961) and Under the Tuscan Sun (2003).

Black comedyEdit

The black comedy film deals with taboo subjects—including death, murder, crime, suicide, and war—in a satirical manner.[32] Examples include Dr. Strangelove (1964) and Shallow Grave (1994).

FarceEdit

Farcical films exaggerate situations beyond the realm of possibility—thereby making them entertaining.[33] Film examples include Sleeper (1973).

MockumentaryEdit

Mockumentary comedies are fictional, but use a documentary style that includes interviews and "documentary" footage along regular scenes.[34] Examples include This Is Spinal Tap (1984)[34] and Reboot Camp (2020).

Musical comedyEdit

Musical comedy as a film genre has its roots in the 1920s, with Disney's Steamboat Willie (1928) being the most recognized of these early films.[35] The sub-genre resurged with popularity in the 1970s, with movies such as Bugsy Malone (1976) and Grease (1978) gaining status as cult classics.[36]

Observational humorEdit

These films find humor in the common practices of everyday life.[37] Some film examples of observational humor include Knocked Up (2007) and The Intern (2015).

Parody (or spoof)Edit

A parody or spoof film satirizes other film genres or classic films. Such films employ sarcasm, stereotyping, mockery of scenes from other films, and the obviousness of meaning in a character's actions.[38] Examples of this form include Blazing Saddles (1974) and Spaceballs (1987).

Sex comedyEdit

The humor in sex comedy is primarily derived from sexual situations and desire,[39] as in Bachelor Party (1984) and The Inbetweeners Movie (2011).

Situational comedyEdit

Humor that comes from knowing a stock group of characters (or character types) and then exposing them to different situations to create humorous and ironic juxtaposition;[40] case in point: Planes, Trains and Automobiles (1987) and The Hangover (2009).

Straight comedyEdit

This broad sub-type applies to films that do not attempt a specific approach to comedy but, rather, use comedy for comedic sake.[41] Chasing Amy (1997) and The Shaggy Dog (2006) are examples of straight comedy films.

Slapstick filmsEdit

Slapstick films involve exaggerated, boisterous physical action to create impossible and humorous situations.[42] Because it relies predominantly on visual depictions of events, it does not require sound. Accordingly, the sub-genre was ideal for silent movies and was prevalent during that era.[43] Popular stars of the slapstick genre include Harold Lloyd, Roscoe Arbuckle, Charlie Chaplin, Peter Sellers and Norman Wisdom.[42] Some of these stars, as well as acts such as Laurel and Hardy and the Three Stooges, also found success incorporating slapstick comedy into sound films.[44] Modern examples of slapstick comedy include Mr. Bean's Holiday (2007) and Get Smart (2008).

Surreal comedyEdit

Although not specifically linked to the history of surrealism, these comedies includes behavior and storytelling techniques that are illogical—including bizarre juxtapositions, absurd situations and unpredictable reactions to normal situations.[41] Some examples are It's a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World (1963) and Space Jam (1996).

Hybrid subgenresEdit

According to Williams' taxonomy, all film descriptions should contain their type (comedy or drama) combined with one (or more) subgenres.[45] This combination does not create a separate genre, but rather, provides a better understanding of the film.

Action comedyEdit

Films in this type blend comic antics and action where the stars combine one-liners with a thrilling plot and daring stunts.[46] The genre became a specific draw in North America in the eighties when comedians such as Eddie Murphy started taking more action-oriented roles, such as in 48 Hrs. (1982) and Beverly Hills Cop (1984).[46]

Sub-genres of the action comedy (labeled macro-genres by Williams) include:[45]

Martial arts filmsEdit

Slapstick martial arts films became a mainstay of Hong Kong action cinema through the work of Jackie Chan among others, such as Who Am I? (1998). Kung Fu Panda is an action comedy that focuses on the martial art of kung fu.

Superhero filmsEdit

Some action films focus on superheroes; for example, The Incredibles, Hancock, Kick-Ass, and Mystery Men.

Other categories of the action comedy include:[45]

Buddy filmsEdit

Films starring mismatched partners for comedic effect, such as in Midnight Run, Rush Hour, 21 Jump Street, Bad Boys, Starsky and Hutch, Booksmart, The Odd Couple, and Ted.

Comedy thrillerEdit

Comedy thriller is a type that combines elements of humor and suspense.[47] Films such as Silver Streak, Charade, Kiss Kiss Bang Bang, In Bruges, Mr. and Mrs. Smith, Grosse Point Blank, The Thin Man, The Big Fix, and The Lady Vanishes.

Comedy mysteryEdit

Comedy mystery is a film genre combining elements of comedy and mystery fiction. Though the genre arguably peaked in the 1930s and 1940s, comedy-mystery films have been continually produced since.[48] Examples include the Pink Panther series,[49]Scooby-Doo films, Clue (1985) and Knives Out (2019).

Crime comedyEdit

A hybrid mix of crime and comedy films, examples include Inspector Palmu's Mistake (1960), Oh Brother Where Art Thou? (2000), Take the Money and Run (1969) and Who Framed Roger Rabbit (1988).[50]

Fantasy comedyEdit

Fantasy comedy films use magic, supernatural or mythological figures for comedic purposes.[51] Some fantasy comedy includes an element of parody, or satire, turning fantasy conventions on their head, such as the hero becoming a cowardly fool or the princess being a klutz. Examples of these films include Big, Being John Malkovich, Ernest Saves Christmas, Ernest Scared Stupid, Night at the Museum, Groundhog Day, Click, and Shrek.

Comedy horrorEdit

Comedy horror is a genre/type in which the usual dark themes and "scare tactics" attributed to horror films are treated with a humorous approach.[52] These films either use goofy horror cliches, such as in Scream, Young Frankenstein, The Rocky Horror Picture Show, Little Shop of Horrors, The Haunted Mansion, and Scary Movie where campy styles are favored. Some are much more subtle and don't parody horror, such as An American Werewolf in London. Another style of comedy horror can also rely on over-the-top violence and gore such as in The Evil Dead (1981), The Return of the Living Dead (1985), Braindead (1992), and Club Dread (2004) – such films are sometimes known as splatstick, a portmanteau of the words splatter and slapstick. It would be reasonable to put Ghostbusters in this category.

Day-in-the-life comedyEdit

Day-in-the-life films takes small events in a person's life and raises their level of importance. The "small things in life" feel as important to the protagonist (and the audience) as the climactic battle in an action film, or the final shootout in a western.[45]  Often, the protagonists deal with multiple, overlapping issues in the course of the film.[45]  The day-in-the-life comedy often finds humor in commenting upon the absurdity or irony of daily life; for example The Terminal (2004) or Waitress (2007). Character humor is also used extensively in day-in-the-life comedies, as can be seen in American Splendor (2003).

Romantic comedyEdit

Romantic comedies are humorous films with central themes that reinforce societal beliefs about love (e.g., themes such as "love at first sight", "love conquers all", or "there is someone out there for everyone"); the story typically revolves around characters falling into (and out of, and back into) love.[53] Amélie (2001), Annie Hall (1977), Charade (1963), City Lights (1931), Four Weddings and a Funeral (1994), It (1927), The Lobster (2015), My Wife, the Director General (1966), My Favorite Wife (1940), Pretty Woman (1990), Some Like It Hot (1959), There's Something About Mary (1998) and When Harry Met Sally... (1989) are examples of romantic comedies.

Screwball comedyEdit

A subgenre of the romantic comedy, screwball comedies appear to focus on the story of a central male character until a strong female character takes center stage; at this point, the man's story becomes secondary to a new issue typically introduced by the woman; this story grows in significance and, as it does, the man's masculinity is challenged by the sharp-witted woman, who is often his love interest.[45] Typically it can include a romantic element, an interplay between people of different economic strata, quick and witty repartee, some form of role reversal, and a happy ending. Some examples of screwball comedy during its heyday include It Happened One Night (1934), Bringing Up Baby (1938), The Philadelphia Story (1940), His Girl Friday (1940), Mr. & Mrs. Smith (1941); more recent examples include What's Up, Doc? (1972), Rat Race (2001), and Our Idiot Brother (2011).

Science fiction comedyEdit

Science fiction comedy films often exaggerate the elements of traditional science fiction films to comic effect.[54] Examples include Spaceballs, Ghostbusters, Galaxy Quest, Mars Attacks!, Men in Black, and many more.

Sports comedyEdit

Sports comedy combines the genre of comedy with that of the sports film genre. Thematically, the story is often one of "Our Team" versus "Their Team"; their team will always try to win, and our team will show the world that they deserve recognition or redemption; the story does not always have to involve a team.[55] The story could also be about an individual athlete or the story could focus on an individual playing on a team. The comedic aspect of this super-genre often comes from physical humor (Happy Gilmore - 1996), character humor (Caddyshack - 1980), or the juxtaposition of bad athletes succeeding against the odds (The Bad News Bears - 1976).

War comedyEdit

War films typically tells the story of a small group of isolated individuals who – one by one – get killed (literally or metaphorically) by an outside force until there is a final fight to the death; the idea of the protagonists facing death is a central expectation in a war film.[56] War comedies infuse this idea of confronting death with a morbid sense of humor. In a war film even though the enemy may out-number, or out-power, the hero, we assume that the enemy can be defeated if only the hero can figure out how.[57] Often, this strategic sensibility provides humorous opportunities in a war comedy. Examples include Good Morning, Vietnam; M*A*S*H; the Francis the Talking Mule series; and others.

Western comedyEdit

Films in the western super-genre often take place in the American Southwest or in Mexico, with a large number of scenes occurring outside so we can soak in nature's rugged beauty.[55] Visceral expectations for the audience include fistfights, gunplay, and chase scenes. There is also the expectation of spectacular panoramic images of the countryside including sunsets, wide open landscape and endless deserts and sky.[45] Western comedies often find their humor in specific characters (Three Amigos, 1986), in interpersonal relationships (Lone Ranger, 2013) or in creating a parody of the western (Rango, 2011).

By countryEdit

Country Comedy film
  US American comedy films
  UK British comedy films
  FRA French comedy films
  IND Indian comedy films
  ITA Italian comedy films

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c "Comedy". The Script Lab. 26 March 2011. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  2. ^ "Comedy Films". www.filmsite.org. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  3. ^ "COMEDY". www.uvm.edu. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  4. ^ a b "Comedy Films". www.filmsite.org. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  5. ^ "History of Comedy Movies | Vocabulary | EnglishClub". www.englishclub.com. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  6. ^ Vitale, Micaela Pérez (17 January 2022). "Stand-Up Comedians Who Became Great Actors". MovieWeb. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  7. ^ Williams, Eric R. Screen Adaptation: Beyond the Basics: Techniques for Adapting Books, Comics and Real-Life Stories into Screenplays. doi:10.4324/9781315669410/screen-adaptation-beyond-basics-eric-williams.
  8. ^ Williams, Eric. The Screenwriters Taxonomy: A Collaborative Approach to Creative Storytelling. doi:10.4324/9781315108643/screenwriters-taxonomy-eric-williams.
  9. ^ a b "What was the first comedy film? | Acting Funny | Comedy Film Podcast". Acting Funny. Retrieved 17 November 2022.
  10. ^ S, Lea (1 December 2016). "In Defense Of "The Big Four" Of Silent Comedy". Silent-ology. Retrieved 17 November 2022.
  11. ^ Blackton, J. Stuart (6 April 1906), Humorous Phases of Funny Faces (Animation, Short, Comedy), Vitagraph Company of America, retrieved 28 November 2022
  12. ^ "The Silent Age of Animation / Useful Notes". TV Tropes. Retrieved 28 November 2022.
  13. ^ "motion-picture technology - Introduction of sound | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 28 November 2022.
  14. ^ "Film History of the 1930s". www.filmsite.org. Retrieved 28 November 2022.
  15. ^ "history of film - The threat of television | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 29 November 2022.
  16. ^ "VistaVision — A History of Widescreen in Hollywood". StudioBinder. 20 June 2021. Retrieved 29 November 2022.
  17. ^ a b "The Comedy Genre: Themes and History Explained - So The Theory Goes". 1 August 2022. Retrieved 29 November 2022.
  18. ^ "How Mel Brooks influenced the comedy spoof genre". Far Out Magazine. 28 June 2021. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  19. ^ "'The Ultimate History of the '80s Teen Movie': It's More Than Just the Brat Pack, PopMatters". PopMatters. 31 May 2019. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  20. ^ "80s Teen/Comedies". IMDb. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  21. ^ Rosenberg, Josh (28 July 2022). "The 25 Best '90s Comedy Movies Are an Outrageously Good Time". Esquire. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  22. ^ Patches, Matt (18 July 2014). "A Quick and Dirty History of the Raunch-Com". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  23. ^ Keane, Author Patrick. "Laughs Of The Decades: A History Of Comedy In Film – Media Beat". Retrieved 30 November 2022. {{cite web}}: |first= has generic name (help)
  24. ^ "Absurd Comedy". Allmovies.
  25. ^ Sexton, Timothy. "Anarchic Comedy from the Silent Era to Monty Python". Yahoo! Movies.
  26. ^ "The Best of Gross-Out Comedy". IMDb. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  27. ^ Henderson, Jeffrey (1991). The maculate muse : obscene language in Attic comedy (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-802312-8. OCLC 252588785.
  28. ^ "Comedy of Ideas". writers-corp.net. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  29. ^ "Definition of Comedy of Ideas". Our Pastimes. Retrieved 15 June 2020.
  30. ^ a b "comedy of manners | narrative genre | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  31. ^ British dramatists from Dryden to Sheridan. Nettleton, George Henry, 1874-1959, Case, Arthur Ellicott, 1894-1946, Stone, George Winchester, 1907-2000. (Southern Illinois University Press ed.). Carbondale, [Illinois]. 1975. ISBN 0-8093-0743-X. OCLC 1924010.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  32. ^ "Black humour". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 15 June 2020.
  33. ^ "Farce | drama". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 15 June 2020.
  34. ^ a b Team, N. F. I. (8 March 2022). "Mockumentary - Everything You Need To Know". NFI. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  35. ^ Iwerks, Ub; Disney, Walt (1 January 1929), Steamboat Willie (Animation, Short, Comedy), Walt Disney Productions, retrieved 30 November 2022
  36. ^ "1970s musical comedy films - FamousFix.com list". FamousFix.com. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  37. ^ Grable, Tim (24 February 2017). "What is funny about Observational Humor? (Updated for 2019)". The Grable Group. Retrieved 15 June 2020.
  38. ^ Mellon, Rory (2016). "A History of the Parody Movie". Retrieved 15 June 2020.
  39. ^ McDonald, Tamar Jeffers (2007). Romantic comedy : boy meets girl meets genre. London: Wallflower. ISBN 978-0-231-50338-9. OCLC 813844867.
  40. ^ Dancyger, Ken. (2013). Alternative scriptwriting : beyond the Hollywood formula. Rush, Jeff. (5th ed.). Burlington, MA: Focal Press. ISBN 978-1-136-05362-7. OCLC 828423649.
  41. ^ a b Bown, Lesley (2011). The secrets to writing great comedy. London: Hodder Education. ISBN 978-1-4441-2892-5. OCLC 751058407.
  42. ^ a b Matt (5 March 2022). "What Is Slapstick Comedy? The Definitive Guide • Filmmaking Lifestyle". Filmmaking Lifestyle. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  43. ^ "Comedy Films". Filmsite.org. Retrieved 29 April 2002.
  44. ^ "Slapstick | Definition, History, & Facts | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  45. ^ a b c d e f g Williams, Eric R. (2017). The Screenwriters Taxonomy: A Roadmap to Collaborative Storytelling. New York, NY: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-315-10864-3. OCLC 993983488.
  46. ^ a b "Action". The Script Lab. 12 March 2011. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  47. ^ "So what exactly is a comedy thriller?". Unbound. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  48. ^ "Film History of the 1930s". www.filmsite.org. Retrieved 15 June 2020.
  49. ^ "The Pink Panther: Inspector Clouseau arrives! - the Navhind Times". Archived from the original on 6 July 2020. Retrieved 5 July 2020.
  50. ^ "Subgenre - Crime Comedy". AllMovie. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  51. ^ "A LOOK AT FANTASY COMEDY FILMS. (In the Entertainment industry.)". www.linkedin.com. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  52. ^ Scripts, Industrial (30 September 2022). "The Comedy Horror Movie: The KEYS to Both Laughs and Scares". Industrial Scripts®. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  53. ^ Williams, Eric R. (2019). Falling in Love with Romance Movies. Audible.
  54. ^ "A LOOK AT SCIENCE FICTION COMEDY FILMS. (In the Entertainment industry.)". www.linkedin.com. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  55. ^ a b Williams, Eric R. Screen adaptation : beyond the basics : techniques for adapting books, comics, and real-life stories into screenplays. Ayres, Tyler. New York. ISBN 978-1-315-66941-0. OCLC 986993829.
  56. ^ Williams, Eric R. (2017). Screen adaptation : beyond the basics : techniques for adapting books, comics, and real-life stories into screenplays. New York: Focal Press. ISBN 978-1-315-66941-0. OCLC 986993829.
  57. ^ Williams, Eric R. (2018). "How to View and Appreciate Great Movies (episode 5: Story Shape and Tension)". English. Retrieved 15 June 2020.

BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit