Tubular Bells is the debut studio album by English multi-instrumentalist, composer and songwriter Mike Oldfield, released on 25 May 1973 as the first album on Virgin Records. Oldfield, then 19 years old, played almost all the instruments on the mostly instrumental album.
|Studio album by|
|Released||25 May 1973|
|Recorded||November 1972 – April 1973|
|Studio||The Manor, Oxfordshire, England|
|Mike Oldfield chronology|
|Tubular Bells series chronology|
|Singles from Tubular Bells|
The album initially sold slowly, but gained worldwide attention in December 1973 when its opening theme was used for the soundtrack to the horror film The Exorcist (1973). This led to a surge in sales which increased Oldfield's profile and played an important part in the growth of the Virgin Group. It stayed in the top ten of the UK Albums Chart for one year from March 1974, during which it reached number one for one week. It peaked at number three on the US Billboard 200, and reached the top position in Canada and Australia. The album has sold over 2.7 million copies in the UK and an estimated 15 million worldwide.
An orchestral version produced by David Bedford was released in 1973 as The Orchestral Tubular Bells. Oldfield has recorded three sequels: Tubular Bells II (1992), Tubular Bells III (1998), and The Millennium Bell (1999). For the album's thirtieth anniversary Oldfield re-recorded the album as Tubular Bells 2003. A remastered edition was released in 2009. Its contribution to British music was recognised when Oldfield played extracts during the 2012 Summer Olympics opening ceremony in London.
- 1 Background
- 2 Recording
- 3 Artwork
- 4 Releases
- 5 Promotion
- 6 Critical reception
- 7 Legacy
- 8 Cover versions
- 9 Track listing
- 10 Personnel
- 11 Charts
- 12 Certifications and sales
- 13 References
- 14 External links
Oldfield learned to play the guitar at an early age, and was playing in folk clubs with schoolfriends by the age of 12 or 13. His teenage years were marred by trouble in the family home, and to escape from his problems Oldfield would spend many hours in his room practising the guitar and composing instrumental pieces, becoming an accomplished player. He formed a short-lived folk duo called the Sallyangie with his sister Sally, and after they broke up he became the bass player for the Whole World, a band put together by former Soft Machine member Kevin Ayers. The Whole World recorded their album Shooting at the Moon at Abbey Road Studios over a period of several months in 1970, and the 17-year-old Oldfield was fascinated by the variety of instruments available in the studios, which included pianos, harpischords, a Mellotron and various orchestral percussion instruments. When the group did not have a recording session booked until midday, he would arrive at the studios early and spend hours during the morning experimenting with the different instruments and learning how to play each of them.
The Whole World broke up in mid-1971 and Ayers joined Gong for three months as a touring member of the band. While he was away he lent Oldfield a two-track Bang & Olufsen Beocord ¼" tape recorder. Oldfield modified the recorder by blocking off the erase head of the tape machine – this allowed him to record onto one track, bounce the recording onto the second track, and record a new instrument onto the first track, thus overdubbing his playing one instrument at a time and effectively making multi-track recordings. In his flat in Tottenham in north London, Oldfield recorded demos of four tracks he had been composing in his head for some years, using the tape recorder, his guitar and bass, some toy percussion instruments, and a Farfisa organ borrowed from the Whole World's keyboard player David Bedford. The demos comprised three shorter melodies (early versions of what would become the sections titled "Peace", "Bagpipe Guitars" and "Caveman" on the Tubular Bells 2003 version of the album), and a longer piece he had provisionally titled "Opus One". Oldfield stated that he had been inspired to write a long instrumental piece after hearing the track Septober Energy by Centipede. He was also influenced by classical music, and by experimental composer Terry Riley's 1969 work A Rainbow in Curved Air, on which Riley played all the instruments himself and used tape loops and overdubs to build up a long, repetitive piece of music.[a]
Late in 1971 Oldfield joined the band of Arthur Louis who were recording demos at The Manor Studio. The studio was being constructed in the former squash court of an old manor house in Shipton-on-Cherwell, Oxfordshire, which had recently been bought by the young entrepreneur Richard Branson and which was being turned into a residential recording facility run by his music production team of Tom Newman and Simon Heyworth. Oldfield was shy and socially awkward, but struck up a friendship with the two producers after they heard his guitar playing. Oldfield asked Newman to listen to his demos: however, these were still back in the flat in north London, so one of Louis' roadies offered to drive Oldfield to London and back to retrieve them. Newman and Heyworth made a copy of the demos, and promised Oldfield that they would speak to Branson and his business partner Simon Draper about them.
Oldfield spent much of 1972 working with his old bandmates from the Whole World on their solo projects, while simultaneously trying to find a record label interested in his demos. Oldfield approached EMI, CBS and various other labels, but all the companies rejected him, believing the piece to be unmarketable without vocals. Increasingly frustrated with the record company rejections and short of money, Oldfield heard that the Soviet Union paid musicians to give public performances – according to him, he was at the point of looking through the telephone directory for the phone number of the Soviet embassy when he was called by Simon Draper, who invited Oldfield to have dinner with him and Branson on Branson's houseboat moored in London. Over dinner Branson told Oldfield that he liked the demos and invited Oldfield to come back to the Manor and spend a week there recording "Opus One".
Oldfield recorded "Opus One" during his one allotted week at the Manor in November 1972. The album was recorded on an Ampex 2-inch 16-track tape recorder with the Dolby noise-reduction system, which was the Manor's main recording equipment at the time. To create his work Oldfield asked Virgin for various instruments to be hired, which included guitars, various keyboards and percussion instruments. Oldfield has recounted differing stories over the years regarding the inclusion of the tubular bells: in an article about the album's making in Q in 2001 he suggested that they were among the instruments he asked Branson to hire, but in interviews in 2013 for Sound on Sound magazine and for a television documentary he stated that he saw them among the instruments being removed from the studios after John Cale had finished recording there, and asked for them to be left behind for his own recording sessions.
Oldfield played the majority of the instruments on the album as a series of overdubs, which was an uncommon recording technique at the time. In total, 274 overdubs were made and an estimated two thousand "punch-ins" added later. Despite various guitars being listed on the album sleeve, such as "speed guitars", "fuzz guitars" and "guitars sounding like bagpipes", the only electric guitar to be used on the album was a 1966 blonde Fender Telecaster which used to belong to Marc Bolan and to which Oldfield had added an extra Bill Lawrence pick-up. All the guitars were recorded via direct injection into the mixing desk. To create the "speed guitar" and "mandolin-like guitar" named in the sleeve notes, the tape was simply run at half speed during recording. An actual mandolin was only used on the final track, the "Sailor's Hornpipe". Oldfield also used a custom effects unit, named the Glorfindel box, to create the "fuzz guitars" and "bagpipe guitars" distortion on some pieces on the album. The Glorfindel box (named ironically after a character in Tolkien's legendarium) was given to David Bedford at a party, who then subsequently gave it to Oldfield. Tom Newman criticised the wooden cased unit in a 2001 interview with Q magazine, noting that it rarely gave the same result twice. The guitar was put up for auction a number of times by Bonhams in 2007, 2008 and 2009 with estimates of £25,000–35,000, £10,000–15,000 and £8,000–12,000 respectively before finally being sold for £6500 – the money was donated to the SANE charity. According to Phil Newell the bass guitar used on the album was one of his Fender Telecaster Basses.
The short "honky tonk piano" section at 13:48 on side one was included as a tribute to Oldfield's grandmother, who had played the instrument in pubs before World War II. The staff and workers at the Manor made up the "nasal choir" that accompanies it.
Vivian Stanshall, a former member of the comedic rock group Bonzo Dog Doo-Dah Band, was due to use the Manor after Oldfield, and had arrived while he was in the process of recording "Opus One" (he began to record his first solo album Men Opening Umbrellas Ahead). Oldfield was a fan of the way in which Stanshall had introduced the instruments one at a time on the Bonzos' song "The Intro and the Outro". He suggested to Newman that he would like Stanshall to introduce the instruments in the same manner for "Opus One"'s "finale" section, and Newman agreed to the idea. However, the shy Oldfield then needed some persuading by Newman to go and ask Stanshall if he would carry out the request. Stanshall readily agreed to be the "master of ceremonies" on the record, but Newman recalled that the job proved to be more difficult than anticipated, with Stanshall forgetting the names of the instruments and introducing them at the wrong points in the recording. Eventually Oldfield wrote out the list of instruments in order, indicating where Stanshall should introduce them. It was the way in which Stanshall said "plus... tubular bells" to introduce the last instrument in the finale that gave Oldfield the idea to call the album Tubular Bells.
Producing the sound that Oldfield wanted from the tubular bells proved problematic: he wanted a loud note from them but both the standard leather-covered and bare metal hammers did not produce the volume that he wanted. In the end Newman obtained a heavier claw hammer and Oldfield used it to produce the desired sound intensity, cracking the bells in the process.
Once Part One of Tubular Bells had been recorded, Oldfield was allowed to stay on at the Manor to record additional overdubs during studio downtime. He spent Christmas and New Year at his family's home, but returned to the Manor from February to April 1973 to record the second part of his planned album. Branson had visited the Midem music conference in Cannes in January 1973 and pitched Part One to various music companies with the same lack of success that Oldfield had had, so by this time Branson and Draper had plans to set up their own record label, and make Tubular Bells its first release. Oldfield was not given the studio time as he had been for Part One, so Part Two was recorded over a period of three months whenever the studio was free. Oldfield has stated that he already had Part Two mapped out and sequenced by the time he came to record it.
The "caveman" section in Part Two was the only part of the album to feature a drumkit (played by the Edgar Broughton Band's drummer Steve Broughton), which Oldfield later said made the section "fairly normal". The section began with a backing track of bass and drums, with Oldfield overdubbing all other instruments. The shouting sequence was developed near the end of the recording when he had practically finished recording the instruments for the section, but felt that it needed something else. Engineer Simon Heyworth recalled that Branson was getting impatient and pressuring Oldfield to deliver the album, and to include vocals on one of the tracks so that he could release it as a single. Angered by Branson's suggestion, Oldfield replied, "You want lyrics!? I'll give you lyrics!". Back at the Manor he drank half a bottle of Jameson's whiskey from the studio's cellar and demanded that the engineer take him to the studio where, intoxicated, he "screamed his brains out for 10 minutes" into a microphone, leaving him so hoarse that he couldn't speak for two weeks afterwards. The engineer ran the tape at a higher speed during the recording, so that upon playback the tape ran at normal speed, thus dropping the pitch of the voice track and producing the "Piltdown Man" vocals listed on the credits.
The coda at the end of Part Two, "The Sailor's Hornpipe", was a track Oldfield had been performing since he was the bass player with the Whole World. It was originally preceded by a longer rendition of the piece, featuring a vocal contribution from Vivian Stanshall over musical backing and marching footsteps. According to the liner notes for the Boxed vinyl compilation, this session occurred at four in the morning after Oldfield, Stanshall and producer Newman had been drinking heavily. Newman placed microphones in various rooms of the Manor and began recording, and the trio set off on an unplanned tour of the house, with Oldfield on mandolin and Newman on acoustic guitar playing the "Sailor's Hornpipe" while Stanshall gave an inebriated, improvised tour of the Manor. In the end a more traditional instrumental version of the "Sailor's Hornpipe" was recorded for Tubular Bells, although Stanshall's version was later included in what the liner notes describe as "all its magnificent foolishness" on the Boxed compilation. It can also be found on the SACD release (multi-channel track only) and on the 2009 Mercury reissue of Tubular Bells. A Spanish release of the box set missed out the "Sailor's Hornpipe" altogether and ended with the ambient section preceding it.
In the liner notes to the 2009 reissue of Magma's Mëkanïk Dëstruktïẁ Kömmandöh, an album recorded at the Manor at around the same time as Tubular Bells, Magma's leader Christian Vander claimed that "Mike Oldfield stole my music, more precisely, he stole some extracts from Mekanïk and The Dawotsin."
The cover of Tubular Bells was created by designer and photographer Trevor Key. In her obituary of Key for The Guardian in 1995, Sue Steward, who was Virgin Records' press officer in 1973, recalled suggesting Key as a possible candidate to create the album cover. Key was invited to Virgin to present his portfolio – among his images was one of a boiled egg dripping blood which Branson liked and wanted to use for the cover art because he wanted to call the album Breakfast in Bed, but Oldfield hated both the image and the title and rejected them. A modified version of the image with the blood replaced by yolk would later be used as the artwork for Oldfield's 1991 album Heaven's Open, his final album for Virgin Records.
Steward accompanied Key to a beach on the Sussex coast to shoot the backdrop to the album cover. Key had brought with him the bones shown burning on the beach on the album's back cover, but the day was bitterly cold and it took some time to set light to them. The perfectionist Key also spent several hours photographing the seascape until had a shot of the waves that he was happy with. The triangular "bent bell" on the album cover was inspired by the damage Oldfield had caused to the tubular bells while playing them on the record. Key designed the bell and had the model constructed, which he then photographed in his studio and superimposed on the beach backdrop. Oldfield was captivated by the finished artwork, and insisted that on the cover his name and the album title should be in small letters and in a pale orange colour (chosen by Oldfield himself) so as not to distract from the overall image.
According to Steward, Key was paid just £100 for his work on Tubular Bells. However, in partnership with fellow designer/photographer Brian Cooke, the Cooke-Key Associates agency enjoyed a close relationship with Virgin Records during the latter half of the 1970s, designing the Virgin logo and creating album covers for many of the artists signed to the label, including the covers of many of Oldfield's subsequent albums.
The "bent bell" on the cover has become the image most associated with Oldfield, appearing on the cover art of all the Tubular Bells sequel albums, and is also used as the logo of his personal music company, Oldfield Music Ltd. The cover of Tubular Bells was among ten images chosen by the UK's Royal Mail for a set of "Classic Album Cover" postage stamps issued on 7 January 2010.
Tubular Bells marked the first release for the newly founded Virgin Records and was assigned the catalogue number V2001, although Gong's Flying Teapot (catalogue number V2002) and the compilation Manor Live (catalogue number V2003) were released on the same date.
The back cover of the album includes the humorous statement "In Glorious Stereophonic Sound: Can also be played on mono equipment at a pinch" and the tongue-in-cheek warning "This stereo record cannot be played on old tin boxes no matter what they are fitted with. If you are in possession of such equipment please hand it into the nearest police station."
There are five known variations of the vinyl edition of Tubular Bells:
- The standard stereo black vinyl version catalogue number V2001 (white label with twins image or green label with twins image and 25.00 running time on side one). This mix was reissued on vinyl as part of the Back to Black series in 2009.
- A stereo black vinyl version catalogue number VR 13–105 (white label with color twins image). This is the original US version of the album, distributed by Atlantic Records.
- A quadraphonic version, black vinyl catalogue number QV2001 ("For people with four ears", as the sleeve said). The first 40,000 copies of this are not true quadrophonic but doctored versions of the stereo issue, thereafter the subsequent copies are true quadrophonic. Unfortunately there is no indication on the record label that this substitution was made. The US number is QD13-105 (Quadra-disc CD-4 channel discrete).
- A vinyl picture disc, showing the bent bell on a skyscape, catalogue number VP2001. This is a stereo remix of the quadrophonic version, the only difference being in the sound of the "reed and pipe organ" during the ceremony of instruments in the finale. This version appears in the Boxed compilation.
- A 1981 release that was re-mastered by Ray Janos at CBS Recording Studios, New York, N.Y. on the CBS DisComputer System. Barcode 07464341161.
Tubular Bells was re-released as a limited edition album and cassette ten years after the date of its original release. This also co-incided with the release of Oldfield's new album Crises. Press advertisements bore the date of May 23 and the years 1973 and 1983, and the album was also advertised as being sold "for the 1973 price". Some copies bore the sticker "10th Anniversary issue".
The album was also released on CD for the first time in 1983, with the serial number CDV2001. The CD release of the Boxed album contains a stereo remix of the quadrophonic version.
Simon Heyworth remastered the album for an HDCD release in 2000, and for a SACD release in 2001 which includes the remastered version and uses the quadrophonic mix from the Boxed compilation for the multi-channel part. The HDCD release contained liner notes by David Laing, and the SACD release notes were by Phil Newell and Simon Heyworth. Some copies were labelled as the "25th Anniversary Edition".
On 22 April 2007 a British newspaper, The Mail on Sunday, gave away 2.25 million free copies of the full original Tubular Bells to its readers; this came in a card packet displaying the original artwork. EMI (who had bought out Virgin Records) earned a profit from the promotion, and The Mail on Sunday claimed that its promotion increased sales of the album by 30%. Oldfield was unhappy about the deal, as he had not been consulted about it and felt it devalued the work.
In 2008, when Oldfield's original 35-year deal with Virgin Records ended, the rights to the piece were returned to him and Oldfield signed to Mercury Records. All of Oldfield's Virgin albums were transferred to his new label and re-released, starting the following year. Tubular Bells was reissued in June 2009 in a number of formats, including vinyl, 2-CD and DVD, accompanied by a series of bell-ringing events at 6pm on 6 June (a reference to the Number of the Beast). One of the events in London was at the British Music Experience at the O2. It featured the 29 piece Handbell Ringers of Great Britain and an Orbular Bells DJ set by the Orb. There were also bell-ringing workshops and competitions. The Orb had previously remixed "Sentinel" from Tubular Bells II.
All formats of the reissue included a new mix of the album created by Oldfield at his home in the Bahamas in March 2009, while the Deluxe Edition contained a 5.1 mix, and the Ultimate Edition contained an accompanying book and memorabilia. The 2-CD version, titled The Mike Oldfield Collection 1974–1983, contained the whole of Tubular Bells on the first disc and a compilation of some of Oldfield's work from Ommadawn to Crises on the second disc. The Mike Oldfield Collection 1974–1983 was advertised on television, voiced by former Doctor Who actor Tom Baker, who had previously featured in an advert for The Best of Tubular Bells in 2000. The album carries a black cover with the Tubular Bells logo, and charted at number 11 in the UK Albums Chart.
Queen Elizabeth Hall performanceEdit
Oldfield admitted that once he had finished recording Tubular Bells and it had been released, he felt he had "got it out of his system" and was reluctant to promote the record at all. Branson eventually persuaded him to play a one-off concert performing the album in its entirety at the Queen Elizabeth Hall in London on 25 June 1973. However, Oldfield was nervous about performing the work live, and on the day of the concert as Branson was driving him to London he insisted that he would not go through with the concert. Desperate to stop Oldfield pulling out, Branson offered him the Bentley car that he was driving if Oldfield would perform the concert. The concert duly went ahead and was well-received, despite Oldfield considering it a disaster, with out-of-tune instruments and Stanshall introducing the instruments during the finale section in the wrong order. The concert featured members of Henry Cow and musicians associated with the Canterbury Scene, as well as Mick Taylor of the Rolling Stones. Steve Winwood and Robert Wyatt were also due to take part, but Winwood pulled out as he was unable to find time to take part in the rehearsals, and Wyatt was recovering from the recent accident that had left him paralysed.
Musicians for Queen Elizabeth Hall performance:
- Girlie Chorus: Sarah Greaves, Kathy Williams, Sally Oldfield, Maureen Rossini, Lynette Asquith, Amanda Parsons, Maggie Thomas, Mundy Ellis, Julie Clive, Liz Gluck, Debbie Scott, Hanna Corker.
BBC TV 2nd House performanceEdit
Oldfield and many of the musicians who had taken part in the Queen Elizabeth Hall concert performed Part One again later in the year for the BBC arts programme 2nd House, but this time as a pre-recorded performance in a studio setting without an audience. The performance was recorded on 30 November 1973 and transmitted on 5 January 1974 on BBC2. The arrangement included a new part for oboe, played by Soft Machine's Karl Jenkins, and the musicians were accompanied by images of tubular steel sculptures and sequences from the film Reflections, both created by artist William Pye. This performance was included on the Elements DVD in 2004 and on the DVD in the Deluxe and Ultimate Editions of the 2009 reissue of Tubular Bells.
Musicians for 2nd House performance:
Use in The ExorcistEdit
The most important promotion for the record came from an unexpected source, when the introduction to Part One was chosen to feature in the film The Exorcist, which was released in the United States in December 1973 and in European cinemas in March 1974. According to British film critic Mark Kermode, the decision to include the music was the result of pure chance – director William Friedkin had decided to scrap the original score by Lalo Schifrin and was looking for music to replace it. Friedkin was visiting the offices of Ahmet Ertegun, president of Atlantic Records (which distributed Tubular Bells in the US), and picking up a white label of the album from the selection of records in Ertegun's office, he put it on the record player and instantly decided that the music would be perfect for the movie. Although the introduction only features briefly in two scenes in the movie, it has become the track most commonly associated with it. Oldfield has stated that he did not want to see the film because he believed he would find it too frightening.
The first single released from the album was created by the original US distributor, Atlantic Records. The single was an edit of the first three sections from Part One and was not authorised by Oldfield. The single was released in February 1974 in the United States and Canada only, where it peaked at number seven on the U.S. Billboard Hot 100 chart on 11 May 1974, making Oldfield a one-hit wonder on the US charts. The track also reached number 15 on the Adult Contemporary chart.
In Canada the single was released as "Tubular Bells (Theme from Exorcist)", peaking at number three on the RPM Top Singles chart on 18 May 1974, and was placed at number 103 in the top 200 singles of the year.
"Mike Oldfield's Single (Theme from Tubular Bells)" was the first 7-inch single released by Mike Oldfield in the UK, in June 1974, peaking at number 31. The A-side was a re-recording of Part Two's "bagpipe guitars" section, arranged in a more pastoral version with acoustic guitars and featuring the oboe (played by Lindsay Cooper) as the lead instrument, with "Froggy Went A-Courting" as the B-side. The A-side of this single was included on the 2009 reissue of Tubular Bells.
|Christgau's Record Guide||C+|
|Encyclopedia of Popular Music|||
Influential British DJ John Peel was an early admirer of the record, and played it on his Top Gear radio show on BBC Radio 1 on 29 May 1973, four days after the album's release, calling it "one of the most impressive LPs I've ever had the chance to play on the radio, really a remarkable record". Branson and Oldfield were listening to the show on Branson's houseboat, and Oldfield stated in his autobiography that Peel played the album in its entirety, although the running order from the BBC archives and existing audio copies of the programme show that Peel played Part One only.
Peel reviewed the album for The Listener magazine the following week, describing it as "a new recording of such strength and beauty that to me it represents the first break-through into history that any musician has made". The UK's major music magazines were also unanimous in their praise of the album. Al Clark of NME said that the "veritable orgy of over-dubbing results in a remarkable piece of sustained music, never content with the purely facile yet equally disinclined towards confusing the listener". He concluded that "Tubular Bells ... is a superlative record which owes nothing to contemporary whims. It is one of the most mature, vital, rich and humerous [sic] pieces of music to have emerged from the pop idiom." Melody Maker's Geoff Brown observed that "Tubular Bells is a vast work, almost classical in its structure and in the way a theme is stated and deftly worked upon" and that it was "an enjoyable, evocative album which bodes well for the future of both the country's newest label and of Mike Oldfield". Reviewing the whole batch of Virgin's first album releases in Sounds, Steve Peacock singled out Tubular Bells as the best of the bunch, saying that after careful listening he "ended up convinced that it really is a remarkable album", noting the "complex, interlocking carefully woven music that works its way though an enormous dynamic and emotional range", and stating, "I can't think of another album that I'd as unhesitatingly recommend to everyone who's likely to read this". A more reserved review came from Simon Frith in Let It Rock who felt that Tubular Bells was "more than an attractive wall-paper, more than a nature-film score, because of Mike Oldfield's ability to make what happens to the music self-sufficient and satisfying", but questioned why Peel and other critics viewed the album as rock music, and concluded that "Oldfield's concern is the sound of rock, but Tubular Bells lacks rock's other essence — energy. This is no way body music — no sex, no violence, no ecstasy; nothing uncontrolled, nothing uncontrollable."
Tubular Bells was released in the US in October 1973, and Paul Gambaccini wrote an enthusiastic review of the album for Rolling Stone, calling it "the most important one-shot project of 1973" and "a debut performance of a kind we have no right to expect from anyone. It took Mike Oldfield half a year to lay down the thousands of overdubs required for his 49 minutes of exhilarating music. I will be playing the result for many times that long." He concluded, "I can say that this is a major work". On the other hand, in an article in the same magazine seven months later which discussed the current top twenty albums on the Billboard chart, Jon Landau dismissed the record as "a clever novelty" and said, "Light, rather showy and cute in places, it probably makes pleasant background music for a dinner or conversation". Village Voice critic Robert Christgau was also left unmoved, saying, "The best I can come up with here is 'pleasant' and 'catchy'. Oldfield isn't Richard Strauss or even Leonard Cohen — this is a soundtrack because that's the level at which he operates."
In a retrospective review for AllMusic Mike DeGagne called the album "arguably the finest conglomeration of off-centered instruments concerted together to form a single, unique piece" and stated that "the most interesting and overwhelming aspect of this album is the fact that so many sounds are conjured up, yet none go unnoticed, allowing the listener a gradual submergence into each unique portion of the music. Tubular Bells is a divine excursion into the realm of new-age music."
In Q magazine's 1998 list of "The 50 Best Albums of the '70s", Tubular Bells was placed at number six. In the Q & Mojo Classic special issue Pink Floyd & The Story of Prog Rock in 2005, the album was listed at number nine in its list of "40 Cosmic Rock Albums".
Other works by Mike OldfieldEdit
Tubular Bells is the album most identified with Oldfield, and he has frequently returned to it in later works. The opening passage of the title track on the album Crises and the piece "Harbinger" on the album Music of the Spheres are clearly derived from the opening of Tubular Bells, as are "Secrets" and "The Source of Secrets", from Tubular Bells III. The opening is also quoted directly in the song "Five Miles Out" from the album of the same name, and the song also features his "trademark" instrument, "Piltdown Man" (referring to his singing like a caveman, first heard on Tubular Bells).
Tubular Bells can be seen as the first of a series of albums continuing with Tubular Bells II (1992), Tubular Bells III (1998) and The Millennium Bell (1999).
In 2003 Oldfield released Tubular Bells 2003, a re-recording of the original Tubular Bells with updated digital technology and several "corrections" to what he saw as flaws in the album's original production. Since Vivian Stanshall died in 1995, the 2003 re-recording had his vocal contribution in the "Finale" section replaced with a newly recorded narration by John Cleese. There is also a new mix of the original album on the 2009 Mercury reissue.
There are many different live recordings; a complete one can be found on the double live album Exposed from 1979.
Live video performances are available on the following releases:
Live audio releases are on the following albums:
I never thought that the word 'tubular bells' was going to play such an important part in our lives ... Virgin going into space most likely wouldn't have existed if we hadn't hired that particular instrument.— Richard Branson, 2013
The significance of this album to the Virgin empire is not lost on Richard Branson, who named one of his first Virgin America aircraft, an Airbus A319-112, N527VA Tubular Belle. Prior to this Virgin Atlantic had named a Boeing 747-4Q8, G-VHOT Tubular Belle, in 1994.
In the United Kingdom Virgin Money signalled its entry into the banking sector in January 2012 with a television advertisement titled '40 Years of Better'. The advertisement opened with an image of a record orbiting the earth accompanied by the music of the introduction to Tubular Bells, signifying the beginnings of Virgin, and ended with a shot of the same record framed and hanging on the wall of the new bank. Two months later a Virgin Media TV advertisement starring Branson and actor David Tennant also featured the record, where a younger version of Branson is seen holding a copy of Tubular Bells under his arm upon exiting a time machine. However, the advert was withdrawn shortly afterwards following objections from the BBC that it was being used to endorse a rival TV service (in the advert Tennant is shown searching on Virgin's TiVo on-demand service for episodes of Doctor Who, a BBC series in which he formerly played the titular character).
The use of the opening theme in the 1973 film The Exorcist gained the record considerable publicity and introduced the work to a broader audience. Along with a number of other Oldfield pieces the theme was used in the 1979 NASA movie The Space Movie. It has gained cultural significance as a 'haunting theme', partly due to the association with The Exorcist, and has been sampled by many other artists, such as Janet Jackson on the title track of her album The Velvet Rope.
In television it was used in several episodes of the Dutch children's series Bassie en Adriaan, an episode ("Ghosts") of the BBC series My Family and an episode ("Poltergeist III – Dipesto Nothing") of Moonlighting. It was used in a television advertisement for the Volkswagen Golf Diesel in 2002 and in films such as 1983's Star 80, 1985's Weird Science, 2001's Scary Movie 2 (in a scene directly parodying The Exorcist), 2002's The Master of Disguise, 2004's Saved! and 2017's Abracadabra. The album is mentioned in the Only Fools and Horses episode "Fatal Extraction", although the cover of Tubular Bells II is shown on screen.
With the aid of the software house CRL and distributor Nu Wave, Mike Oldfield released an interactive Commodore 64 version of the album in 1986, which used the computer's SID sound chip to play back a simplified re-arrangement of the album, accompanied by some simple 2D visual effects.
The "interactivity" offered by the album/program was limited to controlling the speed and quantity of the visual effects, tuning the sound's volume and filtering, and skipping to any part of the album.
In 2004 Oldfield launched a virtual reality project called Maestro which contains music from the re-recorded Tubular Bells album (Tubular Bells 2003). The original title of the game was The Tube World. This was the second game which was released under the MusicVR banner, the first being Tres Lunas. MusicVR set out to be a real-time virtual reality experience combining imagery and music, as a non-violent and essentially a non-goal driven game.
Indaba Music remix contest
In 2012 Universal and Indaba Music created a Tubular Bells remix contest, where users could download original stem recordings to create their own pieces and the winner of the $1000 prize was judged by Oldfield.
2012 Olympic GamesEdit
On 27 July 2012 at the 2012 Summer Olympics opening ceremony Mike Oldfield performed during a segment about the NHS and children’s literature. The show's director Danny Boyle stated that he had wanted to make Tubular Bells a "cornerstone" of a 20-minute sequence of the ceremony. A studio version of Oldfield's performance appears on the soundtrack album Isles of Wonder. Although listed as "Tubular Bells"/"In Dulci Jubilo", the track consists of a number of parts, the first being the introduction piece to his Tubular Bells in its normal arrangement, then this is followed by a rearranged version of that same theme that during interviews Oldfield has called "swingular bells". The piece that is used when children's literature villains appear features two arrangements of "Far Above the Clouds" (from Tubular Bells III), and finally as the Mary Poppins characters appear to drive off the villains, there is a rendition of "In Dulci Jubilo" followed by a short coda.
The Olympics version was released as a 500-copy limited edition pink/blue vinyl single on 8 October 2012. This was also released on iTunes as "Tubular Bells/In Dulci Julio (Music from the Opening Ceremony of the London 2012 Olympic Games)".
This lists the movements as:
- "Tubular Bells (Part One Excerpt)"
- "Tubular Bells (Part One Swing)"
- "Tubular Bells (Part Two Excerpt)"
- "Tubular Bells III (Far Above the Clouds)"
- "Mary Poppins Arrival"
- "Fanfare for the Isles of Wonder"
- "In Dulci Jubilo"
- "Olympic Tubular Bells Coda"
Various sections of Tubular Bells have been covered by many artists, with the most used part being the introductory piano part.
- Lol Coxhill recorded a very short track of "doubled and echoed flexatones" (a flexatone is a hand percussion instrument consisting of two balls striking a piece of metal, which makes a "spooky" sound effect), titled "Tubercular Balls" on his 1974 Caroline Records half-album, ...Oh Really? (the other side being The Story So Far... by Stephen Miller, a.k.a. Steve Miller, ex Caravan; the album is often referred to by a combination of its two titles: The Story So Far ... Oh Really?).
- The Champs Boys Orchestra released a short disco rendition of Tubular Bells in 1976.
- Keyboards Affair recorded 7" and 12" italo-disco cover (read tribute) versions in 1983 titled Tubular ("Tubolar" in Italian) Bells.
- Metal band Possessed played the intro in the first song of the record Seven Churches (in 1985), which is titled "The Exorcist".
- Paul Hardcastle based his 1985 single "19" around the piano theme of Tubular Bells.
- Thrash metal band Death Angel played the main theme in the title track of the album The Ultra-Violence in 1987.
- Book of Love opened their 1988 album Lullaby with a cover version, stretched to 4/4 time by adding stretching a note to make it danceable.
- Ed Starink made an abridged cover for an album Synthesizer Greatest (the first album in a multi-volume series) that was released in 1989. Tubular Bells appears only on the CD version as a "bonus track". Other tracks on the album are cover versions of famous synthesizer songs but the original Tubular Bells features no synthesizer.
- Symphonic/horror metal band Van Helsing's Curse adapted the introduction of Tubular Bells (in its original meter and a modified version in straight 4/4), along with fragments of In the Hall of the Mountain King and Dies Irae, in their piece, "Tubular Hell."
- Italian Keyboarder Claudio Simonetti covered the song on his Days of Confusion album in 1992.
- American artist Tori Amos has frequently used the opening Tubular Bells theme in her live shows. It began during the 1996 Dew Drop Inn Tour where she let "Father Lucifer" segue into Tubular Bells on the piano while singing words from Bronski Beat's "Smalltown Boy" as well as playing it on the harpsichord during songs "Love Song" (a Cure cover) and "Bells for Her" (from the album Under the Pink), usually while mixing in lyrics from a third song such as Björk's "Hyperballad" or "Blue Skies". It appeared again in 2005 as part of "Yes, Anastasia", and on the 2007 tour promoting her album American Doll Posse where it was performed with full band as an intro to "Devils and Gods". On the 2011 tour, promoting her album Night of Hunters it is being performed as the intro to and backing melody for "God."
- Forma Tadre use the intro guitars from the second part of Tubular Bells in their song "Automate" on the 1998 album of the same name. Their version is done with synth and only repeats the first two bars.
- Therapy? jokingly covered the opening theme live in 1998 as part of a medley, which opened with "Tubular Bells", segued into Judas Priest's "Breaking the Law", and ended with their own "Nowhere".
- Duo Sonare, a German classical guitar duo, made a complete re-recording of Tubular Bells for two guitars in 2000.
- Rapper Tech N9ne used a version of the intro in the song "Be Warned" in 2002, only he moved it to 4/4 time.
- Spaniards Héctor Campos and Álvaro Martín produced the "Tubular Project" concerts between 2003 and 2006 (5 concerts in total), which were the first and only adaptation of Tubular Bells for a plucked string orchestra (Vicente Aleixandre of Aranjuez). David Bedford played pianos and was MC in the first two concert held en Aranjuez (Madrid).
- Interactivo, led by bandleader Roberto Carcassés, based their 2005 Cuban jazz-funk arrangement entitled Escriba y Lea Con las Tubular Bells on themes from late in the second half of Tubular Bells, Part One.
- Finnish a cappella performer Paska recorded an abridged version for his 2005 album Women Are From Venus, Men From Anus. Paska has also performed the song at his live performances. In a concert on 1 October 2007, before performing it, Ari Peltonen gave a speech about his hatred of the song and progressive rock.
- Crown Records – iTunes download – A cover of Tubular Bells by the Crown Star Records studio musicians.
- Marcel Bergmann made two arrangements of Tubular Bells "Part One", in 2005 (for two pianos and two synthesizers as well as four pianos); a CD with both versions was released by Brilliant Classics in 2008.
- California Guitar Trio covers most of the first side of the original album on their album Echoes released in late March 2008.
- Tubular Bells for Two is a music-theatre production created by two Australian multi-instrumentalists, Aidan Roberts and Daniel Holdsworth, in 2009. The two musicians perform over twenty instruments to recreate the original album 'as faithfully as physically possible'. The show won a Sydney Fringe Award for Best Musical Moment in the 2010 Festival, and has been performed at festivals around Australia and the Pacific. The show made its European debut at the Edinburgh Festival Fringe in 2012, where it won two awards. A DVD has been released of the show, filmed during the Sydney Festival 2012.
- Happy hardcore DJ and producer Trixxy also used the intro melody for the song "Sunrise", released in 1999.
- Charles Hazlewood's All Star Collective have performed Tubular Bells in full while on tour.
- Sarah Brightman used an arrangement of Tubular Bells with lyrics in the song "Closer" on her 2013 album Dreamchaser.
- The entire album was arranged for brass band by Sandy Smith and released on CD and vinyl in 2017 by his outfit Tubular Brass. A live performance at the Royal Northern School of Music was broadcast shortly afterwards on BBC Radio 2's weekly show 'Listen to the Band' (owing to the show's thirty-minute slot length, the performance was broadcast over two consecutive weeks).
- An unauthorized adaptation of Tubular Bells can be heard in the initial part of the Hindi song "Mushqil Bada" from the Hindi movie Gupt: The Hidden truth, released in 1997. The piece was adapted by Viju Shah and also formed parts of the background score of this Hindi movie by the same composer.
All tracks composed by Mike Oldfield, except where noted.
1973 original releaseEdit
- "Tubular Bells, Part One" – 25:30
- "Tubular Bells, Part Two" – 23:50
2009 Standard EditionEdit
The Standard Edition uses the original artwork, and features the new stereo mix plus two bonus tracks.
- "Tubular Bells (Part One)" (2009 stereo mix) – 25:58
- "Tubular Bells (Part Two)" (2009 stereo mix) – 23:20
- "Mike Oldfield's Single" – 3:53
- "Sailor's Hornpipe" (Vivian Stanshall version) (traditional, arranged Oldfield) – 2:48
2009 Deluxe Edition (2CD & DVD)Edit
The Deluxe Edition uses the original artwork with a "Deluxe Edition" white banner at the bottom. The DVD is labelled as "Disc 4", even though there are only three discs in this version. This is because the same DVD is used as the fourth disc in the Ultimate Edition.
As Standard Edition
- "Tubular Bells (Part One)" (1973 stereo mix)
- "Tubular Bells (Part Two)" (1973 stereo mix)
- "Tubular Bells (Part One)" (2009 5.1 surround mix)
- "Tubular Bells (Part Two)" (2009 5.1 surround mix)
- "Mike Oldfield's Single" (2009 5.1 surround mix)
- "Sailor's Hornpipe" (Vivian Stanshall version) (traditional, arranged Oldfield)
- "BBC TV 2nd House Performance"
2009 Ultimate Edition (3CD, DVD & LP)Edit
The Ultimate Edition included a 60-page hardback book with a foreword by Mike Oldfield, plectrums, a poster, a copy of the Manor Studio's recording brochure, a concert ticket, a postcard and recording information. The Ultimate Edition has a plain white cover with the bell logo.
As Standard Edition
As Deluxe Edition
- "Tubular Bells (long)" (demo) – 22:55 (Oldfield's original "Opus One" demo)
- "Caveman Lead-in" (demo) – 2:44
- "Caveman" (demo) – 5:06
- "Peace Demo A" (1971 demo) – 7:01
- "Peace Demo B" (1971 demo) – 4:22
- "Tubular Bells, Part One" (scrapped first mix, Spring 1973) – 25:13
As Deluxe Edition
As vinyl edition
Credits adapted from album sleeve notes.
- Mike Oldfield – grand piano, glockenspiel, Farfisa organ, bass guitar, electric guitar (including "speed guitar", "fuzz guitar", "mandolin-like guitar" and "guitars sounding like bagpipes"), taped motor drive amplifier organ chord, assorted percussion, acoustic guitar, flageolet, honky tonk piano, Lowrey organ, tubular bells, concert tympani, Hammond organ, Spanish guitar, vocals ("Piltdown Man" and "Moribund chorus")
For the 2009 remix, the following equipment was used. A screenshot of the session in Steinberg Nuendo was included in the Ultimate Edition book.
As of 2019, Tubular Bells has spent a total of 286 weeks on the UK Albums Chart. Initially sales were slow, with the album not entering the charts until the week ending 14 July 1973, and spending only two weeks inside the top ten by the end of the year. However, from February 1974 until May 1975 Tubular Bells spent only four weeks outside the top ten. From 24 July 1974 onwards the album spent ten consecutive weeks at number two, firstly as runner-up to Paul McCartney and Wings's album Band on the Run for seven weeks, and then a further three weeks behind Oldfield's own follow-up album, Hergest Ridge. Tubular Bells finally topped the UK album chart in the week ending 5 October 1974, sixteen months after its release. In replacing Hergest Ridge at number one Oldfield became only the second artist in history to replace himself at the top of the UK album charts (the Beatles had managed it twice, once in 1963 and again in 1964 – the feat was also achieved later by Michael Jackson in July 2009 and by David Bowie in February 2016, both times following the performer's death). In the UK the album has re-entered the charts in every decade since its release, its most recent appearance being in the week ending 26 October 2013.
Tubular Bells has sold more than 2,630,000 copies in the UK alone, and as of July 2016 it is the 42nd best-selling album of all time in the UK. It is estimated to have sold in excess of 15 million copies worldwide.
Certifications and salesEdit
|Australia (ARIA)||3× Platinum||210,000^|
|Canada (Music Canada)||2× Platinum||200,000^|
|United Kingdom (BPI)||9× Platinum||2,760,000|
|United States (RIAA)||Gold||500,000^|
*sales figures based on certification alone
- The demos titled "Tubular Bells Long", "Caveman Lead-In", "Caveman", "Peace Demo A" and "Peace Demo B" appeared on the DVD-Audio version of the rerecording of Tubular Bells, Tubular Bells 2003, while portions of these demos appear on the 2009 Ultimate Edition reissue of the album; also included on this release is a scrapped mix from spring 1973.
- Hardy, Phil (1995). The Da Capo Companion to 20th-century Popular Music. Da Capo Press. p. 705. ISBN 978-0-306-80640-7.
The album became a progressive rock sensation in Britain, where it remained on the charts for nearly five years and in America, where its success was aided by the inclusion of extracts on the soundtrack of The Exorcist (1973).
- Donnelly, Kevin J. (2002). Pop Music in British Cinema: A Chronicle. British Film Institute. p. 61. ISBN 0-8517-0863-3.
- O'Casey 2013, 6:24.
- O'Casey 2013, 8:04.
- O'Casey 2013, 9:34.
- Black, Johnny (Summer 2001). "Mike Oldfield: The Making of Tubular Bells". Q. No. 180. pp. 54–55.
- Buskin, Richard (April 2013). "Classic Tracks: Mike Oldfield – Tubular Bells". Sound on Sound. Cambridge, England: SOS Publications Ltd. Retrieved 6 August 2016.
- O'Casey 2013, 13:25.
- O'Casey 2013, 13:42.
- O'Casey 2013, 16:15.
- O'Casey 2013, 17:04.
- Lemieux, Patrick (2014). The Mike Oldfield Chronology. Toronto: Across the Board Books. pp. 18–19. ISBN 978-0-99198-406-0.
- O'Casey 2013, 19:12.
- O'Casey 2013, 19:40.
- Oldfield 2007, p. 124.
- O'Casey 2013, 20:19.
- "12 Albums That Changed Music". MSN Music. 2009. Retrieved 23 September 2010.
- "Talent – New on the Charts – Mike Oldfield – "Tubular Bells"". Billboard. 86 (10): 24. 9 March 1974. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved 22 August 2019.
- "Mike Oldfield - Tubular.net - Tubular Bells". Tubular.net. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
- "Lot 391 Mike Oldfield's Fender Telecaster, used to record the album 'Tubular Bells', Film and Rock & Roll Memorabilia Auction 15242". Bonhams. 20 June 2007. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
- "Lot 361 Mike Oldfield's Fender Telecaster, used to record the album 'Tubular Bells', Entertainment Memorabilia Auction 15765". Bonhams. 15 January 2008. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
- "Lot 277 Mike Oldfield's Fender Telecaster, used to record the album 'Tubular Bells', Entertainment Memorabilia Auction 16905". Bonhams. 16 December 2009. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
- "Historic guitar in safe hands of SANE supporter". SANE. 25 February 2011. Retrieved 17 August 2014.
- "Tubular Bells". Dark Star. Archived from the original on 18 April 2015. Retrieved 17 April 2015.
- O'Casey 2013, 30:45.
- O'Casey 2013, 31:09.
- Oldfield 2007, p. 140.
- O'Casey 2013, 32:53.
- Lemieux (2014). p. 21.
- O'Casey 2013, 34:45.
- Oldfield 2007, p. 85.
- Vander, Christian (2009). Studio Zünd: 40 Ans d'Evolution (liner notes). Magma. France: Le Chant du Monde. 274 1703.[better source needed]
- Steward, Sue (19 December 1995). "Tones of magic in the bells". The Guardian. p. 16.
- Oldfield 2007, p. 139.
- Oldfield 2007, pp. 128, 140.
- O'Casey 2013, 35:12.
- Hall, John (7 January 2010). "Royal Mail unveil classic album cover stamps". The Independent. Retrieved 7 August 2016.
- Michaels, Sean (8 January 2010). "Coldplay album gets stamp of approval from Royal Mail". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 August 2016.
- Tubular Bells (album sleeve notes). Mike Oldfield. Virgin Records. 1973. V2001.CS1 maint: others (link)
- Hamlyn, Nick (1994). Musicmaster Price Guide for Record Collectors (3rd ed.). Retail Entertainment Data Publishing Ltd. p. 599.
- "Tubular Bells". Discogs. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
- "1983 10th Anniversary Year". Dark Start - The Mike Oldfield Magazine. Retrieved 18 December 2016.
- "Covermounts provoke fresh outrage". Music Week. 30 April 2007. Retrieved 22 March 2009.
- "Mail on Sunday hits back in Mike Oldfield row". The Guardian. 12 May 2007. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
- "Oldfield attacks Tubular Bells giveaway". Music Week. 8 May 2007. Retrieved 22 March 2009.
- "Universal press release – Tubular Bells". Mike Oldfield Information Service. 15 April 2009. Archived from the original on 30 August 2009. Retrieved 20 April 2009.
- Jackson, Alan (1 March 2008). "Mike Oldfield regains control of Tubular Bells". The Times. Retrieved 5 April 2008.
- "Oldfield signs to Mercury for new album". Music Week. 24 May 2005. Retrieved 22 March 2009.
- "About". Tubular Bells 2009.com. Retrieved 26 September 2009.
- "The Bell is Back" (PDF). Universal Music Group. 2009. Retrieved 5 June 2009.
- "British Music Experience". British Music Experience. Retrieved 25 May 2009.
- "The Bells are Back..." TubularBells2009.com. April 2009. Retrieved 21 April 2009.
- "Where are they now – Tom Baker". Real Doctor Who Fans. Archived from the original on 7 October 2011. Retrieved 7 June 2009.
- O'Casey 2013, 0:43.
- Dunn, Joseph (9 April 2006). "Me and My Motors: Richard Branson". The Sunday Times. Retrieved 14 March 2010.
- Peel, John (7 June 1973). "Pop Music: Tubular Bells by John Peel". The Listener. Vol. 89 no. 2306. pp. 774–75.
- "Winwood quits". Sounds. 9 June 1973. p. 3.
- "2nd House". Radio Times. No. 2617. BBC. 5–11 January 1974. p. 27. Retrieved 16 October 2017.
- O'Casey 2013, 44:02.
- Casey Kasem, American Top 40, 4 May 1974.
- "Mike Oldfield – Chart History – The Hot 100". Billboard. Retrieved 24 July 2017. Italic or bold markup not allowed in:
- Whitburn, Joel (1993). Top Adult Contemporary: 1961–1993. Record Research. p. 179.
- "RPM Top Singles". RPM. Vol. 21 no. 13. 18 May 1974. Archived from the original on 31 January 2015. Retrieved 16 January 2015.
- "The Top 200 Singles of '74". RPM. Vol. 22 no. 19. 28 December 1974.
- "Mike Oldfield – full Official Chart History". Official Charts Company. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
- DeGagne, Mike. "Tubular Bells – Mike Oldfield". AllMusic. Retrieved 1 January 2014.
- DeRogatis, Jim (28 February 1993). "Mike Oldfield on CD". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on 19 November 2018. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
- Christgau, Robert (1981). "Consumer Guide '70s: O". Christgau's Record Guide: Rock Albums of the Seventies. Ticknor & Fields. ISBN 089919026X. Retrieved 10 March 2019 – via robertchristgau.com.
- Christgau, Robert (May 1974). "The Christgau Consumer Guide". Creem. Retrieved 1 January 2014.
- Larkin, Colin (2011). "Mike Oldfield". The Encyclopedia of Popular Music (5th concise ed.). Omnibus Press. ISBN 0-85712-595-8.
- Cavanagh, David (September 2000). "Lord of the Rings". Q. No. 168. p. 126.
- Oldfield 2007, p. 145.
- Garner, Ken (2007). The Peel Sessions: A story of teenage dreams and one man's love of new music. BBC Books. p. 80. ISBN 978-1-84607-282-6.
- Clark, Al (16 June 1973). "Mike Oldfield – Tubular Bells". NME. p. 39.
- Brown, Geoff (16 June 1973). "Mike Oldfield – Tubular Bells". Melody Maker. p. 41.
- Peacock, Steve (9 June 1973). "A young Virgin will never let you down". Sounds. p. 24.
- Frith, Simon (August 1973). "Mike Oldfield: Tubular Bells; Iggy And The Stooges: Raw Power". Let It Rock. No. 11. p. 55.
- "International News". Billboard. 1 September 1973. p. 45. "The Virgin label is to be launched in the U.S. [...] First release under the new deal will be Mike Oldfield's Tubular Bells album which will be issued within the next few weeks."
- Gambaccini, Paul (8 November 1973). "Tubular Bells – Mike Oldfield". Rolling Stone. No. 147. p. 49.
- Landau, Jon (6 June 1974). "Top Twenty: The Times, They Are A-Middlin'". Rolling Stone. No. 162. p. 43. Archived from the original on 9 May 2006.
- "Winners: 17th Annual GRAMMY Awards (1974)". The Recording Academy. Retrieved 10 July 2017.
- "The 50 Best Albums of the '70s". Q. April 1998. pp. 87–91.
- "40 Cosmic Rock Albums". Q & Mojo Classic: Pink Floyd & The Story of Prog Rock. July 2005.
- "Shop". Night of the Proms. Archived from the original on 5 January 2010. Retrieved 28 January 2010.
- O'Casey 2013, 20:40.
- "N527VA". Airliners. Retrieved 3 April 2009.
- "G-VHOT". V-Flyer. Archived from the original on 18 December 2005. Retrieved 2 April 2009.
- "Virgin Money '40 years of better' by BMB". Campaign. 11 January 2012. Retrieved 20 September 2016.
- Reynolds, John (30 March 2012). "Virgin Media launches TV ad with Branson and Tennant". Campaign. Retrieved 20 September 2016.
- "Virgin Media pulls David Tennant TiVo advert". BBC. 18 April 2012. Retrieved 20 September 2016.
- "Theme from 'The Exorcist', The Sequel". Los Angeles Times. 8 October 1993. Archived from the original on 20 February 2010. Retrieved 5 April 2008.
- "Volkswagen dispels diesel myth in eerie new TV campaign". PR Week. 22 March 2002. Archived from the original on 24 February 2012. Retrieved 27 April 2009.
- "Fatal Extraction". The Only Fools and Horses Files. Retrieved 3 November 2014.
- "Top Ten Rubbish Video Games That Feature Musicians". Stylus. 23 July 2004. Retrieved 5 April 2008.
- "GamEnd". Vaz Comics. Archived from the original on 13 May 2008. Retrieved 5 April 2008.
- "Tubular Bells game". Gamerbase64. Retrieved 29 December 2008.
- "Talk time: Mike Oldfield". The Guardian. London. 31 July 2003. Retrieved 5 April 2008.
- "Tubular Bells Remix Contest". Indaba Music. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
- O'Casey 2013, 55:40.
- "Tubular Bells / In Dulci Jubilo (Music from the Opening Ceremony of the London 2012 Olympic Games)". Apple iTunes.
- "Cover versions". Rainer Meunz. Retrieved 7 February 2009.
- " Keyboards Affair – Tubolar Bells". discogs.com. 2018. Retrieved 1 January 2018.
- "Seven Churches". Metal Storm. 28 June 2005. Retrieved 7 February 2009.
- "Death Angel". Voices from the Dark Side. Retrieved 7 February 2009.
- "Claudio Simonetti – Days of Confusion". discogs. Retrieved 26 September 2009.
- "Whispers to wails, Amos dazzles". St. Petersburg Times. 8 November 2002. Retrieved 7 February 2009.
- "Bizarre Live 2000 Russia". TankTrix.ru. Archived from the original on 25 July 2009. Retrieved 7 February 2009.
- "Fear of Overlooking". XXLMag. 21 August 2009. Retrieved 9 October 2009.
- "Vicente Aleixandre of Aranjuez".
- "Paska – Women Are From Venus, Men From Anus" (in Finnish). Noise. Retrieved 7 February 2009.
- "Crown Records – Tubular Bells" (iTunes). Apple. Retrieved 9 October 2009.
- "Interview with Marcel Bergmann, author of the four piano version of Tubular Bells". mundomikeoldfield.com. 4 January 2008. Archived from the original on 11 May 2008. Retrieved 25 August 2008.
- "Echoes". Acoustic Guitar Central. Archived from the original on 19 January 2009. Retrieved 7 February 2009.
- Richard Branson (10 August 2012). "Tubular Bells for Two". Virgin Group. Archived from the original on 12 August 2012. Retrieved 10 August 2012.
- "Tubular Bells for Two". Retrieved 20 July 2012.
- "Tubular Bells For Two Shows". Retrieved 18 July 2012.
- "Charles Hazlewood's All Star Collective". Charles Hazlewood. Archived from the original on 1 March 2012. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
- "Official Albums Chart Top 100". Official Charts Company.
- Jones, Alan (5 February 2016). "Official Charts Analysis: Zayn hits No.1 with solo debut". Music Week.
- "Official Albums Chart Top 100". Official Charts Company. 26 October 2013.
- Copsey, Rob (4 July 2016). "The UK's 60 official biggest selling albums of all time revealed". Official Charts Company. Retrieved 26 July 2016.
- Kent, David. Australian Chart Book 1970–1992. St Ives, New South Wales, Australia: Australian Chart Book Ltd. p. 222. ISBN 0-646-11917-6.
- "Top Albums". RPM. Vol. 21 no. 8. 6 April 1974. Archived from the original on 16 January 2015. Retrieved 16 January 2015.
- "Dutchcharts.nl – Mike Oldfield – Tubular Bells" (in Dutch). Hung Medien.
- "Officialcharts.de – Mike Oldfield – Tubular Bells". GfK Entertainment Charts.
- "Charts.nz – Mike Oldfield – Tubular Bells". Hung Medien.
- "Mike Oldfield Chart History (Billboard 200)". Billboard.
- "Cash Box Top 100 Albums". Cash Box. 6 April 1974. p. 25.
- "Spanishcharts.com – Mike Oldfield – Tubular Bells". Hung Medien.
- Kent (1993). "Top 25 Albums 1974". p. 426.
- "The Top 100 Albums of '74". RPM. Vol. 22 no. 19. 28 December 1974. Retrieved 6 August 2016.
- Mawer, Sharon. "Album Chart History: 1974". Official UK Charts Company. Archived from the original on 17 December 2007.
- "Top Pop Albums". Billboard. 28 December 1974. ("Talent in Action" supplement, p. 16)
- "Top 100 Albums 74". Cash Box. 28 December 1974. p. 32.
- "Jaaroversichten - Album 1975". GfK Dutch Charts. Retrieved 6 August 2016.
- Mawer, Sharon. "Album Chart History: 1975". Official UK Charts Company. Archived from the original on 17 December 2007.
- "Albums of the 70's". Music Week. London, England: Spotlight Publications. 22 December 1979. p. 15.
- "The ARIA Australian Top 100 Albums Chart – Week Ending 04 Oct 1992 (61–100) (from The ARIA Report Issue No. 140)". Imgur.com (original document published by ARIA). Retrieved 11 November 2016.
- "Canadian album certifications – Mike Oldfield – Tubular Bells". Music Canada.
- "Les Certifications depuis 1973: Albums". Infodisc.fr. Retrieved 24 March 2012. (select "Mike Oldfield" from drop-down list)
- "Dutch album certifications – Mike Oldfield – Tubular Bells" (in Dutch). Nederlandse Vereniging van Producenten en Importeurs van beeld- en geluidsdragers. Enter Tubular Bells in the "Artiest of titel" box.
- "Guld- och Platinacertifikat − År 1987−1998" (PDF) (in Swedish). IFPI Sweden. Retrieved 12 May 2019.
- Copsey, Rob (13 October 2018). "The UK's Top 40 biggest studio albums of time". Official Charts Company. Retrieved 21 November 2018.
- "British album certifications – Mike Oldfield – Tubular Bells". British Phonographic Industry. Select albums in the Format field. Select Platinum in the Certification field. Type Tubular Bells in the "Search BPI Awards" field and then press Enter.
- "American album certifications – Mike Oldfield – Tubular Bells". Recording Industry Association of America. If necessary, click Advanced, then click Format, then select Album, then click SEARCH.