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R.R. Bowker LLC ("Bowker") is an American limited liability company based in New Providence, New Jersey, and incorporated in Delaware. Among other things, Bowker provides bibliographic information on published works to the book trade, including publishers, booksellers, libraries, and individuals; its roots in the industry trace back to 1868. Bowker is the exclusive U.S. agent for issuing International Standard Book Numbers (ISBNs), a universal method of identifying books in print. Bowker is the publisher of Books in Print and other compilations of information about books and periodical titles. It provides supply chain services and analytical tools to the book publishing industry. Bowker is headquartered in New Providence, New Jersey, with additional operational offices in England and Australia. It is now owned by Cambridge Information Group.
|Parent company||Cambridge Information Group|
|Headquarters location||New Providence, New Jersey|
|Key people||Annie Callanan, CEO & President|
The company was founded in New York City by Frederick Leypoldt, a German immigrant who worked as a bookseller and recognized the need for good bibliographic information to make the book business more efficient. He established the monthly Literary Bulletin, his first periodical, in 1868. In 1870 Leypoldt issued the first edition of his Annual American Catalogue, the forerunner for Books in Print. In 1872 he published the first issue of Publishers Weekly, in 1873 the first Publishers' Uniform Trade-List Annual (later the Publishers Trade List Annual), and in 1876 the first issue of Library Journal. In 1878 Leypoldt's company was acquired by Richard Rogers Bowker. Leypoldt and Bowker also founded two influential standard book-industry references: Literary Marketplace and Ulrich's Periodicals Directory.
In 1967, the Xerox Corporation acquired the R. R. Bowker company, and then, in 1985, sold it to Reed International (now RELX Group). That same year, in 1985, Publishers Weekly—after 113 years as a part of R.R. Bowker—was transferred to the Cahners Publishing Company. In 1991, Reed's reference division moved to New Providence, New Jersey. In 2001, Cambridge Information Group acquired Bowker. After the sale, In 2007, Cambridge Information Group sold Literary Marketplace and other directories to Information Today Inc. Cambridge Information Group merged Cambridge Scientific Abstracts with ProQuest Information and Learning to form ProQuest LLC, a privately held limited liability company based in Ann Arbor, Michigan, and incorporated in Delaware. R. R. Bowker LLC was repositioned as an affiliate of ProQuest.[clarification needed]
- Books in Print lists nearly all books that are currently available in English and in the United States from major publishers. A resource for bookstores, libraries, and publishers, it is available in a print version, but is most often accessed electronically. Books in Print listings are several million, a number that is only exceeded by Amazon.
- The Library and Book Trade Almanac (formerly The Bowker Annual) is a resource for librarians, publishers, and booksellers which provides reviews of "key trends, events, and developments" in the industry; statistics on book prices, numbers of books published, library expenditures, and average salaries; explanations of new legislation and changes in funding programs; and other information.
Bowker is the United States provider of International Standard Book Numbers (ISBNs), a code for identifying commercial books devised by Gordon Foster in 1967. An ISBN is currently placed on a book to uniquely identify it. ISBNs are available one at a time and in blocks up to 100,000 for a set fee. ISBNs may be purchased and maintained at Bowker's My Identifiers website. Many countries, including the UK, Italy, Germany, Spain, to name a few, charge for ISBNs. Canada and Mexico provide ISBNs free of charge as their ISBN agencies are government funded. Bowker USA charges $125 for one ISBN and offers substantial discounts on volume purchases.
- "Company Overview of R.R. Bowker LLC" Bloomberg Businessweek (accessed April 17, 2014)
- "Bowker Investigating Breach of ISBN Site". Publishers Weekly. Retrieved 2018-11-06.
- "Bowker Moves Forward Under New Ownership", by Jim Milliot, Publishers Weekly, Vol. 249, No. 2, January 14, 2002, p. 11; ISSN 0000-0019
- Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science, Allen Kent (ed.), New York: Marcel Dekker (1970), pp. 133–148; OCLC 58646542
- Horner, Shirley (1994-02-06). "The Political Scene". About Books (column). The New York Times. p. 13. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 3 July 2019.
- Mary H. Munroe (2004). "Cambridge Information Group Timeline". The Academic Publishing Industry: A Story of Merger and Acquisition. Archived from the original on October 2014 – via Northern Illinois University.
- Hane, Paula J. (October 2001). "Reed Elsevier Sells Bowker to CSA, ITI". Information Today; Medford. 18 (9). pp. 1–70. ISSN 8755-6286. Retrieved 2019-01-19.
- ProQuest website — "Company history"
- The Library and Book Trade Almanac 2009 54th ed., Medford, New Jersey: Information Today, Inc.; ISSN 2150-5446
- "Bowker’s Andy Weissberg on ISBNs and the Future", by Joel Friedlander, The Book Designer, May 19, 2010, (accessed February 12, 2011)
- Government of Canada. "ISBN Canada". Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
- Government of Mexico. "Agencia Nacional ISBN México". Secretaria de Cultura. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
- "Purchase ISBNs". Bowker. Retrieved 10 April 2016.