The Evil Dead
The Evil Dead is a 1981 American supernatural horror film written and directed by Sam Raimi and executive produced by Raimi and Bruce Campbell, who also starred alongside Ellen Sandweiss and Betsy Baker. The film focuses on five college students vacationing in an isolated cabin in a remote wooded area. After they find an audio tape that, when played, releases a legion of demons and spirits, members of the group suffer from demonic possession, leading to increasingly gory mayhem. Raimi and the cast produced the short film Within the Woods as a "prototype" to build the interest of potential investors, which secured US$90,000 to produce The Evil Dead. The film was shot on location in a remote cabin located in Morristown, Tennessee, in a difficult filming process that proved extremely uncomfortable for the cast and crew.
|The Evil Dead|
Original theatrical release poster
|Directed by||Sam Raimi|
|Produced by||Robert Tapert|
|Written by||Sam Raimi|
|Music by||Joseph LoDuca|
|Edited by||Edna Ruth Paul|
|Distributed by||New Line Cinema|
|Box office||$2.4 million|
The low-budget horror film attracted the interest of producer Irvin Shapiro, who helped screen the film at the 1982 Cannes Film Festival. Horror author Stephen King gave a rave review of the film, which helped convince New Line Cinema to serve as its distributor. Though a modest commercial success in the United States, grossing just $2.4 million, it was a bigger success internationally, grossing more than $27 million for a worldwide gross of $29.4 million. Both early and later critical reception were universally positive and in the years since its release, The Evil Dead has developed a reputation as one of the most significant cult films, cited among the greatest horror films of all time and one of the most successful independent films. The Evil Dead launched the careers of Campbell and Raimi, who collaborated on several films together, including Raimi's Spider-Man trilogy.
The film spawned a media franchise, beginning with two sequels written and directed by Raimi, Evil Dead II (1987) and Army of Darkness (1992), as well as video games, comic books, and a television series. The film's protagonist Ash Williams (Campbell) is regarded as a cult icon. The fourth film, serving as reboot, remake and sequel, was titled Evil Dead and was released in 2013. Raimi co-produced the film alongside Campbell and the franchise producer, Robert Tapert. As with the films, the follow-up television series Ash vs Evil Dead was created and produced by Sam and Ivan Raimi, with Campbell also executive producing.
- 1 Plot
- 2 Cast
- 3 Production
- 4 Promotion and distribution rights
- 5 Commercial release
- 6 Reception
- 7 Aftermath
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Five Michigan State University students—Ash Williams, his girlfriend, Linda; Ash's sister, Cheryl; their friend Scott; and his girlfriend Shelly—vacation at an isolated cabin in rural Tennessee. Approaching the cabin, the group notices the porch swing move on its own but suddenly stop as Scott grabs the doorknob. While Cheryl draws a picture of a clock, the clock stops, and she hears a faint, demonic voice tell her to "Join us". Her hand becomes possessed, turns pale and draws a picture of a book with a demonic face on its cover. Although shaken, she does not mention the incident.
When the cellar trapdoor flies open during dinner, Shelly, Linda, and Cheryl remain upstairs as Ash and Scott investigate. They find the Naturan Demanto, a Sumerian version of the Egyptian Book of the Dead, along with an archaeologist's tape recorder. Scott and Ash joke around with the items and take them upstairs. Scott plays a tape of incantations that resurrect a demonic entity. Cheryl yells for Scott to turn off the tape recorder, and a tree branch breaks one of the cabin's windows. Later that evening, an agitated Cheryl goes into the woods to investigate strange noises. She gets attacked, stripped, pinned to the ground, and raped by demonically possessed trees. When she manages to escape and returns to the cabin bruised and anguished, Ash agrees to take her back into town, only to discover that the bridge to the cabin has been destroyed. Cheryl panics as she realizes that they are now trapped and the demonic entity will not let them leave. Back at the cabin, Ash listens to more of the tape, learning that the only way to kill the entity is to dismember a possessed host. As Linda and Shelly play Spades, Cheryl correctly calls out the cards, succumbs to the entity, and levitates. In a raspy, demonic voice, she demands to know why they disturbed her sleep and threatens to kill everyone. After she falls to the floor, the group checks on her; Cheryl stabs Linda in the ankle and throws Ash into a shelf. Scott knocks Cheryl into the cellar and locks her inside.
Everyone fights about what to do. Shelly becomes paranoid upon seeing Cheryl's demonic transformation. She lies down in her room but is drawn to look out of her window, where a demon crashes through and attacks her. Shelly becomes a Deadite and scratches Scott's face. Scott throws her into the fireplace, briefly burning Shelly's face. As she attacks him again, Scott bisects part of her wrist with a knife and then she bites off her own mangled hand. Scott stabs her in the back with a Sumerian dagger, apparently killing her. When she reanimates, Scott dismembers her with an axe and buries the remains. Shaken by the experience, he leaves to find a way back to town. He shortly returns mortally wounded; he dies while warning Ash that the trees will not let them escape alive. When Ash checks on Linda, he is horrified to find that she has become possessed. She attacks him, but he stabs her with a Sumerian dagger. Unwilling to dismember her, he buries her instead. She revives and attacks him, forcing him to decapitate her with a shovel. Her headless body bleeds on his face as it tries to rape him, but he pushes it off and retreats to the cabin.
Back inside, Ash is attacked by Cheryl, who has escaped the cellar, and the reanimated Scott. He shoots Cheryl several times, gouges Scott's eyes out, and pulls out a branch lodged in Scott's stomach, causing him to bleed out. The Deadites attack, bite, and beat Ash with a pipe. Ash throws the Naturan Demanto into the fireplace, and the Deadites stop their attack. As the book burns, Scott, Cheryl, and the book gruesomely decompose. Demonic hands protrude from both corpses, and Cheryl's decomposed body falls and splatters in front of Ash, leaving him covered in her and Scott's entrails. He hears a voice say "Join Us" but relaxes when it dies away. As day breaks, Ash stumbles outside. Before he can leave, an unseen entity rapidly trails the forest and runs through the cabin, breaking the cabin doors and attacks him from behind.
Background and writingEdit
Raimi and Campbell grew up together, and have been friends from an early age. The duo made several low-budget Super 8 mm film projects together. Several were comedies, including Clockwork and It's Murder!. Shooting a suspense scene in It's Murder! inspired Raimi to approach a career in the horror genre, and after researching horror cinema at drive-in theaters, Raimi was set on directing a horror film. Shooting a short film first to attract the interest of financiers, and use the funds raised to shoot a full-length project. The short film that Raimi created was called Within the Woods. Within the Woods was produced for $1,600. For The Evil Dead Raimi required over $100,000.
To generate funds to produce, the film Raimi approached Phil Gillis, a lawyer to one of his friends. Raimi showed him Within the Woods, and although Gillis was not impressed by the short film, he offered Raimi legal advice on how to produce The Evil Dead. With his advice in mind, Raimi asked a variety of people for donations, and even eventually "begged" some. Campbell had to ask several of his own family members, and Raimi asked every individual he thought might be interested. He eventually raised enough money to produce a full-length film, though not the full amount he originally wanted.
With enough money to produce the film, Raimi and Campbell set out to make what was then titled Book of the Dead, a name inspired by Raimi's interest in the fiction of H. P. Lovecraft.[dead link] The film was supposed to be a remake of Within the Woods, with higher production values and a full-length running time. Raimi turned 20 just before shooting began, and he considered the project his "rite of passage".
Pre-production and castingEdit
Raimi asked for help and assistance from several of his friends and past collaborators to make The Evil Dead. Campbell was cast as Ash Williams, the main character. To acquire more actors for the project, Raimi put an ad in The Detroit News. Betsy Baker was one of the actresses who responded, and Ellen Sandweiss, who appeared in Within the Woods, was also cast. The crew consisted almost entirely of Raimi and Campbell's friends and family. The special make-up effects artist for Within the Woods, Tom Sullivan, was brought on to compose the effects after expressing a positive reaction to working with Raimi. He helped create many of the film's foam latex and fake blood effects, and added coffee as an extra ingredient to the traditional fake blood formula of corn syrup and food coloring.
Without any formal assistance from location scouts, the cast had to find filming locations on their own. The crew initially attempted to shoot the film in Raimi's hometown of Royal Oak, Michigan, but instead chose Morristown, Tennessee, as it was the only state that expressed enthusiasm for the project. The crew quickly found a remote cabin located several miles away from any other buildings. During pre-production, the 13 crew members had to stay at the cabin, leading to several people sleeping in the same room. The living conditions were notoriously difficult, with several arguments breaking out between crew members.
Steve Frankel was the only carpenter on set, which made him the art direction's sole contributor. For exterior shots, Frankel had to produce several elaborate props with a circular saw. Otherwise, the cabin mostly remained the way it was found during production. The cabin had no plumbing, but phone lines were connected to it.
Because of the crew's inexperience, filming was a "comedy of errors". The first day of filming led to them getting lost in the woods during a scene shot on a bridge. Several crew members were injured during the shoot, and because of the cabin's remoteness, securing medical assistance was difficult. One notably gruesome moment on set involved ripping off Baker's eyelashes during removal of her face-mask. Because of the low budget, contact lenses as thick as glass had to be applied to the actors to achieve the "demonic eyes" effect. The lenses took 10 minutes to apply, and could only be left on for about 15 minutes because eyes could not "breathe" with them applied. Campbell later commented that to get the effect of wearing these lenses, they had to put "Tupperware" over their eyes.
Raimi developed a sense of mise en scène, coming up with ideas for scenes at a fast rate. He had drawn several crude illustrations to help him break down the flow of scenes. The crew was surprised when Raimi began using dutch angles during shots to build atmosphere during scenes. To accommodate Raimi's style of direction, several elaborate, low-budget rigs had to be built, since the crew could not afford a camera dolly. One involved the "vas-o-cam", which relied on a mounted camera that was slid down long wooden platforms to create a more fluid sense of motion.
A camera trick used to emulate a Steadicam inexpensively was the "shaky cam", which involved mounting the camera to a piece of wood and having two camera operators sprint around the swamp. During scenes involving the unseen force in the woods watching the characters, Raimi had to run through the woods with the makeshift rig, jumping over logs and stones. This often proved difficult due to mist in the swamp. The film's final scene was shot with the camera mounted to a bike, while it was quickly driven through the cabin to create a seamless long take.
Raimi had been a big fan of The Three Stooges during his youth, which inspired him to use "Fake Shemps" during production. In any scene that required a background shot of a character, he used another actor as a substitute if the original actor was preoccupied. During a close-up involving Richard DeManicor's hand opening a curtain, Raimi used his own hand in the scene since it was more convenient. His brother Ted Raimi was used as a "fake shemp" in many scenes when the original actor was either busy or preoccupied.
Raimi enjoyed "torturing" his actors. Raimi believed that to capture pain and anger in his actors, he had to abuse them a little at times, saying, "if everyone was in extreme pain and misery, that would translate into a horror". Producer Robert Tapert agreed with Raimi, commenting that he "enjoyed when an actor bleeds." While shooting a scene with Campbell running down a hill, Campbell tripped and injured his leg. Raimi enjoyed poking Campbell's injury with a stick he found in the woods. Because of the copious amounts of blood in the film, the crew produced gallons of fake blood with karo syrup. It took Campbell hours to remove the sticky substance from himself. Several actors had inadvertently been stabbed or thrown into objects during production. During the last few days on set the conditions had become so extreme the crew began burning furniture to stay warm. Since at that point only exterior shots needed to be filmed, they burned nearly every piece of furniture left. Several actors went days without showering, and because of the freezing conditions, several caught colds and other illnesses. Campbell later described the filming process as nearly "twelve weeks of mirthless exercise in agony", though he allowed that he did manage to have fun while on set. On January 23, 1980, filming was finished and almost every crew member left the set to return home, with Campbell staying with Raimi. While looking over the footage that had been shot, Raimi discovered that a few pick-ups were required to fill in missing shots. Four days of re-shoots were then done to complete the film. The final moment involved Campbell having "monster-guts" splattered on him in the basement.
After the extensive filming process, Raimi had a "mountain of footage" that he had to put together. He chose a Detroit editing association, where he met Edna Paul, to cut the film. Paul's assistant was Joel Coen of the Coen brothers, who helped with the film's editing. Paul edited a majority of the film, although Coen notably edited the shed sequence. Coen had been inspired by Raimi's Within the Woods and liked the idea of producing a prototype film to help build the interest of investors. Joel used the concept to help make Blood Simple with his brother Ethan, and he and Raimi became friends following the editing process.
The film's first cut ran at around 117 minutes, which Campbell called an impressive achievement in light of the 65-minute length of the screenplay. The cut scenes were to focus on the main character's lamentation of not being able to save the victims from their deaths, but was edited down to make the film less "grim and depressing" and to be a more marketable 85 minutes. Raimi was inspired by the fact that Brian De Palma was editing his own film Blow Out with John Travolta at the same sound facility. One of the most intricate moments during editing was the stop-motion animation sequence where the corpses "melted", which took hours to cut properly. The film had unique sounds that required extensive recording from the crew. Several sounds were not recorded properly during shooting, which meant the effects had to be redone in the editing rooms. Dead chickens were stabbed to replicate the sounds of mutilated flesh, and Campbell had to scream into a microphone for several hours.
Much like Within the Woods, The Evil Dead needed to be blown up to 35mm, then the industry standard, to be played at movie theaters. The relatively large budget made this a much simpler process with The Evil Dead than it had been with the short film.
Promotion and distribution rightsEdit
With the film completed, Raimi and the crew decided to celebrate with a "big premiere". They chose to screen the film at Detroit's Redford Theatre, which Campbell had often visited as a child. Raimi opted to have the most theatrical premiere possible, using custom tickets and wind tracks set in the theater, and ordering ambulances outside the theater to build atmosphere. The premiere setup was inspired by horror director William Castle, who would often attempt to scare his audiences by using gimmicks. Local turnout for the premiere exceeded the cast's expectations, with a thousand patrons showing up. The audiences responded enthusiastically to the premiere, which led to Raimi's idea of "touring" the film to build hype.
Raimi showed the film to anyone willing to watch it, booking meetings with distribution agents and anyone with experience in the film industry. Eventually Raimi came across Irvin Shapiro, the man who was responsible for the distribution of George A. Romero's Night of the Living Dead and other famous horror films. Upon first viewing the film, he joked that while it "wasn't Gone with the Wind", it had commercial potential, and he expressed an interest in distributing it. It was his idea not to use the then-title Book of the Dead, because it made the film sound boring. Raimi brainstormed several ideas, eventually going with The Evil Dead, deemed the "least worst" title. Shapiro also advised distributing the film worldwide to garner a larger income, though it required a further financial investment by Raimi, who managed to scrape together what little money he had.
Shapiro was a founder of the Cannes Film Festival, and allowed Raimi to screen the film at the 1982 festival out of competition. Stephen King was present at its screening and gave the film a rave review. USA Today released an article about King's favorite horror films; the author cited The Evil Dead as his fifth favorite film of the genre. The film severely affected King, who commented that while watching the film at Cannes, he was "registering things [he] had never seen in a movie before". He became one of the film's largest supporters during the early efforts to find a distributor, eventually describing it as the "most ferociously original film of the year", a quote used in the film's promotional pieces.[dead link] King's comments attracted the interest of critics, who otherwise would likely have dismissed the low-budget thriller.
The film's press attracted the attention of British film distribution agent Stephen Woolley. Though he considered the film a big risk, Woolley decided to take on the job of releasing the film in the United Kingdom. The film was promoted in an unconventional manner for a film of its budget, receiving marketing on par with that of larger budget films. Dozens of promotional pieces, including film posters and trailers, were showcased in the UK, heavy promotion rarely expended on such a low-budget film. Woolley was impressed by Raimi, whom he called "charming", and was an admirer of the film, which led to his taking more risks with the film's promotion than he normally would have.
Fangoria started covering the film in late 1982, writing several articles about the film's long production history. Early critical reception at the time was very positive, and along with Fangoria, King, and Shapiro's approval, the film generated an impressive amount of interest before its commercial premiere. New Line Cinema, one of the distributors interested in the film, negotiated an agreement to distribute it domestically. The film had several "sneak previews" before its commercial release, including screenings in New York and Detroit. Audience reception at both screenings was widely enthusiastic, and interest was built for the film to such an extent that wider distribution was planned. New Line Cinema wrote Raimi a check large enough to pay off all the investors, and decided to release the film in a unique manner: simultaneously into both cinemas and onto VHS, with substantial domestic promotion.
Because of its large promotional campaign, the film performed above expectations at the box office. It grossed a total of $2,400,000 in the United States, nearly eight times its production budget. However, the initial domestic gross was described as "disappointing." It opened in 15 theaters and grossed $108,000 in its opening weekend. Word of mouth later spread, and the film became a "sleeper hit", making over $600,000 domestically and nearly $27,000,000 overseas, for a worldwide gross of $29,400,000. In its first week of video release in 1983 two years later, the film made £100,000 in the UK. It quickly became that week's best-selling video release, and later became the year's best-selling video in the UK, out-grossing large-budget horror releases such as The Shining. Its impressive European performance was chalked up to its heavy promotion there and the more open-minded nature of European audiences.
The film's release was met with controversy. Raimi made the film as gruesome as possible with neither interest in nor fear of censorship, which led to the film's receiving an X rating and being named a "video nasty". Films with this label were quite violent and disturbing, and the rating was often held by pornographic and other X-rated films. While The Evil Dead was not pornographic in nature, it was considered one of the most violent films of its time, and censors had issues with the film's content, which impacted some of its commercial potential. The film was called the "number one nasty" in a nod to its status as both a nasty and the year's best-selling video release. Writer Bruce Kawin described The Evil Dead as one of the most notorious splatter films of its day, along with Cannibal Holocaust and I Spit on Your Grave. The film was and is still banned either theatrically or on video in some countries.
Home video releaseEdit
The first VHS release of The Evil Dead was by Thorn EMI in 1983, and Thorn's successor company HBO (WarnerMedia) / Cannon (MGM) Video later repackaged the film. Congress Video, a company notable for public domain films, issued its version in 1989.
The resurgence of The Evil Dead in the home-video market came through two companies that restored the film from its negatives and issued special editions in 1998: Anchor Bay Entertainment on VHS, and Elite Entertainment on laserdisc. Anchor Bay was responsible for the film's first DVD release in 1999, and between them, Elite and Anchor Bay have released six different DVD versions of The Evil Dead, most notably the 2002 "Book Of The Dead" edition, packaged in a latex replica of the Necronomicon sculpted by Tom Sullivan and the 2007 three disc "Ultimate Edition" which contained the widescreen and original full frame versions of the movie. The film's high-definition debut was in a 2010 Blu-ray.
Upon its release, contemporary critical opinion was largely positive. Bob Martin, editor of Fangoria, reviewed the film before its formal premiere and proclaimed that it "might be the exception to the usual run of low-budget horror films". He followed up on this praise after the film's premiere, stating: "Since I started editing this magazine, I have not seen any new film that I could recommend to our readers with more confidence that it would be loved, embraced and hailed as a new milestone in graphic horror". The Los Angeles Times called the film an "instant classic", proclaiming it as "probably the grisliest well-made movie ever." In a 1982 review, staff from the trade magazine Variety wrote that the film "emerges as the ne plus ultra of low-budget gore and shock effect", commenting that the "powerful" and inventive camerawork was key to creating a sense of dread.
British press for the film was positive; Kim Newman of Monthly Film Bulletin, Richard Cook of NME, and Julian Petley of Film and Filming all gave the film good reviews during its early release. Petley and Cook compared the film to other contemporary horror films, writing that the film expressed more imagination and "youthful enthusiasm" than an average horror film. Cook described the camera work by Raimi as "audacious", stating that the film's visceral nature was greatly helped by the style of direction. Woolley, Newman, and several critics complimented the film for its unexpected use of black comedy, which elevated the film above its genre's potential trappings. All three critics compared the film to the surrealistic work of Georges Franju and Jean Cocteau, noting the cinephilic references to Cocteau's film Orpheus. Writer Lynn Schofield Clark in his novel From Angels to Aliens compared the film to better-known horror films such as The Exorcist and The Omen, citing it as a key supernatural thriller.
The review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes reports a 95% approval rating and an average rating of 8.04/10 based on an aggregation of 59 reviews. It summarizes the film: "This classic low budget horror film combines just the right amount of gore and black humor, giving The Evil Dead an equal amount of thrills and laughs." Empire magazine stated the film's "reputation was deserved", writing that the film was impressive considering its low budget and the cast's inexperience. He commented that the film successfully blended the "bizarre" combination of Night of the Living Dead, The Texas Chain Saw Massacre and The Three Stooges. A reviewer for Film4 rated The Evil Dead four-and-a-half stars out of five, musing that the film was "energetic, original and icky" and concluding that Raimi's "splat-stick debut is a tight little horror classic that deserves its cult reputation, despite the best efforts of the censors."
Slant Magazine's Ed Gonzales compared the film to Dario Argento's work, citing Raimi's "unnerving wide angle work" as an important factor to the film's atmosphere. He mused that Raimi possessed an "almost unreal ability to suggest the presence of intangible evil", which was what prevented the movie from being "B-movie schlock". BBC critic Martyn Glanville awarded the film four stars out of five, writing that for Raimi, it served as a better debut film than Tobe Hooper's The Texas Chainsaw Massacre or Wes Craven's The Last House on the Left. Glanville noted that other than the "ill-advised trees-that-rape scene", the film is "one of the great modern horror films, and even more impressive when one considers its modest production values."
Filmcritic.com's Christopher Null gave the film the same rating as Glanville, writing that "Raimi's biggest grossout is schlock horror done the right way" and comparing it to Romero's Night of the Living Dead in its ability to create stark atmosphere. Chicago Reader writer Pat Graham commented that the film featured several "clever" turns on the standard horror formula, adding that Raimi's "anything-for-an-effect enthusiasm pays off in lots of formally inventive bits." Time Out critic Stephen Garrett, referred to the make-up effects in the climax as "amazing", and commented that although the film was light on character development, it "blends comic fantasy" with "atmospheric horror ... to impressive effect". The same site later cited the film as the 41st greatest horror movie ever made. Phelim O'Neill of The Guardian combined The Evil Dead and its sequel Evil Dead II and listed them as the 23rd best horror film ever made, announcing that the former film "stands above its mostly forgotten peers in the 80s horror boom." Don Summer, in his book Horror Movie Freak, and writer Kate Egan have both cited the film as a horror classic.
J.C. Maçek III of PopMatters said, "What is unquestionable is that the Raimis and their pals created a monster in The Evil Dead. It started as a disastrous failure to obtain a big break with a too long, too perilous shoot (note Campbell's changing hairstyle in the various scenes of the one-day plot). The film went through name changes and bannings only to survive as not only 'the ultimate experience in grueling horror' but as an oft-imitated and cashed-in-on classic, with 30 years of positive reviews to prove it."
While The Evil Dead received favorable critical comment when it was initially released, it failed to establish Raimi's reputation. It was, however, a box-office success, which led to Campbell and Raimi teaming up again for the release of another movie. Joel Coen and his brother Ethan had collaborated as directors and released the film Blood Simple, to critical acclaim. According to Campbell, Ethan, then an accountant, expressed surprise when the duo succeeded. The Coen brothers and Raimi collaborated on a screenplay, which was released shortly after The Evil Dead. The film, Crimewave, was a box-office failure. The film's production was a "disaster" according to Campbell, who stated that "missteps" like Crimewave usually lead to the end of a director's career. Other people involved with the film expressed similar disappointment with the project. Fortunately, Raimi had the studio support to make a sequel to The Evil Dead, which he initially decided to make out of desperation.
Evil Dead II was filmed and released in 1987, and was also a box-office success. A second sequel was released in 1993, Army of Darkness. Campbell returned as the lead character Ash Williams in both films. At that time, Raimi had become a successful director, attracting Hollywood's interest. His 1990 superhero film Darkman was another box-office success, which led to an increased budget for Army of Darkness. Army of Darkness had 22.8 times the budget of the original Evil Dead, though it was not considered to be a box-office success like its two predecessors. Evil Dead II received general acclaim from critics and is often considered to be better than the original, and Army of Darkness received mostly positive reviews. The series has often attracted attention because each sequel featured more comedic qualities than the last, progressing into "weirder" territory with each film.
Unofficial sequels were also made in Italy—where the film was known as La Casa ("The House")—by Joe D'Amato's Filmirage. In 1988, D'Amato produced two films labeled as sequels to Evil Dead II, Umberto Lenzi's Ghosthouse (La Casa 3), and Witchery (La Casa 4), starring Linda Blair and David Hasselhoff. In 1990, D'Amato produced his final La Casa film, Beyond Darkness (La Casa 5). House II was reissued in Italy as La Casa 6, and The Horror Show was then released in Italy as La Casa 7.
The Evil Dead and its sequels have become one of the largest cult film trilogies in history. David Lavery, in his book The Essential Cult TV Reader, surmised that Campbell's "career is a practical guide to becoming a cult idol". The film launched the careers of Raimi and Campbell, who have since collaborated frequently. Raimi has worked with Campbell in virtually all of his films since, and Campbell has appeared in cameo roles in all three of Raimi's Spider-Man films, (as well as a very brief appearance at the end of Darkman), which have become some of the highest-grossing films in history. Though it has often been considered an odd choice for Raimi—a director known for his violent horror films—to direct a family-friendly franchise, the hiring was mostly inspired by Raimi's passion for comic books as a kid. Raimi returned to the horror-comedy genre in 2009 with Drag Me to Hell.
Critics have often compared Campbell's later performances to his role in Evil Dead, which has been called his defining role. Campbell's performance as Ash has been compared to roles ranging from his performance of Elvis Presley in the film Bubba Ho-tep to the bigamous demon in The X-Files episode "Terms of Endearment". Campbell's fan base gradually developed after the release of Evil Dead II and his short-lived series The Adventures of Brisco County, Jr.. He is a regular favorite at most fan conventions and often draws sold-out auditoriums at his public appearances. The Evil Dead developed a substantial cult following throughout the years, and has often been cited as a defining cult classic.
The Evil Dead has spawned a media empire. A video game adaptation of the same name was for the Commodore 64 in 1984, as was a trilogy of survival horror games in the 1990s and early 2000s: Evil Dead: Hail to the King, Evil Dead: A Fistful of Boomstick and Evil Dead: Regeneration. Ted Raimi did voices for the trilogy, and Campbell returned as the voice of Ash. The character Ash became the main character of a comic book franchise. Ash has fought both Freddy Krueger and Jason Voorhees in the Freddy vs. Jason vs. Ash series, Herbert West in Army of Darkness vs. Re-Animator, zombie versions of the Marvel Comics superhero team Avengers in Marvel Zombies vs. The Army of Darkness, and has even saved the life of a fictional Barack Obama in Army of Darkness: Ash Saves Obama. In January 2008, Dark Horse Comics began releasing a four-part monthly comic book mini-series, written by Mark Verheiden and drawn by John Bolton, based on The Evil Dead.
In addition, the film has inspired a stage musical, Evil Dead: The Musical, which was produced with the permission of Raimi and Campbell. The musical has run on and off since its inception in 2003. A remake of the film was released in 2013, directed by Fede Alvarez and produced by Raimi and Campbell. It features actress Jane Levy as the main character, with Ash not appearing. Campbell does make a brief, uncredited cameo appearance at the end of the film in a short post-credits scene.
In 2015, an ongoing television continuation of the films called Ash vs Evil Dead premiered on the Starz Network. The first episode was directed by Raimi, and Campbell is reprising his role as Ash. The series is being produced by Renaissance, and follows an older Ash as he encounters the Kandarian Demon again.
After the film was released, many people began to trespass onto the filming location in Morristown. In 1982, the cabin was burned down by drunken trespassers. Although the cabin is now gone, the chimney remains, which many people now take stones from when they trespass onto the location.
- Thurman, Trace (October 15, 2016). ""Join Us" in Celebrating the 35th Anniversary of The Evil Dead!". Bloody Disgusting. Retrieved August 21, 2018.
- "THE EVIL DEAD (X) (!)". British Board of Film Classification. October 4, 1982. Retrieved March 28, 2013.
- Gettell, Oliver (April 5, 2013). "'Evil Dead': Blood-soaked remake scares up mixed reviews". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 10, 2015.
- Collins, Andrew (January 1, 2000). "EMPIRE ESSAY: Evil Dead II". Empire. Retrieved July 10, 2015.
- "The Evil Dead (1983)". Box Office Mojo. IMDb. Retrieved March 28, 2019.
- "The Evil Dead (1983) – International Box Office Results". Box Office Mojo. IMDb. Retrieved March 28, 2019.
- Winston Dixon (2010), p. 161
- Campbell (2002), p. 65
- Egan (2011), p. 16
- Campbell (2002), p. 66
- Becker (2002), p. 64
- Lamberson (2008), p. 84
- Campbell (2002), pp. 85–88
- Konow (2012), pp. 412–413
- AMC staff (October 28, 2008). "Ten Things You Might Not Know About the Evil Dead Trilogy". Filmcritic.com. Archived from the original on December 27, 2011. Retrieved July 12, 2012.[dead link]
- Campbell (2002), p. 95
- Kenneth Muir (2004), pp. 23–24
- Konow, David (July 21, 2014). "How The Evil Dead's Tom Sullivan Mastered Low-Budget Effects". Tested.com. Archived from the original on February 17, 2019. Retrieved February 17, 2019.
- Grabowski, William (January 19, 2017). ""Evil Dead" Effects Master Tom Sullivan Honored". Medium. Retrieved February 17, 2019.
- Campbell (2002), pp. 96–98
- Campbell (2002), pp. 93–94
- Egan (2011), p. 14
- Campbell (2002), p. 101
- Konow (2012), pp. 419–422
- Campbell (2002), p. 102–103
- Konow, David (April 18, 2013). "The Low Budget Camera Tech of Sam Raimi's Evil Dead". Tested.com. Retrieved May 7, 2013.
- Kenneth Muir (2004), p. 309
- Kenneth Muir (2004), p. 115
- Campbell (2002), p. 111–112
- One by One We Will Take You: The Untold Saga of The Evil Dead (documentary). The Evil Dead Ultimate Edition DVD: Anchor Bay Entertainment. 2007.
- Kenneth Muir (2007), p. 507
- Campbell (2002), pp. 107–109
- Campbell (2002), pp. 116–117
- Campbell (2002), p. 128
- Campbell (2002), pp. 129–132
- Eddie (2010), p. 15
- Pooley (1987), p. 44
- Egan (2011), p. 17
- Campbell (2002), pp. 125–126
- F. Kawin (2012), p. 13
- Campbell (2002), pp. 136–137
- Konow (2012), pp. 422–425
- Warren (2000), pp. 125–126
- Egan (2011), p. 24
- R. Collings (2008), p. 26
- Egan (2011), p. 20
- R. Collings (2007), p. 157
- Campbell (2002), pp. 151–152
- Finney (1997), p. 58
- Chibnall (2001), p. 184
- Finney (1997), p. 55
- Egan (2011), p. 19
- Egan (2011), p. 27
- Newman (2011), p. 38
- Egan (2011), p. 21
- "The Evil Dead". Box Office Mojo. IMDb. Retrieved May 19, 2012.
- Egan (2011), pp. 26–28
- Hantke (2004) p. 160
- Kerekes (2000)
- Hantke (2004) p. 162
- Staiger (2005), p. 125
- Davis, Laura (October 5, 2010). "BANNED: The most controversial films". The Independent. Retrieved August 11, 2012.
- Xavier (2004), p. 195
- Stine, Scott Aaron (2003). The gorehound's guide to splatter films of the 1980s. McFarland. p. 114. ISBN 0-7864-1532-0.
The Evil Dead (ABE; 85m); The Evil Dead (CNG; 89(85)m); The Evil Dead (EMI; 85m)
- Bowker's Complete Video Directory 1994. R.R. Bowker. 1994. p. 266. ISBN 978-0-8352-3391-0.
- Egan (2011), p. 52-3
- White, Cindy (September 3, 2010). "The Evil Dead Blu-ray Review". IGN. Retrieved May 7, 2013.
- Miska, Brad. "Lionsgate Gives 'The Evil Dead' the 4K Treatment This October!". Bloody Disgusting. Retrieved August 8, 2018.
- "The Evil Dead 4K Blu-ray". Blu-ray.com. Retrieved August 8, 2018.
- Martin, Bob (November 1982). "Evil Dead". Fangoria (23): 20–23 – via Internet Archive.
- Martin, Bob (May 1983). "The FX of Evil Dead". Fangoria (27): 19–22 – via Internet Archive.
- Egan (2011), p. 22
- "The Evil Dead". Variety. December 31, 1982. Archived from the original on January 4, 2012. Retrieved January 31, 2012.
- Schofield Clark (2005), pp. 26–28
- "The Evil Dead". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango. Retrieved June 28, 2019.
- Empire Staff (September 24, 2007). "The Evil Dead". Empire. Archived from the original on November 6, 2012. Retrieved January 31, 2012.
- "The Evil Dead review". Film4. Archived from the original on August 30, 2010. Retrieved October 11, 2012.
- Gonzales, Ed (March 6, 2002). Review: The Evil Dead. Slant Magazine. Retrieved on November 20, 2010.
- Glanville, Martyn (March 5, 2001). "The Evil Dead (1982)". BBC. Archived from the original on March 5, 2001. Retrieved July 12, 2012.
- Null, Christopher (January 1, 2001). "The Evil Dead (1983)". Movies.AMCTV.com. Archived from the original on August 18, 2012. Retrieved July 12, 2012.
- Graham, Pat (January 1, 2001). "The Evil Dead". Chicago Reader. Wrapports. Retrieved July 12, 2012.
- Graham, Pat (January 26, 2005). "The Evil Dead (1981)". Time Out. Archived from the original on June 29, 2012. Retrieved July 12, 2012.
- Adams, Derek; Calhoun, Dave; Clarke, Cath; Cohen, Sarah; Floyd, Nigel; Huddleston, Tom. "The 100 best horror films". Time Out. Archived from the original on June 29, 2012. Retrieved July 12, 2012.
- O'Neill, Phelim (October 22, 2010). The Evil Dead/Evil Dead II: No 23 best horror film of all time. The Guardian. Retrieved on November 19, 2010.
- Summer (2007), p. 165
- Maçek III, J. C. (April 26, 2013). "Books of the Dead: The Followers and Clones of 'The Evil Dead'". PopMatters.
- Campbell (2002), pp. 161–163
- Žižek (2000), p. 111
- Campbell (2002), p. 171
- Paul (2007), p. 121
- Kenneth Muir (2004), p. 101
- Campbell (2002), p. 207
- Konow (2012), pp. 429–434
- Harris (2002), pp. 51–52
- Kenneth Muir (2004), p. 138
- Campbell (2002), pp. 217–218
- Lupi, Gordiano (2004). Erotismo, orrore e pornografia secondo Joe D'Amato (in Italian). Mondo Ignoto. p. 168. ISBN 88-89084-49-9.
- Campbell (2002), p. 319
- Lavery (2009), pp. 217–218
- Campbell (2002), p. 337
- "Spider-Man (2002) – International Box Office Results". Box Office Mojo. IMDb. Retrieved April 8, 2010.
- HBO Making-Of Spider-Man (DVD). Sony. 2002.
- Ebert, Roger (June 3, 2009). "'Drag Me to Hell' Review". RogerEbert.com. Retrieved June 28, 2009.
- Kenneth Muir (2004), p. 112
- Wharton, David (March 9, 2011). "FlixWorthy Celebrates Ash Wednesday With The Best Of Streaming Bruce Campbell". Cinema Blend. Retrieved November 28, 2011.
- Seghers, Christine (July 17, 2008). "Top 10 X-Files Guest Stars". IGN. Retrieved August 11, 2011.
- Russell, Jamie (October 4, 2001). "Bubba Ho-Tep (2004)". BBC. Archived from the original on May 2, 2012. Retrieved July 12, 2012.
- Campbell (2002), pp. 245–248
- Lowry (1995), pp.19–21
- Staff (January 2004). "Horror Movie Licenses". Retro Gamer (1): 71.
- WW: Chicago – Freddy vs. Jason vs. Ash Coming in November Archived September 25, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, August 12, 2007, Newsarama
- Phegley, Kiel (May 27, 2009). "'Army Of Darkness: Ash Saves Obama' Artist Todd Nauck On Spider-Man, Barack & Celebrity Team-Ups". MTV. Archived from the original on May 9, 2012. Retrieved July 12, 2012.
- "Marvel Zombies vs. Army of Darkness #1 Goes Back to Press". Marvel Comics. March 27, 2007. Archived from the original on September 10, 2012. Retrieved July 12, 2012.
- "The Evil Dead #1 Movie Adaptation Dark Horse Comics". HeroesAssemble.com. Retrieved July 12, 2012.
- Murphy, Joel (November 2006). "Hanging Around ... Evil Dead: The Musical". HoboTrashcan.com. Retrieved July 18, 2007.
- Barton, Steve (April 24, 2012). "Jane Levy Talks Evil Dead Remake". Dread Central. Retrieved April 24, 2012.
- Fleming Jr, Mike (February 3, 2012). "Jane Levy Is New Star Of 'Evil Dead' Remake". Deadline Hollywood. Penske Media Corporation. Retrieved March 19, 2012.
- Hibberd, James (March 9, 2013). "'Evil Dead' director reveals sequel plans". Entertainment Weekly. Meredith Corporation. Retrieved April 28, 2013.
- "Locations". www.bookofthedead.ws. Retrieved January 20, 2019.
- Campbell, Bruce (2002). If Chins Could Kill: Confessions of a B Movie Actor. L.A. Weekly Books. ISBN 978-0-312-29145-7.
- Lamberson, Gregory (2008). Cheap Scares!: Low Budget Horror Filmmakers Share Their Secrets. McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-3706-1.
- Winston Dixon, Wheeler (2010). A History of Horror. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 978-0-8135-4796-1.
- Becker, Josh (2006). The Complete Guide to Low-Budget Feature Filmmaking. Point Blank. ISBN 978-0-8095-5690-8.
- Kenneth Muir, John (2004). The Unseen Force: the Films of Sam Raimi. Applause Theatre & Cinema Books. ISBN 978-1-55783-607-6.
- Eddie, Robson (2010). Coen Brothers (Virgin Film). Virgin Books. ISBN 978-0-7535-1268-5.
- Kenneth Muir, John (2007). Horror Films of the 1980s. Virgin Books. ISBN 978-0-7864-2821-2.
- Pooley, Eric (1987). Warped in America: The Dark Visions of Joel and Ethan Coen. New York. ISBN 978-0-7864-2821-2.
- Warren, Bill (2000). The Evil Dead Companion. Titan Books. ISBN 1-84023-187-4.
- R. Collings, Michael (2008). The Films of Stephen King: From Carrie to Secret Window. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-60131-4.
- Egan, Kate (2011). The Evil Dead. Wallflower Press. ISBN 978-1-906660-34-5.
- R Collings, Michael (2007). Scaring Us to Death: The Impact of Stephen King on Popular Culture. Borgo Press. ISBN 978-0-930261-37-5.
- Kerekes, David (2000). See No Evil: Banned Films and Video Controversy. Critical Vision. ISBN 978-1-900486-10-1.
- Hantke, Steffen (2004). University Press of Mississippi. Critical Vision. ISBN 978-1-57806-692-6.
- Xavier, Mendik (2004). Alternative Europe: Eurotrash and Exploitation Cinema Since 1945. Wallflower Press. ISBN 978-1-903364-93-2.
- F. Kawin, Bruce (2012). Horror and the Horror Film (New Perspectives on World Cinema). Anthem Press. ISBN 978-0-85728-450-1.
- Staiger, Janet (2005). Media Reception Studies. NYU Press. ISBN 978-0-8147-8135-7.
- Finney, Angus (1997). The Egos Have Landed: Rise and Fall of Palace Pictures. Arrow Books Ltd. ISBN 978-0-7493-1946-5.
- Chibnall, Steve (2001). British Horror Cinema. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-23004-9.
- Newman, Kim (2011). Nightmare Movies: Horror on Screen Since the 1960s. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4088-0503-9.
- Schofield Clark, Lynn (2005). From Angels to Aliens: Teenagers, the Media, and the Supernatural. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-530023-9.
- Summer, Don (2007). Horror Movie Freak. Unknown Binding. ASIN B004434G7M.
- Žižek, Slavoj (2000). The Ticklish Subject: The Absent Centre of Political Ontology. Verso. ISBN 978-1-85984-291-1.
- Paul, Louis (2007). Tales from the Cult Film Trenches: Interviews with 36 Actors from Horror, Science Fiction and Exploitation Cinema. McFarland & Company. ISBN 978-0-7864-2994-3.
- Harris, J. P. Harris (2002). Time Capsule: Reviews of horror, science fiction and fantasy films and TV shows from 1987 to 1991. iUniverse. ISBN 978-0-595-21336-8.
- Lavery, David (2009). The Essential Cult TV Reader (Essential Readers in Contemporary Media). The University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 978-0-8131-2568-8.
- Lowry, Brian (1995). The Truth is Out There: The Official Guide to the X-Files. Harper Prism 5. ISBN 978-0-06-105330-6.
- Kay, Glenn (2008). Zombie Movies: The Ultimate Guide. Chicago Review Press. ISBN 978-1-55652-770-8.
- Konow, David Konow (2008). Reel Terror: The Scary, Bloody, Gory, Hundred-Year History of Classic Horror Films. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-66883-X.