A taboo is an implicit prohibition on something (usually against an utterance or behavior) based on a cultural sense that it is excessively repulsive or, perhaps, too sacred for ordinary people.[1][2] Such prohibitions are present in virtually all societies.[1] On a comparative basis, taboos, for example related to food items, seem to make no sense at all, as what may be declared unfit for one group by custom or religion may be perfectly acceptable to another.

Taboos are often meant to protect the human individual, but there are numerous other reasons for their existence. An ecological or medical background is apparent in many, including some that are seen as religious or spiritual in origin. Taboos can help use a resource more efficiently, but when applied to only a subsection of the community they can also serve to suppress said subsection of the community. A taboo acknowledged by a particular group or tribe as part of their ways aids in the cohesion of the group, helps that particular group to stand out and maintain its identity in the face of others and therefore creates a feeling of "belonging".[3]

The meaning of the word "taboo" has been somewhat expanded in the social sciences to strong prohibitions relating to any area of human activity or custom that is sacred or forbidden based on moral judgment, religious beliefs, or cultural norms.[3] "Breaking a taboo" is usually considered objectionable by society in general, not merely a subset of a culture.[citation needed]

EtymologyEdit

The term "taboo" comes from the Tongan tapu or Fijian tabu ("prohibited", "disallowed", "forbidden"),[4] related among others to the Māori tapu and Hawaiian kapu. Its English use dates to 1777 when the British explorer James Cook visited Tonga, and referred to the Tongans' use of the term "taboo" for "any thing that is forbidden to be eaten, or made use of".[5] He wrote:

Not one of them would sit down, or eat a bit of any thing. ... On expressing my surprise at this, they were all taboo, as they said; which word has a very comprehensive meaning; but, in general, signifies that a thing is forbidden.[6]

The term was translated to him as "consecrated, inviolable, forbidden, unclean or cursed".[7] Tabu itself has been derived from alleged Tongan morphemes ta ("mark") and bu ("especially"), but this may be a folk etymology (Tongan does not actually have a phoneme /b/), and tapu is usually treated as a unitary, non-compound word inherited from Proto-Polynesian *tapu, in turn inherited from Proto-Oceanic *tabu, with the reconstructed meaning "sacred, forbidden".[8][9][10] In its current use on Tonga, the word tapu means "sacred" or "holy", often in the sense of being restricted or protected by custom or law. On the main island, the word is often appended to the end of "Tonga" as Tongatapu, here meaning "Sacred South" rather than "Forbidden South".

ExamplesEdit

 
Cannibalism, Brazil. Engraving by Theodor de Bry for Hans Staden's account of his 1557 captivity.

Sigmund Freud speculated that incest and patricide were the only two universal taboos and formed the basis of civilization.[11] However, although cannibalism, in-group murder, and incest are taboo in the majority of societies, exceptions can be found, such as marriages between brothers and sisters in Roman Egypt.[12][13] Modern Western societies, however, do not condone such relationships. These familial sexual activities are criminalised, even if all parties are consenting adults. Through an analysis of the language surrounding these laws, it can be seen how the policy makers, and society as a whole, find these acts to be immoral.[14][15][16]

Common taboos involve restrictions or ritual regulation of killing and hunting; sex and sexual relationships; reproduction; the dead and their graves; as well as food and dining (primarily cannibalism and dietary laws such as vegetarianism, kashrut, and halal) or religious (treif and haram). In Madagascar, a strong code of taboos, known as fady, constantly change and are formed from new experiences. Each region, village or tribe may have its own fady.

The word "taboo" gained popularity at times, with some scholars looking for ways to apply it where other English words had previously been applied. For example, J. M. Powis Smith, in his book The American Bible (editor's preface 1927), used "taboo" occasionally in relation to Israel's Tabernacle and ceremonial laws, including Exodus 30:36, Exodus 29:37; Numbers 16:37–38; Deuteronomy 22:9, Isaiah 65:5, Ezekiel 44:19 and Ezekiel 46:20.

Albert Schweitzer wrote a chapter about taboos of the people of Gabon. As an example, it was considered a misfortune for twins to be born, and they would be subject to many rules not incumbent on other people.[17]

In religion and mythologyEdit

According to Joseph Campbell,[18] taboos are used in religion and mythology to test a person's ability to withhold from violating a prohibition given to them.[18][19] Should one fail the test and violate a taboo, they would be subsequently punished or will face the consequences of their actions.[18] It is important to note, however, that taboos are not societal prohibitions (such as incest); rather, the use of "taboo" in these stories relates to its original meaning of "prohibition": for example, a character could be prohibited from looking, eating, and speaking or uttering a certain word.

Greek mythologyEdit

An example of an eating taboo in Greek mythology could be found in the tale of the rape of Persephone. Hades, who had fallen in love with Persephone and wished to make her his queen, burst through a cleft in the earth and abducted Persephone as she was gathering flowers in a field.[20] When Demeter, Persephone's mother, finds out of her daughter's abduction, she forbids the earth to produce (or she neglects the earth) and, in the depth of her despair, causes nothing to grow. Zeus, pressed by the cries of the hungry people and by the other deities who also heard their anguish, forced Hades to return Persephone.[21] However, it was explained to Demeter that Persephone would be released, so long as she did not taste the food of the dead. Hades complies with the request to return Persephone to Demeter, but first, he tricks Persephone, forcing her to break the eating taboo by giving her some pomegranate seeds to eat.[22] In other interpretations, Persephone is seen eating the pomegranate seeds as a result of temptation or hunger. In the end, Hermes is sent to retrieve her but, because she had tasted the food of the underworld, she was obliged to spend a third of each year (the winter months) there, and the remaining part of the year with the gods above.[23] With the later writers Ovid and Hyginus, Persephone's time in the underworld becomes half the year.[24]

The most notable looking taboo in Greek myth can be found in the story of Orpheus and Eurydice. Orpheus, the son of Apollo, was well-renowned as a legendary musician whose music could move anything and everything, living or not, in the world. While walking among her people in tall grass at her wedding, Eurydice was set upon by a satyr. In her efforts to escape the satyr, Eurydice fell into a nest of vipers and suffered a fatal bite on her heel. Her body was discovered by Orpheus who, overcome with grief, played such sad and mournful songs that all the humans, nymphs, and gods learnt about his sorrow and grief and wept with him. On the gods' advice, Orpheus traveled to the Underworld wherein his music softened the hearts of Hades and Persephone, who agreed to allow Eurydice to return with him to earth on one condition: he should guide her out and not look back until they both had reached the upper world. As he reached the upper world, Orpheus looked back toward Eurydice in his eagerness to reunite with her, tragically forgetting about the looking taboo given to him by Hades, and since Eurydice had not crossed into the upper world, she vanishes back into the Underworld, this time forever.

A speaking taboo in Greek myth can be found in the story of the Anchises, the father of the Trojan prince and warrior Aeneas. Anchises was a mortal lover of the goddess Aphrodite, who had fallen in love with Anchises after Zeus persuaded Eros to shoot her with an arrow to cause these emergent feelings.[25] One interpretation recounts that Aphrodite pretended to be a Phrygian princess and seduced him, only to later reveal herself as a goddess and inform Anchises that she will bear him a son named Aeneas; however, Aphrodite warns Anchises not to tell anyone that he had lain with a goddess. Anchises does not heed this speaking taboo and later brags about his encounter with Aphrodite, and as a result, he is struck in the foot with a thunderbolt by Zeus. Thereafter, he is lame in that foot so that Aeneas has to carry him from the flames of Troy.[26]

Another, albeit lesser-known, speaking taboo in Greek myth can be found in the story of Actaeon. Actaeon, whilst on a hunting trip in the woods, mistakenly and haplessly happened upon the bathing Artemis.[27][28] When Artemis realized that Actaeon had seen her undressed, thus desecrating her chastity, she punished him for his luckless profanation of her virginity's mystery by forbidding him from speech.[29][30] Whether it be due to forgetfulness or outright resistance, Actaeon defied his speaking taboo and called for his hunting dogs.[29][30] Due to his failure in abiding by his speaking taboo, Artemis turned Actaeon into a stag and turned his dogs upon him. Actaeon was torn apart and ravaged by his loyal dogs who did not recognize their former master.

Abrahamic religionsEdit

Possibly the most famous eating taboo (if not taboo, in general) is in the story of Adam and Eve in the Abrahamic religions. In the Judeo-Christian telling, found in Genesis 3, Adam and Eve are placed in the Garden of Eden by God and are told not to eat from a tree lest they die,[3:3] but Eve is promptly tempted by a serpent (often identified as Satan in disguise) to eat from the Tree of the knowledge of good and evil because they will surely not die[3:4] rather they might become "like God".[3:5] Eve violates the eating taboo and eats from the forbidden fruit of the tree, shortly giving some fruit to her companion, Adam.[3:6] After eating the forbidden fruit, Adam and Eve are aware of their nakedness and covered themselves with fig leaves and hide from God.[3:7-8] God realizes that they are hiding and interrogates them about having eaten from the tree wherein Adam assigns the blame to Eve and Eve assigns it to the serpent.[3:9-13] As a result, God condemns Eve with pain in childbirth and subordination to her husband, he condemns Adam to have to labor on the earth for his food and be reduced into the earth at death, and in the Christian tradition, he condemns all of humanity for this original sin.[3:16-19][31] God then expels Adam and Eve from the Garden of Eden lest they eat from the Tree of Life and become immortal "like Him".[3:22]

In Islam, the story of Adam and Eve is quite different, though it contains an eating taboo: the Quran mentions that Adam (Arabic: آدم), as the successive authority of earth by decree of Allah, is placed in a paradisal garden (not Jannah nor the Garden of Eden)[32] therein along with his wife (unnamed in the Quran, though the Hadith gives her the name Ḥawwā’, Arabic: حواء);[33][34] such a paradise this garden was, that they would never go hungry nor unclothed,[35] nor would they ever thirst or be exposed to the sun's heat.[36] However, Allah took a promise from Adam:[37]

And (unto man): O Adam! Dwell thou and thy wife in the Garden and eat from whence ye will, but come not nigh this tree lest ye become wrong-doers.

— Quran 7:19[38]

Iblis, angered at his expulsion from Jannah for refusing to bow to Adam at his inception, decided to trick Adam and his wife into being shunned by Allah, just as he was; however, Allah had warned Adam and his wife about Iblis, telling them that he was a "clear enemy".[39][40] Iblis swore in the name of Allah that he was their sincere advisor, revealed unto Adam and his wife each other's nakedness, and convinced them to eat from the forbidden tree so that they may never taste death.[41][42] After eating from the tree (thus breaking the eating taboo), Allah removes Adam and his wife from their paradisal garden, telling them that mankind will be condemned with some being enemies with others on the earth wherein they will be provided habitation and provision, for a while,[43][44] and "There shall ye live, and there shall ye die, and thence shall ye be brought forth."[Quran 7:25 (Translated by Pickthall)]

A looking taboo can be found in the Judeo-Christian telling of the story of Lot found within the Book of Genesis. In Genesis 19, two angels in the form of men arrived in Sodom at eventide and were invited by Lot to spend the night at his home. However, the men of Sodom were exceedingly wicked and demanded Lot that he bring his two guests out so that they might "know" them; instead, Lot offered up his two daughters, whom had not "known" man, but they refused. As dawn was breaking, Lot's visiting angels urged him to get his family and flee, so as to avoid being caught in the impending disaster for the iniquity of the city. The command was given, "Flee for your life! Do not look behind you, nor stop anywhere in the Plain; flee to the hills, lest you be swept away."[45]: 465  Whilst fleeing, however, Lot's wife broke the looking taboo by turning to look back at the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah and was turned into a pillar of salt as punishment for disobeying the angels' warning.[19:26][45]: 466 

Popular cultureEdit

A very famous word taboo in popular culture is found in the Harry Potter series. The main antagonist of the series, Lord Voldemort, is so-feared in the wizarding world, that most of the characters resort to using monikers to refer to him; such monikers include "You-Know-Who", "He Who Must Not Be Named", and "the Dark Lord". However, the only ones who did not fear to speak Voldemort's name were the members of the Order of the Phoneix, who actively defied Voldemort and his Death Eaters, so Voldemort placed a powerful "Taboo jinx" upon his name so that, whenever uttered, it would break any defensive enchantments and render those who speak it trackabale by Death Eaters or Snatchers.[46]

An eating taboo reminiscent of the one found in the tale of the rape of Persephone can be found in Pan's Labyrinth: the protagonist, Ofelia, is given three tasks by a faun in order for her to take her place as the immortal princess of the underworld, Princess Moanna. Before setting off for her second task of retrieving a dagger from the lair of the child-eating Pale Man, Ofelia is warned by the faun not to consume any of the food laid out on the banquet; despite his numerous warnings, Ofelia eats two grapes, awakening the Pale Man. Two of her three fairy guides are devoured by the Pale Man, but Ofelia manages to escape with the dagger. Infuriated at her disobedience, however, the faun refuses to give Ofelia the third and final task required for her to return to her place as Princess Moanna.

FunctionEdit

Communist and materialist theorists have argued that taboos can be used to reveal the histories of societies when other records are lacking.[47] Marvin Harris particularly endeavored to explain taboos as a consequence of ecologic and economic conditions.[48]

ModernityEdit

Some argue that contemporary Western multicultural societies have taboos against tribalisms (for example, ethnocentrism and nationalism) and prejudices (racism, sexism, homophobia, extremism and religious fanaticism).[49]

Changing social customs and standards also create new taboos, such as bans on slavery; extension of the pedophilia taboo to ephebophilia;[50] prohibitions on alcohol, tobacco, or psychopharmaceutical consumption (particularly among pregnant women).

Incest itself has been pulled both ways, with some seeking to normalize consensual adult relationships regardless of the degree of kinship[51] (notably in Europe)[52][53] and others expanding the degrees of prohibited contact (notably in the United States).[54] Although the term taboo usually implies negative connotations, it is sometimes associated with enticing propositions in proverbs such as forbidden fruit is the sweetest.[55]

In medicine, professionals who practice in ethical and moral grey areas, or fields subject to social stigma such as late termination of pregnancy, may refrain from public discussion of their practice. Among other reasons, this taboo may come from concern that comments may be taken out of the appropriate context and used to make ill-informed policy decisions that would lead to (otherwise preventable) maternal death.[56][57]

See alsoEdit

  • Anathema – Something or someone that is detested or shunned
  • Deviance – Action or behavior that violates social norms
  • Etiquette – Customary code of polite behaviour
  • Geas – Idiosyncratic taboo, whether of obligation or prohibition, similar to being under a vow
  • Morality – Differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper (right) and those that are improper (wrong)
  • Naming taboo – Cultural taboo in Chinas
  • Obscenity – Act or statement that offends the morality of the period
  • Profanity – Socially offensive form of language
  • Public morality – Differentiating wrong and right as applied to the people
  • Sexual ethics – The study of ethical conduct in human sexuality and sexual behavior
  • Social norms
  • Social stigma – Type of discrimination or disapproval
  • Taboo on rulers
  • Taboo on the dead – Cultural practice regarding the dead
  • Vulgarity
  • Word taboo – Taboo involving restrictions on language

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Encyclopædia Britannica Online. "Taboo". Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Retrieved 21 Mar. 2012
  2. ^ "taboo". Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary, 11th Edition.
  3. ^ a b Meyer-Rochow, Victor Benno (2009). "Food taboos: their origins and purposes". Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 5–18: 18. doi:10.1186/1746-4269-5-18. PMC 2711054. PMID 19563636. This article contains quotations from this source, which is available under the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic (CC by 2.0) license.
  4. ^ Dixon, Robert M. W. (1988). A Grammar of Boumaa Fijian. p. 368. ISBN 978-0-226-15429-9.
  5. ^ Cook & King 1821, p. 462
  6. ^ Cook & King 1821, p. 348
  7. ^ Cook & King 1821.
  8. ^ "taboo". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  9. ^ "Online dictionary". Lexico Publishing Group, LLC. Retrieved 2007-06-05.
  10. ^ Biggs, Bruce. "Entries for TAPU [OC] Prohibited, under ritual restriction, taboo". Polynesian Lexicon Project Online. University of Auckland. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
  11. ^ Freud, Sigmund. Totem and Taboo.
  12. ^
  13. ^
  14. ^ Roffee, James A. (2014). "The Synthetic Necessary Truth Behind New Labour's Criminalisation of Incest". Social & Legal Studies. 23: 113–130. doi:10.1177/0964663913502068. S2CID 145292798.
  15. ^ Roffee, James A. (2015). "When Yes Actually Means Yes". When Yes Actually Means Yes in Rape Justice. pp. 72–91. doi:10.1057/9781137476159.0009. ISBN 9781137476159.
  16. ^ Roffee, J. A. (2014). "No Consensus on Incest? Criminalisation and Compatibility with the European Convention on Human Rights". Human Rights Law Review. 14 (3): 541–572. doi:10.1093/hrlr/ngu023.
  17. ^ Schweitzer, Albert. African Notebook 1958. Indiana University Press
  18. ^ a b c Hyman, Stanley Edgar (1949). "Myth, Ritual, and Nonsense". The Kenyon Review. Kenyon College. 11 (3): 456. JSTOR 4333071.
  19. ^ Sandbank, Shimon (2004-09-28). "The Look Back: Lot's Wife, Kafka, Blanchot". In Mark H. Gelber (ed.). Kafka, Zionism, and Beyond. Conditio Judaica. 50 (reprint 2014 ed.). De Gruyter. p. 299. ISBN 3110934191.
  20. ^ Homeric Hymn to Demeter, 4–20, 414–434.
  21. ^ "Theoi Project – Persephone". Theoi.com. Retrieved 6 July 2012.
  22. ^ The Homeric Hymn to Demeter, 411–412, has Persephone tell Demeter: "he secretly put in my mouth sweet food, a pomegranate seed, and forced me to taste against my will." Gantz, p. 65 describes this as a "trick".
  23. ^ Gantz, p. 65.
  24. ^ Gantz, p. 67.
  25. ^ Roman, L., & Roman, M. (2010). Encyclopedia of Greek and Roman mythology., p. 59, at Google Books
  26. ^ Virgil (1910). "Book II". Aeneid. Perseus Digital Library. Translated by Williams, Theodore C. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co. Lines 714-715.
  27. ^ Callimachus, Hymn v.
  28. ^ Callimachus gives no site: a glen in the foothills of Mount Cithaeron near Boeotian Orchomenus, is the site according to Euripides, Bacchae 1290-92, a spring sanctuary near Plataea is specified elsewhere.
  29. ^ a b Coulter-Harris, Deborah M. (2016-07-29). "Ancient Greece: Defining Immortality in an Age of Gods and Mortals". Chasing Immortality in World Religions. McFarland Inc. p. 60. ISBN 0786497920.
  30. ^ a b Conner, Nancy (2010-02-10). "Artemis: The Thrill of the Hunt". The Everything Classical Mythology Book: Greek and Roman Gods, Goddesses, Heroes, and Monsters from Ares to Zeus. Adams Media. p. 140. ISBN 1440502404.
  31. ^ Collins 2014, p. unpaginated.
  32. ^ ‎ما هي الجنة التي أنزل الله منها سيدنا آدم عليه السلام - ‎الشيخ الشعراوي on YouTube
  33. ^ [Quran 2:3035]
  34. ^ [Quran 2:35]
  35. ^ [Quran 20:118]
  36. ^ [Quran 20:119]
  37. ^ [Quran 20:115]
  38. ^ Quran 7:19 (Translated by Pickthall)
  39. ^ [Quran 2:208]
  40. ^ [Quran 20:117]
  41. ^ [Quran 7:20–21]
  42. ^ [Quran 20:120]
  43. ^ [Quran 7:22–24]
  44. ^ [Quran 20:123]
  45. ^ a b Schwartz, Howard (2004). Tree of Souls: The Mythology of Judaism. ISBN 9780195358704.
  46. ^ Rowling, J. K. "Chapter 20: Xenophilius Lovegood". Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows.
  47. ^ Marta Dyczok; Oxana Gaman-Golutvina (2009). Media, Democracy and Freedom: The Post-Communist Experience. Peter Lang. p. 209. ISBN 978-3-0343-0311-8.
  48. ^ Marvin Harris, India's Sacred Cow (PDF), archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-06-10, retrieved 2015-07-20
  49. ^ Putnam, Robert D. (June 2007). "E Pluribus Unum: Diversity and community in the twenty-first century". Scandinavian Political Studies. 30 (2): 137–174. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9477.2007.00176.x. The 2006 Johan Skytte Prize Lecture.
  50. ^ S. Berlin, Frederick. "Interview with Frederick S. Berlin, M.D., Ph.D." Office of Media Relations. Archived from the original on June 23, 2011. Retrieved 2008-06-27.
  51. ^ Johann Hari (2002-01-09). "Forbidden love". The Guardian. Retrieved 2008-04-11.
  52. ^ Hipp, Dietmar (2008-03-11). "German High Court Takes a Look at Incest". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 2008-04-12.
  53. ^ Donaldson James, Susan. "Professor Accused of Incest With Daughter". ABC Nightline. Retrieved 29 November 2011.
  54. ^ Joanna Grossman, Should the law be kinder to kissin' cousins?
  55. ^ Ladygina-Kots, Nadezhda Nikolaevna. "Infant Ape and Human Child: (Instincts, Emotions, Play, Habits)." Journal of Russian & East European Psychology 38.1 (2000): 5-78.
  56. ^ Harris, Lisa (2008). "Second Trimester Abortion Provision: Breaking the Silence and Changing the Discourse" (PDF). Reproductive Health Matters. 16 (31): 74–81. doi:10.1016/S0968-8080(08)31396-2. PMID 18772087. S2CID 24915723. Retrieved 29 October 2015.
  57. ^ O'Donnell, Jenny; Weitz, Tracy; Freedman, Lori (November 2011). "Resistance and vulnerability to stigmatization in abortion work". Social Science and Medicine. 73 (9): 1357–1364. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.08.019. PMID 21940082.

BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit

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