The Exorcist (film)
The Exorcist is a 1973 American supernatural horror film adapted by William Peter Blatty from his 1971 novel of the same name, directed by William Friedkin, and starring Ellen Burstyn, Linda Blair, Max von Sydow, and Jason Miller. The film is part of The Exorcist franchise. The book, inspired by the 1949 exorcism of Roland Doe, follows the demonic possession of a 12-year-old girl and her mother's attempts to win her back through an exorcism conducted by two priests. The adaptation is relatively faithful to the book, which itself has been commercially successful (earning a place on The New York Times Best Seller list).
Theatrical release poster by Bill Gold
|Directed by||William Friedkin|
|Produced by||William Peter Blatty|
|Screenplay by||William Peter Blatty|
|Based on||The Exorcist|
by William Peter Blatty
|Music by||Jack Nitzsche|
|Edited by||Evan A. Lottman|
|Distributed by||Warner Bros.|
The film experienced a troubled production; even in the beginning, several prestigious film directors including Stanley Kubrick and Arthur Penn turned it down. Incidents such as the toddler son of one of the main actors being hit by a motorbike and hospitalized attracted claims that the set was cursed. The complex special effects used, as well as the nature of the film locations, also presented severe challenges. The film's notable psychological themes include the nature of faith and the boundaries of maternal love.
The Exorcist was released theatrically in the United States by Warner Bros. on December 26, 1973. The film was initially booked in only 26 theaters across the U.S., although it soon became a major commercial success. The film earned ten Academy Award nominations, winning Best Sound and Writing (Adapted Screenplay). It became one of the highest-grossing films in history, grossing over $441 million worldwide in the aftermath of various re-releases, and was the first horror film to be nominated for the Academy Award for Best Picture.
The film has had a significant influence on popular culture, and several publications have regarded it one of the greatest horror films of all time. It was named the scariest film of all time by Entertainment Weekly in 1999, Movies.com in 2010, viewers of AMC in 2006, and the editors of Time Out in 2014. Prominent film critic Mark Kermode named it as his "favorite film of all time." CHUD.com rated it as the 10th best film of all time in 2014. In addition, a scene from the film was ranked #3 on Bravo's The 100 Scariest Movie Moments. In 2010, the Library of Congress selected the film to be preserved as part of its National Film Registry as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant". On January 22, 2016, 20th Century Fox Television announced that they were developing a television series of The Exorcist. It premiered on the Fox TV network on September 23, 2016.
Lankester Merrin, a veteran Catholic priest who performed an exorcism in the 1950s, is on an archaeological dig in the ancient city of Hatra in Iraq. There he finds an amulet that resembles a statue of Pazuzu, a demon of ancient origins with whose history Merrin is familiar.
In Georgetown, actress Chris MacNeil is living on location with her 12-year-old daughter Regan; she is starring in a film about student activism directed by her friend and associate Burke Dennings. After playing with a Ouija board and contacting a supposedly imaginary friend whom she calls Captain Howdy, Regan begins acting strangely, including making mysterious noises, stealing, constantly using obscene language and exhibiting abnormal strength. Chris hosts a party, during which Regan comes downstairs unannounced, tells one of the guests—an astronaut—that he will die in space and then urinates on the floor. Later, Regan's bed begins to shake violently, adding further to her mother's horror. Chris consults a number of physicians, but Dr. Klein and his associates find nothing physiologically wrong with her daughter, despite Regan undergoing a battery of diagnostic tests.
One night when Chris is out, Burke Dennings is babysitting a heavily sedated Regan. Chris returns to hear he has died falling out the window. Although this is assumed to have been an accident given Burke's history of heavy drinking, his death is investigated by Lieutenant William Kinderman. Kinderman interviews Chris. He also consults psychiatrist Father Damien Karras, recently shaken after the death of his frail mother.
The doctors, thinking that Regan's aberrations are mostly psychiatric in origin, recommend an exorcism be performed. Chris arranges a meeting with Karras. After Regan speaks backwards in different voices and exhibits scars in the form of the words "Help Me" on her stomach, Karras is convinced that Regan is possessed. Believing her soul is in danger, he decides to perform an exorcism. The experienced Merrin is selected for performing the actual exorcism with Karras assisting.
Both priests witness Regan perform a series of bizarre, vulgar acts. They attempt to exorcise the demon, but the stubborn entity toys with them, especially Karras. Karras shows weakness and is dismissed by Merrin, who attempts the exorcism alone. Karras enters the room later and discovers Merrin has died of a heart attack. After failing to revive Merrin, the enraged Karras confronts the mocking, laughing spirit, and wrestles Regan's body to the ground. At Karras's invitation, it leaves Regan's body and possesses Karras. In a moment of self-sacrifice, the priest throws himself out of the window before being compelled to harm Regan. He is mortally injured. Father Dyer, an old friend of Karras, happens upon the scene and administers the last rites to his friend.
A few days later, Regan, now back to her normal self, prepares to leave for Los Angeles with her mother. Although Regan has no apparent recollection of her possession, she is moved by the sight of Dyer's clerical collar to kiss him on the cheek. Kinderman, who narrowly misses their departure, befriends Father Dyer as he investigates Karras' death.
- Ellen Burstyn as Chris MacNeil
- Max von Sydow as Father Lankester Merrin
- Jason Miller as Father/Dr. Damien Karras, S.J.
- Linda Blair as Regan MacNeil
- Lee J. Cobb as Lieutenant William F. Kinderman
- Kitty Winn as Sharon Spencer
- Jack MacGowran as Burke Dennings
- Father William O'Malley as Father Joseph Dyer
- Father Thomas Bermingham as Tom, President of Georgetown University
- Peter Masterson as Dr. Barringer
- Robert Symonds as Dr. Taney
- Barton Heyman as Dr. Samuel Klein
- Rudolf Schündler as Karl, house servant
- Arthur Storch as the psychiatrist
- Mercedes McCambridge as the voice of the demon
- Eileen Dietz as the face of the demon
Aspects of Blatty's fictional novel were inspired by the 1949 exorcism performed on an anonymous young boy known as "Roland Doe" or "Robbie Mannheim" (pseudonyms) by the Jesuit priest Fr. William S. Bowdern, who formerly taught at both St. Louis University and St. Louis University High School. Doe's family became convinced the boy's aggressive behavior was attributable to demonic possession, and called upon the services of several Catholic priests, including Bowdern, to perform the rite of exorcism. It was one of three exorcisms to have been sanctioned by the Catholic Church in the United States at that time. Later analysis by paranormal skeptics has concluded that Doe was likely a mentally ill teenager acting out, as the actual events likely to have occurred (such as words being carved on skin) were such that they could have been faked by Doe himself. The novel changed several details of the case, such as changing the gender of the allegedly possessed victim from a boy into a girl and changing the alleged victim's age.
Although Friedkin has admitted he is very reluctant to speak about the factual aspects of the film, he made the film with the intention of immortalizing the events involving Doe that took place in St. Louis in 1949, and despite the relatively minor changes that were made, the film depicts everything that could be verified by those involved. In order to make the film, Friedkin was allowed access to the diaries of the priests involved, as well as the doctors and nurses; he also discussed the events with Doe's aunt in great detail. Friedkin has said that he does not believe that the "head-spinning" actually occurred, but this has been disputed. Friedkin is secular, despite coming from a Jewish family.
Although the agency representing Blair did not send her for the role, Blair's mother took her to meet with Warner's casting department and then with Friedkin. Pamelyn Ferdin, a veteran of science fiction and supernatural drama, was a candidate for the role of Regan, but was ultimately turned down because her career thus far had made her too familiar to the public. April Winchell was considered, until she developed pyelonephritis, which caused her to be hospitalized and ultimately taken out of consideration. Denise Nickerson, who played Violet Beauregarde in Willy Wonka & the Chocolate Factory, was considered, but the material troubled her parents too much, and they pulled her out of consideration. Anissa Jones, known for her role as Buffy in Family Affair, auditioned for the role, but she too was rejected, for much the same reason as Ferdin. The part went instead to Blair, a relative unknown until the film's success.
The question of whether or not such a young actress, even a talented one, could carry the film on her shoulders was an issue from the beginning. Film directors considered for the project, including Mike Nichols, were skeptical. The studio wanted Marlon Brando for the role of Lankester Merrin. Friedkin immediately vetoed this by stating it would become a "Brando movie". Jack Nicholson was up for the part of Karras before Stacy Keach was hired by Blatty. According to Friedkin, Paul Newman also wanted to portray Karras. Friedkin then spotted Jason Miller following a performance of Miller's play That Championship Season in New York. Even though Miller had never acted in a film, Keach's contract was bought out by Warner Brothers, and Miller was signed.
Jane Fonda, Audrey Hepburn, and Anne Bancroft were under consideration for the role of Chris. Blatty also suggested his friend, Shirley MacLaine, for the part, but Friedkin was hesitant to cast her, given her lead role in another possession film, The Possession of Joel Delaney (1971) two years before. Ellen Burstyn received the part after she phoned Friedkin and emphatically stated that she was going to play Chris.
Friedkin originally intended to use Blair's voice, electronically deepened and roughened, for the demon's dialogue. Although Friedkin felt this worked fine in some places, he felt scenes with the demon confronting the two priests lacked the dramatic power required and selected legendary radio actress Mercedes McCambridge, an experienced voice actress, to provide the demon's voice. After filming, Warner Brothers did not include a credit for McCambridge during early screenings of the film, which led to Screen Actors Guild arbitration before she was credited for her performance. Ken Nordine was also considered for the demon's voice, but Friedkin thought it would be best not to use a man's voice.
Greek actor Titos Vandis was cast in the role of Father's Karras's uncle. He wore a hat in one shot that obscured his face, as Friedkin felt that Vandis's face would be connected with his previous role in the Woody Allen film Everything You Always Wanted to Know About Sex* (*But Were Afraid to Ask). Vandis had previously played Milos Stavros, an Armenian shepherd who was in love with a sheep.
Warners had approached Arthur Penn, Stanley Kubrick, and Mike Nichols, to direct, all of whom turned the project down. Originally Mark Rydell was hired to direct, but William Peter Blatty insisted on Friedkin instead, because he wanted his film to have the same energy as Friedkin's previous film, The French Connection. After a standoff with the studio, which initially refused to budge over Rydell, Blatty eventually got his way. Principal photography for The Exorcist began on August 21, 1972. The shooting schedule was estimated to run 105 days, but ultimately ran well over 200.
Friedkin went to extraordinary lengths manipulating the actors, reminiscent of the old Hollywood directing style, to get the genuine reactions he wanted. Yanked violently around in harnesses, both Blair and Burstyn suffered back injuries and their painful screams were included in the film. Burstyn injured her back after landing on her coccyx when a stuntman jerked her around using a special effects cable during the scene when Regan slaps her mother. According to the documentary Fear of God: The Making of the Exorcist, the injury did not cause permanent damage, although Burstyn was upset the shot of her screaming in pain was used in the film. After Father William O'Malley confirmed to Friedkin that he trusted the director, Friedkin slapped him hard across the face to generate a deeply solemn reaction for the last rites scene; this offended the many Catholic crew members on the set. He also fired blanks without warning on the set to elicit shock from Jason Miller for a take, and told Miller that the pea soup would hit him in the chest rather than the face in the projectile vomiting scene, resulting in his disgusted reaction. Lastly, he had Regan's bedroom set built inside a freezer so that the actors' breath could be visible on camera, which required the crew to wear cold-weather gear.
The "Exorcist stairs" are concrete stairs located in Georgetown at the corner of Prospect St NW and 36th St NW, leading down to M Street NW. The stairs were padded with 1/2"-thick rubber to film the death of the character Father Karras. Because the house from which Karras falls is set back slightly from the stairs, the film crew constructed an extension with a false front to the house in order to film the scene. The stuntman tumbled down the stairs twice. Georgetown University students charged people around $5 each to watch the stunt from the rooftops.
Although the film is set in Washington, D.C., many interior scenes were shot in various parts of New York City. The MacNeil residence interiors were filmed at CECO Studios in Manhattan. The bedroom set had to be refrigerated to capture the authentic icy breath of the actors in the exorcism scenes. The temperature was brought so low that a thin layer of snow fell onto the set one morning. Blair, who was only in a thin nightgown, says to this day she cannot stand being cold. Exteriors of the MacNeil house were filmed at 36th and Prospect in Washington, using a family home and a false wall to convey the home's thrust toward the steps.
The scenes involving Regan's medical tests were filmed at New York University Medical Center and were performed by actual medical staff that normally carry out the procedures. In the film Regan first undergoes an electroencephalography (EEG), then an early type of cerebral angiography and finally a pneumoencephalography.
The scene in which Father Karras listens to the tapes of Regan's dialogue were filmed in the basement of Keating Hall at Fordham University in the Bronx. William O'Malley, who plays Father Joseph Dyer in the film, is a real-life Jesuit and was assistant professor of theology at Fordham at the time.
The interior of Karras' room at Georgetown was a meticulous reconstruction of Theology professor Father Thomas M. King, S.J.'s "corridor Jesuit" room in New North Hall. Fr. King's room was photographed by production staff after a visit by Blatty, a Georgetown graduate, and Friedkin. Upon returning to New York, every element of King's room, including posters and books, was recreated for the set, including a poster of Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, S.J., a theologian on whom the character of Fr. Merrin was loosely based. Georgetown was paid $1,000 per day of filming, which included both exteriors, such as Burstyn's first scene, shot on the steps of the Flemish Romanesque Healy Hall, and interiors, such as the defilement of the statue of the Virgin Mary in Dahlgren Chapel, or the Archbishop's office, which is actually the office of the president of the university. One scene was filmed in The Tombs, a student hangout across from the steps that was founded by a Blatty classmate.
Father Merrin's arrival sceneEdit
Father Merrin's arrival scene was filmed on Max von Sydow's first day of work. The scene where the elderly priest steps out of a cab and stands in front of the MacNeil residence, silhouetted in a misty streetlamp's glow and staring up at a beam of light from a bedroom window, is one of the most famous scenes in the movie. The shot was used for film posters and home DVD/VHS release covers. The scene and photo was inspired by the 1954 painting "Empire of Light" ("L'Empire des lumières") by René Magritte.
The spider-walk sceneEdit
Stuntwoman Ann Miles performed the spider-walk scene in November 1973. Friedkin deleted this scene against Blatty's objection just prior to the December 26, 1973, premiere, as he judged the scene as appearing too early in the film's plot. In the book, the spider-walk is somewhat more muted, consisting of Regan following Sharon around near the floor and flicking a snake-like tongue at her ankles. A take of this version of the scene was filmed but went unused. A different take showing Regan with blood flowing from her mouth was inserted into the 2000 Director's Cut of the film however.
The Exorcist contained a number of special effects, engineered by makeup artist Dick Smith. In one scene from the film, Max von Sydow is actually wearing more makeup than the possessed girl (Linda Blair). This was because director Friedkin wanted some very detailed facial close-ups. When this film was made, von Sydow was 44, though he was made up to look 74. Alan McKenzie stated in his book Hollywood Tricks of the Trade that the fact "that audiences didn't realize von Sydow was wearing makeup at all is a tribute to the skills of veteran makeup artist Dick Smith."
Alleged subliminal imageryEdit
The Exorcist was also at the center of controversy due to its alleged use of subliminal imagery introduced as special effects during the production of the film. Wilson Bryan Key wrote a whole chapter on the film in his book Media Sexploitation alleging repeated use of subliminal and semi-subliminal imagery and sound effects. Key observed the use of the Pazuzu face (in which Key mistakenly assumed it was Jason Miller made up in a death mask makeup, when it was actress Eileen Dietz) and claimed that the safety padding on the bedposts were shaped to cast phallic shadows on the wall and that a skull face is superimposed into one of Father Merrin's breath clouds. Key also wrote much about the sound design, identifying the use of pig squeals, for instance, and elaborating on his opinion of the subliminal intent of it all. A detailed article in the July/August 1991 issue of Video Watchdog examined the phenomenon, providing still frames identifying several uses of subliminal "flashing" throughout the film. In an interview from the same issue, Friedkin explained, "I saw subliminal cuts in a number of films before I ever put them in The Exorcist, and I thought it was a very effective storytelling device... The subliminal editing in The Exorcist was done for dramatic effect—to create, achieve, and sustain a kind of dreamlike state." However, these quick, scary flashes have been labeled "[not] truly subliminal" and "quasi-" or "semi-subliminal". In an interview in a 1999 book about the film, The Exorcist author Blatty addressed the controversy by explaining that, "There are no subliminal images. If you can see it, it's not subliminal."
The editing of the title sequence was the first major project for the film title designer Dan Perri. As a result of the success of The Exorcist, Perri went on to design opening titles for a number of major films including Taxi Driver (1976), Star Wars (1977) and Gangs of New York (2002).
Lalo Schifrin's working score was rejected by Friedkin. Schifrin had written six minutes of music for the initial film trailer but audiences were reportedly too scared by its combination of sights and sounds. Warner Bros. executives told Friedkin to instruct Schifrin to tone it down with softer music, but Friedkin did not relay the message. It has been claimed Schifrin later used the music written for The Exorcist for The Amityville Horror, but he has denied this in interviews. According to The Fear of God: The Making of the Exorcist on the 25th Anniversary DVD release of the film, Friedkin (known for his temper) literally took the tapes that Schifrin had recorded and threw them away in the studio parking lot.
In the soundtrack liner notes for his 1977 film, Sorcerer, Friedkin said that if he had heard the music of Tangerine Dream earlier, then he would have had them score The Exorcist. Instead, he used modern classical compositions, including portions of the 1972 Cello Concerto No. 1, of Polymorphia, and other pieces by Polish composer Krzysztof Penderecki, Five Pieces for Orchestra by Austrian composer Anton Webern as well as some original music by Jack Nitzsche. The music was heard only during scene transitions. The 2000 "Version You've Never Seen" features new original music by Steve Boeddeker, as well as brief source music by Les Baxter.
What is now considered the "Theme from The Exorcist", i.e. the piano-based melody which opens the first part of Tubular Bells, the 1973 debut album by English progressive rock musician Mike Oldfield, became very popular after the film's release, although Oldfield himself was not impressed with the way his work was used.
In 1998 a restored and remastered soundtrack was released by Warner Bros. (without Tubular Bells) that included three pieces from Lalo Schifrin's rejected score. The pieces are "Music from the unused Trailer", an 11-minute "Suite from the Unused Score", and "Rock Ballad (Unused Theme)".
That same year, the Japanese version of the original soundtrack LP did not include the Schifrin pieces but did include the main theme from Tubular Bells by Mike Oldfield, and the movement titled Night of the Electric Insects from George Crumb's string quartet Black Angels.
The Greek song playing on the radio when Father Karras leaves his mother's house is called "Paramythaki mou" (My Tale) and is sung by Giannis Kalatzis. Lyric writer Lefteris Papadopoulos has admitted that a few years later when he was in financial difficulties he asked for some compensation for the intellectual rights of the song. Part of Hans Werner Henze's 1966 composition Fantasia for Strings is played over the closing credits.
Upon its December 26, 1973, release, the film received mixed reviews from critics, "ranging from 'classic' to 'claptrap'."
Special edition 25th anniversary VHS and DVD releaseEdit
A limited special edition box set was released in 1998 for the film's 25th anniversary; it was limited to 50,000 copies, with available copies circulating around the Internet. There are two versions: a special edition VHS released on November 10, 1998, and a special edition DVD released on December 1, 1998. The only difference between the two copies is the recording format.
- The original film with restored film and digitally remastered audio, with a 1.85:1 widescreen aspect ratio.
- An introduction by director Friedkin
- The 1998 BBC documentary The Fear of God: The Making of "The Exorcist"
- Two audio commentaries
- Interviews with the director and writer
- Theatrical trailers and TV spots
- A commemorative 52-page tribute book, covering highlights of the film's preparation, production, and release; features previously unreleased historical data and archival photographs
- Limited edition soundtrack CD of the film's score, including the original (unused) soundtrack ("Tubular Bells" and "Night of the Electric Insects" omitted)
- 8 lobby card reprints
- Exclusive senitype film frame (magnification included)
Extended edition DVD releasesEdit
The extended edition labeled "The Version You've Never Seen" (which was released theatrically in 2000) was released on DVD on February 3, 2004.
The extended edition was later re-released on DVD (and released on Blu-ray) with slight alterations under the new label "Extended Director's Cut" on October 5, 2010.
In an interview with DVD Review, Friedkin mentioned that he was scheduled to begin work on The Exorcist Blu-ray on December 2, 2008. This edition features a new restoration, including both the 1973 theatrical version and the 2000 "Version You've Never Seen" (re-labeled as "Extended Director's Cut"). It was released on October 5, 2010. A 40th Anniversary Edition Blu-ray was released on October 8, 2013, containing both cuts of the film and many of the previously released bonus features in addition to two featurettes that revolve around author William Peter Blatty.
The Exorcist: The Complete AnthologyEdit
The Exorcist: The Complete Anthology (box set) was released on DVD on October 10, 2006, and on Blu-ray on September 23, 2014. This collection includes the original theatrical release version of The Exorcist, the extended version (labelled The Exorcist: The Version You've Never Seen on the DVD release and The Exorcist: Extended Director's Cut on the Blu-ray release), the sequels Exorcist II: The Heretic and The Exorcist III, and the prequels Exorcist: The Beginning and Dominion: Prequel to the Exorcist.
The film earned $66.3 million in distributors' domestic (US/CAN) rentals during its theatrical release in 1974, becoming the second most popular film of that year (trailing The Sting). After several reissues, the film eventually grossed $232,671,011 in North America, which if adjusted for inflation, would be the ninth highest-grossing film of all time and the top-grossing R-rated film of all time. To date, it has a total gross of $441,071,011 worldwide. Adjusted to 2014 prices, The Exorcist has grossed $1.794 billion.
Stanley Kauffmann, in The New Republic, wrote, "This is the scariest film I've seen in years—the only scary film I've seen in years ... If you want to be shaken—and I found out, while the picture was going, that that's what I wanted—then The Exorcist will scare the… (shit) out of you." Variety noted that it was "an expert telling of a supernatural horror story ... The climactic sequences assault the senses and the intellect with pure cinematic terror." In Castle of Frankenstein, Joe Dante called it "an amazing film, and one destined to become at the very least a horror classic. Director Friedkin's film will be profoundly disturbing to all audiences, especially the more sensitive and those who tend to 'live' the movies they see ... Suffice it to say, there has never been anything like this on the screen before." Roger Ebert gave the film a 4-out-of-4 star review, praising the actors (particularly Burstyn) and the convincing special effects but at the end of the review wrote, "I am not sure exactly what reasons people will have for seeing this movie; surely enjoyment won’t be one, because what we get here aren’t the delicious chills of a Vincent Price thriller, but raw and painful experience. Are people so numb they need movies of this intensity in order to feel anything at all?"
The reviews were not all positive. Vincent Canby, writing in The New York Times, dismissed The Exorcist as "a chunk of elegant occultist claptrap ... a practically impossible film to sit through ... It establishes a new low for grotesque special effects ..." Andrew Sarris complained that "Friedkin's biggest weakness is his inability to provide enough visual information about his characters ... whole passages of the movie's exposition were one long buzz of small talk and name droppings ... The Exorcist succeeds on one level as an effectively excruciating entertainment, but on another, deeper level it is a thoroughly evil film." Writing in Rolling Stone, Jon Landau felt the film was "nothing more than a religious porn film, the gaudiest piece of shlock this side of Cecil B. DeMille (minus that gentleman's wit and ability to tell a story) ... "
Over the years, The Exorcist's critical reputation has grown considerably. The film currently has an 86% "Certified Fresh" approval rating on the review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes based on 74 reviews, with an average rating of 8.1/10. The site's critical consensus states, "The Exorcist rides its supernatural theme to magical effect, with remarkable special effects and an eerie atmosphere, resulting in one of the scariest films of all time." Chicago Tribune film critic Gene Siskel placed it in the top five films released that year. BBC film critic Mark Kermode believes the film to be the best film ever made, saying: "There's a theory that great films give back to you whatever it is you bring to them. It's absolutely true with The Exorcist—it reflects the anxieties of the audience. Some people think it's an outright horror-fest, but I don't. It was written by a devout Catholic who hoped it would make people think positively about the existence of God. William Peter Blatty, who wrote the book, thought that if there are demons then there are also angels and life after death. He couldn't see why people thought it was scary. I've seen it about 200 times and every time I see something I haven't seen before."
Director Martin Scorsese placed The Exorcist on his list of the 11 scariest horror films of all time. In 2008, the film was selected by Empire Magazine as one of The 500 Greatest Movies Ever Made. It was also placed on a similar list of 1000 films by The New York Times.
The Exorcist was released in London on March 14th, 1974. The film was protested around the UK by the Nationwide Festival of Light, a Christian public action group concerned with the influence of media on society, and especially on the young. These protests involved members of local clergy and concerned citizens handing out leaflets to those queuing to see the film, offering spiritual support afterwards for those who asked for it. A letter-writing campaign to local councils by the Nationwide Festival of Light resulted in many councils screening The Exorcist before permitting it to be screened in their council district. This led to the film being banned from exhibition in a number of counties, such as in Dinefwr and Ceredigion in Wales.
The Exorcist was available on home video from the early 1980s in the UK. After the passing of the Video Recordings Act in 1984, the film was submitted to the British Board of Film Classification for a home video certificate. James Ferman, Director of the Board, vetoed the decision to grant a certificate to the film, despite the majority of the group willing to pass it. It was out of Ferman's concerns that, even with a proposed 18 certificate, the film's notoriety would entice underage viewers to seek it out. As a result, all video copies of The Exorcist were withdrawn in the UK in 1986 and remained unavailable for purchase until 1999.
Following a successful re-release in cinemas in 1998, the film was submitted for home video release again in February 1999, and was passed uncut with an 18 certificate, signifying a relaxation of the censorship rules with relation to home video in the UK, in part due to James Ferman's departure. The film was shown on terrestrial television in the UK for the first time in 2001, on Channel 4.
Roger Ebert, while praising the film, believed the special effects to be so unusually graphic he wrote, "That it received an R rating and not the X is stupefying." Some theaters provided "Exorcist barf bags".
Awards and honorsEdit
The Exorcist was nominated for ten Academy Awards in 1974, winning two. It is the first horror film to be nominated for Best Picture. At the 46th Annual Academy Awards ceremony, the film won two statuettes (highlighted in bold).
The film was nominated for:
- Academy Award for Best Picture – William Peter Blatty
- Academy Award for Best Actress – Ellen Burstyn
- Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor – Jason Miller
- Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress – Linda Blair
- Academy Award for Best Director – William Friedkin
- Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay – William Peter Blatty
- Academy Award for Best Cinematography – Owen Roizman
- Academy Award for Best Film Editing – Jordan Leondopoulos, Bud S. Smith, Evan Lottman, Norman Gay
- Academy Award for Best Production Design – Bill Malley and Jerry Wunderlich
- Academy Award for Best Sound Mixing – Robert Knudson, Chris Newman
Golden Globe AwardsEdit
The Exorcist was nominated for seven total Golden Globes in 1974. At the 31st Golden Globes ceremony that year, the film won four awards.
- Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture – Drama
- Golden Globe Award for Best Director – William Friedkin
- Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actress – Motion Picture – Linda Blair
- Golden Globe Award for Best Screenplay – William Peter Blatty
The film was nominated for
- Golden Globe Award for Best Actress – Motion Picture Drama – Ellen Burstyn
- Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor – Motion Picture – Max von Sydow
- Golden Globe Award for New Star of the Year – Actress – Linda Blair
Library of CongressEdit
American Film Institute ListsEdit
- AFI's 100 Years...100 Thrills – #3
- AFI's 100 Years...100 Heroes and Villains:
- Regan MacNeil – #9 Villain
Alternative and uncut versionsEdit
This section does not cite any sources. (October 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Several versions of The Exorcist have been released:
- The 1979 theatrical reissue was converted to 70mm, with its 1.75:1 ratio cropped to 2.20:1 to use all the available screen width that 70mm offers. This was also the first time the sound was remixed to six-channel Dolby Stereo sound. Almost all video versions feature this soundtrack.
- The network TV version originally broadcast on CBS in 1980 was edited by William Friedkin, who also shot a replacement insert of the Virgin Mary statue crying blood, replacing the shot of a more obscenely desecrated statue. Friedkin himself spoke the Demon's new, censored lines; he was unwilling to work with Mercedes McCambridge again. The lines "Your mother sucks cocks in hell, Karras" and "Shove it up your ass, you faggot" were re-dubbed by Friedkin as "Your mother still rots in hell" and "Shut your face, you faggot." Several of Ellen Burstyn's lines were also redubbed by the actress, replacing "Jesus Christ" with "Judas Priest" and omitting the word fuck. Most of the profanity spoken by Regan is also cut out, as are the shots of her being abused with a crucifix and forcing Chris' face into her crotch. There is also a slightly alternative shot of Regan's face morphed into the white face of the demon just after Merrin arrives at the MacNeil house (the theatrical versions only show the beginning of the transformation). This network TV version is rarely if ever used for TV and cable showings today.
- In the television versions, the image of the obscenely defiled statue of the Virgin Mary stays intact. It stays on longer for the TV-14 version, but not much.
- In some network versions Regan is not masturbating but having another fit.
- The Special Edition released on DVD for the 25th Anniversary includes the original ending as a special feature, not used in the theatrical release: after Father Dyer is seen on top of the steps behind the MacNeil's residence, he walks away and is approached by Lt. Kinderman. They talk briefly about Regan and the events that just took place there; Kinderman then invites Dyer to the movies to see Wuthering Heights and quotes Casablanca, telling Dyer "I think this is the beginning of a beautiful friendship".
- The Special Edition DVD also includes a 75-minute documentary titled The Fear of God on the making of The Exorcist. The documentary includes screen tests and additional deleted scenes, including:
- Chris MacNeil and Regan going sightseeing in Washington;
- After Chris hears about Burke's death, Regan crawls down the stairs upside down on her arms and legs like a spider and then chases Chris and Sharon around the room;
- Karras and Merrin sit on the stairs during a pause of the exorcism and exchange some words about what is happening to the girl.
- The scene where the demonic entity leaves Father Karras was originally done by filming Jason Miller in possession makeup, then stopping the camera and shooting him again with the makeup removed. This creates a noticeable jump in Father Karras' position as he is unpossessed. The 25th anniversary video releases of The Exorcist smooth over the jumpy transition with a subtle computer morphing effect. This updated effect was not featured in the prints used for the Warner Bros. 75th anniversary film festivals.
- A new edition labeled "The Version You've Never Seen" (later re-labelled "Extended Director's Cut") was released in theaters on September 22, 2000 and includes the following additions and changes.
- A slightly different opening, which shows the MacNeil's home in Georgetown, then cuts to the opening titles.
- The scene where Chris MacNeil screams on the phone includes a new music cue and omits the line "I've been on this fucking line for 20 minutes!" and simply cuts to the next scene.
- A new scene with Regan at the hospital receiving treatment to diagnose her "unusual" behavior. The doctor tells Chris MacNeil that Regan told him to "keep his fingers away from her Goddamn cunt," as depicted in the novel. This scene sets up her bizarre behavior earlier and clarifies the scene where Chris tells Regan "It's just like the doctor said, it's just nerves. You just take your pills and you'll be fine."
- The party scene removes the shot of Regan laughing with the guests, obviously because of her "unusual" behavior in the previous scene.
- In the scene where Chris returns home and the lights go out, new digital effects including Demonic faces and images of the statue, new sound effects and music have been added to the scene. However, in the later DVD and Blu-ray version, re-titled "Extended Director's Cut", one effect of the demon Pazuzu's face appearing on Regan's door has been removed.
- The "spider-walk" scene has been restored and digitally altered from the original scene. Here, crude wires from the scene have been digitally removed, she comes down the stairs much faster and a second take with her mouth full of blood was used instead of a serpent's tongue. It then cuts to black, and the next scene opens.
- Before Regan grabs the psychiatrist's crotch, a new digital effect of her face morphing into Pazuzus (which is seen in subliminal cuts throughout) including a new growl has been added.
- A new music cue has been added to the scene with Lt. Kinderman and Father Karras.
- After Father Karras leaves for the night, a new scene of him examining a tape of Regan trying to talk to her dad has been added and a new music cue ties the new scene and the scene of Father Karras at the Mass together.
- New scenes with Sharon trying to tune out the demon groans and a short moment with Chris MacNeil and Father Merrin (which hints at his vulnerability and weakness) have been added.
- A new music cue has been added to the scene with Father Karras and Father Merrin going up the stairs to perform the exorcism and a short scene has been added before they enter the room, as depicted in the novel: Father Merrin asks Chris MacNeil what Regan's middle name is; she tells him it is Theresa, and he says "What a lovely name."
- The scene with Father Karras and Father Merrin talking on the stairs, as depicted in the novel and which was included on the 25th Anniversary DVD, has been restored.
- When Father Karras looks up at the window when he's possessed, a new digital effect with Karras' mother's face has been added, and the scene includes the "subtle morph effect" that was included on the 25th anniversary edition DVD.
- When Chris MacNeil gives Father Dyer Father Karras' medal, he gives it back to her and says "I think you should keep it", as depicted in the novel and instead of simply keeping it as in the original version. A new short scene of Regan smiling and waving at Father Dyer as they drive away and Father Dyer waving back has been added.
- The original ending with Father Dyer and Lt. Kinderman has been restored. The 'tubular bells' music cue plays over them walking away, and it ends before Lt. Kinderman quotes Casablanca by saying, "I think this is the beginning of a beautiful friendship," as portrayed in the novel.
- In both the TV-PG and TV-14 rated network versions, the image of the obscenely defiled statue of the Virgin Mary stays intact. It stays on screen several seconds longer for the TV-14 version. On original TV airings, the shot was replaced with one where the statue's face is smashed in, but without other defilement. Edits may vary from network to network and non-premium cable networks (AMC, TNT, etc.) nearly always show only edited/censored versions of the film.
- The DVD released for the 25th Anniversary retains the original theatrical ending and includes the extended ending with Dyer and Kinderman as a special feature (as opposed the "Version You've Never Seen" ending, which features Dyer and Kinderman but omits the Casablanca reference).
- The Exorcist: The Complete Anthology (box set) was released on DVD in October 2006 and on Blu-ray in September 2014. This collection includes the original theatrical release version The Exorcist; the extended version, The Exorcist: The Version You've Never Seen; the sequel with Linda Blair, Exorcist II: The Heretic; the supposed end of the trilogy, The Exorcist III; and two different prequels: Exorcist: The Beginning and Dominion: Prequel to the Exorcist. As aforementioned, Morgan Creek, current owner of the franchise, in association with Fox, has now produced a television series of Blatty's novel, which is the basis for the original film.
In 1998, Warner re-released the digitally remastered DVD of The Exorcist: 25th Anniversary Special Edition. The DVD includes the BBC documentary, The Fear of God: The Making of The Exorcist, highlighting the never-before-seen original non-bloody variant of the spider-walk scene.
To appease the screenwriter and some fans of The Exorcist, Friedkin reinstated the bloody variant of the spider-walk scene for the 2000 theatrically re-released version of The Exorcist: The Version You've Never Seen. In October 2010, Warner released The Exorcist (Extended Director's Cut & Original Theatrical Edition) on Blu-ray, including the behind-the-scenes filming of the spider-walk scene. Linda R. Hager, the lighting double for Linda Blair, was incorrectly credited for performing the stunt. In 2015, Warner Bros. finally acknowledged that stuntwoman Ann Miles was the only person who performed the stunt.
- "The Exorcist – Box Office Data, DVD and Blu-ray Sales, Movie News, Cast and Crew Information". The Numbers. Retrieved December 28, 2011.
- "The Exorcist (1973)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved December 28, 2011.
- Fry 2008, p. 130.
- Pons 2009, p. 132.
- Holtzclaw, Mike (October 24, 2014). "The sound and fury of 'The Exorcist'". Daily Press. Retrieved August 8, 2015.
- Susman, Gary (December 26, 2013). "'The Exorcist': 25 Things You Didn't Know About the Terrifying Horror Classic". Moviefone.com. Archived from the original on December 27, 2013. Retrieved August 19, 2018.
- "The Cold Hard Facts Behind the Story that Inspired "The Exorcist"". Strange Magazine. Retrieved August 10, 2015.
- Layton, Julia (September 8, 2005). "How Exorcism Works". HowStuffWorks. Retrieved August 19, 2018.
- "Allmovie.com". Allmovie.com. September 9, 2005. Retrieved August 2, 2012.
- Karger, Dave; Ascher-Walsh, Rebecca; Nashawaty, Chris; Daly, Steve; Fierman, Daniel (July 23, 1999). "The 25 scariest movies of all time". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved August 19, 2018.
- DeSalvo, Robert B. (August 27, 2010). "The Weekend Rent: Get Repossessed With The Exorcist Movies". Movies.com. Retrieved August 2, 2012.
- "Time Out London, "The 100 best horror films"". Time Out. August 27, 2014. Retrieved April 2, 2015.
- Nunziata, Nick (October 31, 2015). "5 films that frightened the life out of Mark Kermode: 'The Exorcist has never failed me'". digitalspy.com. Retrieved August 29, 2017.
- Reynolds, Simon (December 17, 2014). "The 100 Best Movies Ever – The Exorcist (#10)". CHUD.com. Retrieved August 29, 2017.
- "The 100 Scariest Movie Moments: 100 Scariest Moments in Movie History". Bravo. NBCUniversal Cable. Archived from the original on October 30, 2007. Retrieved September 14, 2015.
- "'Empire Strikes Back' among 25 film registry picks". Archived from the original on December 31, 2010. Retrieved December 28, 2010.
- Barnes, Mike (December 28, 2010). "'Empire Strikes Back,' 'Airplane!' Among 25 Movies Named to National Film Registry". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved December 29, 2010.
- Prudom, Laura (January 22, 2016). "'The Exorcist' Pilot Ordered at Fox with Modern Twist". Variety. Retrieved February 2, 2016.
-  The Diane Rehm Show
- Kermode, Mark (narrator); Friedkin, William (director); Blatty, William Peter (writer); Linda Blair, Ellen Burstyn, Max von Sydow, Jason Miller (cast) (1998). The Fear of God: 25 Years of The Exorcist (Documentary)
|url=(help). Warner Bros.
- Nastasi, Alison (February 21, 2015). "The Actors Who Turned Down Controversial Movie Roles". Flavorwire. Retrieved May 6, 2016.
- Coffin, Patrick (1 December 2013). "The Unbearable Frightness of Being". Retrieved 16 June 2015.
- DallasFilmSociety (April 19, 2013). "William Friedkin, director of THE EXORCIST at the 2013 Dallas International Film Festival" – via YouTube.
- Adams, Ryan (April 29, 2013). "William Friedkin on casting The Exorcist". Awards Daily. Retrieved May 6, 2016.
- Emery, Robert J. (2000). The directors: in their own words. 2. TV Books. p. 258. ISBN 1575001292.
- "The Exorcist actress Mercedes McCambridge dies at 85". USA Today. March 17, 2004. Retrieved 2013-10-24.
- DallasFilmSociety (April 19, 2013). "William Friedkin, director of THE EXORCIST at the 2013 Dallas International Film Festival" – via YouTube.
- Clagett, Thomas (1990). William Friedkin: Films of Aberration, Obsession, and Reality. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, Inc. pp. 113–114. ISBN 0-89950-262-8.
- "AFI Catalog of Feature Films". afi.com. American Film Institute. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
- Kermode 2008, p. 21.
- Biskind 1999, p. 216.
- Friedkin, William (Director) (2000). The Exorcist: The Version You've Never Seen; director's commentary (audio track) (Motion picture). Iraq, Washington, D.C.: Warner Bros.
- Truitt, Brian (October 7, 2013). "'Exorcist' creators haunt Georgetown thirty years later". USA Today. Retrieved June 24, 2014.
- "Excorcist Steps in Washington, DC". The Washington Post. Retrieved 29 October 2014.
- Kermode 2008, p. 76.
- "Friedkin's – The Exorcist". Thefleshfarm.com. Retrieved August 2, 2012.
- McLaughlin, Katie (October 31, 2013). "'The Exorcist' still turns heads at 40". CNN. Retrieved May 6, 2016.
- Hayes, Cathy (July 2, 2012). ""Exorcist" priest gets the ax from Fordham school for his old school ways". Irish Central. Retrieved April 29, 2015.
- Larnick, Eric (October 6, 2010). "20 Things You Didn't Know About 'The Exorcist'". Moviefone. Retrieved May 6, 2016.
- Zak, Dan (October 30, 2013). "William Peter Blatty, writer of 'The Exorcist,' slips back into the light for its 40th anniversary". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 6, 2016.
- Faherty, Allanah (January 14, 2015). "I Never Knew That These Artworks Inspired Some of the Scariest Horror Movies of All Time!". Movie Pilot. Archived from the original on June 4, 2016. Retrieved May 6, 2016.
- Alan McKenzie, Hollywood Tricks of The Trade, p.122
- Lucas, Tim and Kermode, Mark. Video Watchdog Magazine, issue No. 6 (July/August 1991), pgs. 20–31, "The Exorcist: From the Subliminal to the Ridiculous"
- Friedkin, William. Interviewed in Video Watchdog Magazine, issue No. 6 (July/August 1991), pg. 23, "The Exorcist: From the Subliminal to the Ridiculous"
- "Dark Romance – Book of Days – The 'subliminal' demon of The Exorcist". darkromance.com. Retrieved April 7, 2008.
- "Films that flicker: the origins of subliminal advertising myths and practices". subliminalworld.org. Retrieved April 7, 2008.
- McCabe 1999, p. 138.
- Perkins, Will. "Dan Perri: A Career Retrospective". Art of the Title. Archived from the original on 11 August 2017. Retrieved 11 August 2017.
- Konow 2012, p. 153.
- "Henze: Complete Deutsche Grammophon Recordings" Archived April 26, 2014, at the Wayback Machine by Brett Allen-Bayes, Limelight, January 9, 2014
- Muir 2002, p. 263.
- Travers & Rieff 1974, p. 149.
- "The Exorcist – Special Widescreen Edition Box Set (VHS)". Amazon.com. Retrieved January 8, 2017.
- "The Exorcist (25th Anniversary Special Edition)". Amazon.com. Retrieved January 8, 2017.
- "The Exorcist (The Version You've Never Seen)". Amazon.com. Retrieved January 8, 2017.
- "The Exorcist: Director's Cut (Extended Edition)". Amazon.com. Retrieved January 8, 2017.
- "Blu-ray.com". Blu-ray.com. October 20, 2008. Retrieved October 2, 2012.
- "The Exorcist Announced on Blu-ray". Blu-ray.com. Retrieved August 2, 2012.
- "Full Blu-ray Details to Make Your Head Spin – The Exorcist". DreadCentral.
- "The Exorcist releasing on Blu-ray in October 2010". Morehorror.com. Retrieved August 2, 2012.
- ""THE EXORCIST EXTENDED DIRECTOR'S CUT" AVAILABLE OCTOBER 5 FROM WARNER HOME VIDEO". Warnerbros.com. June 21, 2010. Retrieved January 8, 2017.
- "The Exorcist: 40th Anniversary Edition Blu-ray". Blu-ray.com. June 20, 2013. Retrieved June 25, 2013.
- "The Exorcist: The Complete Anthology (The Exorcist / The Exorcist (Unrated) / Exorcist II: The Heretic / The Exorcist III / Exorcist: The Beginning/ Exorcist: Dominion)". Amazon.com. Retrieved January 8, 2017.
- "The Exorcist: The Complete Anthology (Blu-ray)". Amazon.com. Retrieved January 8, 2017.
- Gebert 1996, p. 314.
- "The Exorcist". Box Office Mojo. Internet Movie Database. Retrieved May 19, 2011.
- "All Time Box Office Adjusted for Ticket Price Inflation". Box Office Mojo. Internet Movie Database. Retrieved May 19, 2011.
- Guinness World Records. 60 (2015 ed.). 2014. pp. 160–161. ISBN 9781908843708.
- Travers & Rieff 1974, pp. 152–154.
- "The Exorcist". Variety. January 1, 1973. Retrieved November 3, 2007.
- Dante, Joe. Castle of Frankenstein, Vol 6, No. 2 (Whole Issue #22), pgs. 32–33. Review of The Exorcist
- Ebert, Roger. "The Exorcist Movie Review & Film Summary (1973)". RogerEbert.com. Retrieved 29 October 2014.
- Canby, Vincent (December 27, 1973). "MOVIE REVIEW: THE EXORCIST". The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 22, 2012. Retrieved December 29, 2008.
- Sarris, Andrew. The Village Voice review reprinted in The Story Behind 'The Exorcist', written by Peter Travers and Stephanie Rieff, pgs. 154–158, Signet Books, 1974. ISBN 978-0-451-06207-9
- Travers & Rieff 1974, pp. 158–162.
- ""The Exorcist" (1973)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved December 30, 2018.
- "The Official Site of Gene Siskel". Cmgww.com. Archived from the original on April 2, 2012. Retrieved August 2, 2012.
- Mark Kermode (1998). The Exorcist". British Film Institute
- Scorsese, Martin (October 28, 2009). "11 Scariest Horror Movies of All Time". The Guardian. Retrieved September 22, 2017.
- "Empireonline.com". Empireonline.com. December 5, 2006. Retrieved August 2, 2012.
- "The Best 1,000 Movies Ever Made". The New York Times. April 29, 2003. Retrieved May 25, 2010.
- "The Exorcist (1973) Release Info| IMDB". www.imdb.com. Retrieved 2018-11-13.
- "Clergy Help Those Distressed By "The Exorcist"| East Anglian Film Archive". http://www.eafa.org.uk. Retrieved 2018-11-13. External link in
- ""The Exorcist" Will Be Shown In Norwich, Given The Go-Ahead By Health Committee| East Anglian Film Archive". http://www.eafa.org.uk. Retrieved 2018-11-13. External link in
- ""The Exorcist" Banned". The Carmarthen Journal. 1974-11-15. p. 1.
- ""Exorcist" Film Banned". Cambrian News. 1974-09-20. p. 1.
- "BBFC Podcast Episode 50 – The Exorcist (1973) | British Board of Film Classification". www.bbfc.co.uk. Retrieved 2016-09-09.
- "Original BBFC.co.uk entry". Bbfc.co.uk. February 25, 1999. Archived from the original on February 22, 2014. Retrieved August 2, 2012.
- "TV premiere for The Exorcist". BBC News. March 4, 2001. Retrieved May 15, 2009.
- Ebert, Roger (December 26, 1973). "The Exorcist Movie Review & Film Summary (1973)". RogerEbert.com. Retrieved October 28, 2017.
- Jacobs, Matthew (December 26, 2013). "'The Exorcist' Celebrates Its 40th Anniversary As One Of The Most Terrifying Movies". HuffPost. Retrieved October 28, 2017.
- "The 46th Academy Awards (1974) Nominees and Winners". oscars.org. Retrieved August 28, 2011.
- "The Exorcist 25th Anniversary Special Edition". Time Warner. Retrieved August 2, 2012.
- Biskind, Peter (1999). Easy Riders Raging Bulls: How the Sex-Drugs-And Rock 'N Roll Generation Saved Hollywood. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-68485-708-4.
- Fry, Carol Lee (2008). Cinema of the occult: new age, satanism, Wicca, and spiritualism in film. Rosemont Publishing & Printing Corp. ISBN 978-0-934223-95-9.
- Gebert, Michael (1996). The Encyclopedia of Movie Awards. St. Martin's Griffin. ISBN 0-668-05308-9.
- Kermode, Mark (2008). The Exorcist. BFI Modern Classics. British Film Institute. ISBN 978-0-85170-967-3.
- Konow, David (2012). "It's only a movie". Reel Terror: The Scary, Bloody, Gory, Hundred-Year History of Classic Horror Films. Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-25001-359-0.
- McCabe, Bob (1999). The Exorcist. London: Omnibus. ISBN 0-7119-7509-4.
- Muir, John Kenneth (2002). Horror Films of the 1970s. McFarland. ISBN 978-0-78649-156-8.
- Pons, Pedro Palao (2009). Dimension Desconocida. Ediciones Robinbook. ISBN 978-84-9917-001-5.
- Travers, Peter & Stephanie Rieff (1974). The Story Behind The Exorcist. Signet Books. ISBN 978-0-451-06207-9.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to The Exorcist (film).|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: The Exorcist (film)|
- Official website
- The Exorcist on IMDb
- The Exorcist at Rotten Tomatoes
- The Exorcist at Metacritic
- The Exorcist at AllMovie
- The Exorcist at Box Office Mojo
- The Exorcist at the TCM Movie Database
- The Haunted Boy of Cottage City: The Cold Hard Facts Behind the Story that Inspired The Exorcist, by Mark Opsasnick