Carlotta Mercedes Agnes McCambridge (March 16, 1916 – March 2, 2004) was an American actress of radio, stage, film, and television. Orson Welles called her "the world's greatest living radio actress." She won an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for All the King's Men (1949) and was nominated in the same category for Giant (1956). She also provided the voice of Pazuzu (the demon) in The Exorcist (1973).
McCambridge in All the King's Men (1949)
|Born||Carlotta Mercedes Agnes McCambridge
March 16, 1916
Joliet, Illinois, U.S.
|Died||March 2, 2004
La Jolla, California, U.S.
|Spouse(s)||William Fifield (m. 1939–1946)
Fletcher Markle (m. 1950–1962)
|Children||John Lawrence Fifield Markle (1941-1987) (suicide)|
McCambridge was born in Joliet, Illinois, the daughter of Irish-American Roman Catholic parents Marie (née Mahaffry) and John Patrick McCambridge, a farmer. She graduated from Mundelein College in Chicago before embarking on a career.
McCambridge began her career as a radio actor during the 1930s while also performing on Broadway. In 1941, she played Judy's girlfriend in A Date with Judy. She had the title role in Defense Attorney, a crime drama broadcast on ABC in 1951-52. Her other work on radio included:
- episodes of Lights Out (including "It Happened", 5/11/38; "Execution", 4/27/43 and "The Word", 9/14/43)
- episodes of Inner Sanctum (including "Blood of Cain", 1/29/46, "Death's Old Sweet Song", 11/4/46, "But the Dead Walk Alone" (December 2, 1946). and "'Til Death Do Us Part", 10/27/47)
- episodes of the Bulldog Drummond radio series
- episodes of Gang Busters
- episodes of Murder at Midnight (including "The Man with the Black Beard", 5/8/50)
- episodes of Studio One (including "Anthony Adverse", 10/14/47; "Kitty Foyle", 11/4/47 and "The Thirty-Nine Steps", 3/28/48)
- episodes of Screen Directors Playhouse (including "Spellbound", 1/25/51 and "Only Yesterday", 7/5/51)
- episodes of Ford Theater (including "The Horn Blows at Midnight", 3/4/49)
- Rosemary Levy on Abie's Irish Rose
- Peggy King Martinson on This is Nora Drake (1948)
- various characters on the radio series I Love A Mystery in both its West Coast and East Coast incarnations (most notably as The Stewardess and Charity Martin in The Thing That Cries in the Night, Nasha and Laura in Bury Your Dead, Arizona, Sunny Richards in both The Million Dollar Curse and The Temple of Vampires and Jack "Jacqueline" Dempsey Ross in The Battle of the Century)
She frequently did feature roles on the CBS Radio Mystery Theater, and was an original cast member on The Guiding Light (before the Bauers took over as the central characters). She also starred in her own show, Defense Attorney on ABC 1951–52, as Martha Ellis Bryan.
McCambridge played Katherine Wells in Wire Service, a drama series that aired on ABC during 1956-7, produced by Desilu Productions. The series starred McCambridge, George Brent, and Dane Clark as reporters for the fictional Trans Globe Wire Service.
McCambridge's film career took off when she was cast as Sadie Burke opposite Broderick Crawford in All the King's Men (1949). McCambridge won the 1949 Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for her role, while the film won Best Picture for that year. McCambridge also won the Golden Globe Awards for Best Supporting Actress and New Star of the Year - Actress for her performance.
In 1954, the actress co-starred with Joan Crawford and Sterling Hayden in the offbeat western drama, Johnny Guitar, now regarded as a cult classic. McCambridge and Hayden publicly declared their dislike of Crawford, with McCambridge labeling the film's star "a mean, tipsy, powerful, rotten-egg lady."
McCambridge played the supporting role of Luz in the George Stevens classic Giant (1956), which starred Elizabeth Taylor, Rock Hudson, and James Dean. She was nominated for another Academy Award as Best Supporting Actress but lost to Dorothy Malone in Written on the Wind. In 1959, McCambridge appeared opposite Katharine Hepburn, Montgomery Clift and Elizabeth Taylor in the Joseph L. Mankiewicz film adaptation of Tennessee Williams' Suddenly, Last Summer.
McCambridge provided the dubbed voice of Pazuzu, the demon possessing the young girl Regan (played by Linda Blair) in The Exorcist. To sound as disturbing as possible, McCambridge insisted on swallowing raw eggs, chain smoking and drinking whiskey to make her voice harsh and her performance aggressive. Director William Friedkin also arranged for her to be bound to a chair during recordings, so that the demon seemed to be struggling against its restraints. According to Friedkin, she initially requested no credit for the film—fearing it would take away from the attention of Blair's performance—but later complained about her absence of credit during the film's premiere. Her dispute with Friedkin and the Warner Bros. over her exclusion ended when, with the help of the Screen Actors Guild, she was properly credited for her vocal work in the film.
In the 1970s, she toured in a road company production of Cat on a Hot Tin Roof as Big Mama, opposite John Carradine as Big Daddy. She appeared as a guest artist in college productions, such as El Centro College's 1979 The Mousetrap, in which she received top billing despite her character being murdered (by actor Jim Beaver) fewer than 15 minutes into the play.
El Centro brought her back the following year in the title role of The Madwoman of Chaillot.
She also starred with longtime character actor Lyle Talbot (of ABC's The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet) in the 1970 production of Come Back, Little Sheba in the University of North Alabama Summer Theatre Productions. In the mid-1970s, McCambridge briefly took a position as director of Livingrin, a Pennsylvania rehabilitation center for alcoholics. She was at the same time putting the finishing touches on her soon-to-be released autobiography, The Quality of Mercy: An Autobiography (Times Books, 1981), ISBN 0-8129-0945-3.
McCambridge married her first husband, William Fifield, in 1939 when she was 23 years old. The couple had a son, John Lawrence Fifield, born in December, 1941. The couple divorced in 1946 after seven years of marriage.
In 1950, when she was 34 years old, McCambridge married Canadian Fletcher Markle, an actor/producer/director who directed McCambridge in productions on Ford Theater and Studio One. Her son, John, later took Markle's name, thereafter being known as John Markle. During the marriage and afterward, McCambridge battled alcoholism, often being hospitalized after episodes of heavy drinking. She and Markle divorced in 1962, after twelve years of marriage. In 1969, after years with Alcoholics Anonymous, she achieved sobriety.
In 1979, McCambridge's son John Markle, a UCLA graduate with a Ph.D. in Economics, joined the Little Rock, Arkansas investment firm Stephens Inc. after working for Salomon Brothers in New York City. Markle was a successful futures trader, and quickly rose through the company's ranks, but in the fall of 1987, the company discovered that Markle had opened a secret account in McCambridge's name. Soon the company found that Markle had been co-mingling the accounts' funds and charging losses to the Stephens house account, while crediting all revenue from winning trades to McCambridge's account. Markle was later shown to have forged his mother's signature in opening this account.
Markle was placed on medical leave, then fired from his position at Stephens for mishandling funds. McCambridge refused to cooperate with Markle and the company in instituting a repayment scheme that would have kept the matter from becoming public. Shortly thereafter, in November 1987, Markle killed his family—his wife Christine (age 45) and daughters Amy (age 13) and Suzanne (age 9)—and then himself. He left both a note taking responsibility for his crimes and a long, bitter letter to his mother. A $5 million lawsuit was filed against Markle's estate and McCambridge claiming fraud and misappropriation of funds. Although some of the mishandled funds had been handled under McCambridge's name through Markle's power of attorney, she herself was subsequently cleared of any wrongdoing.
From 1975 to 1982, McCambridge devoted her time to the nonprofit Livengrin Foundation of Bensalem, Pennsylvania. She first served as a volunteer member of the Board of Directors, then as President and CEO, responsible for the day-to-day operations of the treatment center, which at the time was a 76-bed residential program for both male and female alcoholics. Livengrin still operates today, and has 129 beds and 8 outpatient clinics throughout southeastern Pennsylvania, treating both alcoholism and drug addiction. McCambridge, through her celebrity and larger-than-life personality, helped bring public recognition to, and acceptance of the disease of addiction, as well as the benefits of seeking treatment for the disease. She freely shared her own story of addiction and recovery as a means of reaching others in need of help.
For her contributions to television and the motion picture industry, Mercedes McCambridge has two stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame: one for motion pictures at 1722 Vine Street, and one for television at 6243 Hollywood Boulevard.
|1949||All the King's Men||Sadie Burke||Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress
Golden Globe for Best Supporting Actress
|1951||Inside Straight||Ada Stritch|
|1951||The Scarf||Connie Carter|
|1951||Lightning Strikes Twice||Liza McStringer|
|1951||Screen Snapshots: Hollywood Awards||Herself||short subject|
|1954||Johnny Guitar||Emma Small|
|1956||Giant||Luz Benedict||Nominated — Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress|
|1957||A Farewell to Arms||Miss Van Campen|
|1957||Wagon Train||Emily Rossiter||Episode: "The Emily Rossiter Story"|
|1958||Touch of Evil||Gang leader||Uncredited|
|1959||Suddenly, Last Summer||Mrs. Grace Holly|
|1960||Rawhide||Mrs Martha Mushgrove||Episode: "Incident of the Captive"|
|1960||Rawhide||Mrs Miller||Episode: "Incident of the Curious Street"|
|1959||Riverboat||Jessie Quinn||Episode: "Jessie Quinn"|
|1960||Cimarron||Mrs. Sarah Wyatt|
|1961||Angel Baby||Sarah Strand|
|1962||Rawhide||Ada Randolph||Episode: "The Greedy Town"|
|1962||Bonanza||Deborah Banning||Episode: "Lady From Baltimore"|
|1963||The Dakotas||Jay French||Episode: "Trouble at French Creek"|
|1965||Run Home Slow||Nell Hagen|
|1965||Rawhide||Ma Gufler||Episode: "Hostage for Hanging"|
|1966||Lost in Space||Sybilla||Episode: "The Space Croppers"|
|1968||The Counterfeit Killer||Frances|
|1968||Bewitched||Carlotta||Episode: "Darrin Gone! and Forgotten?"|
|1969||99 Women||Thelma Diaz|
|1971||Gunsmoke||Rubilee Mather||Episode: "The Lost"|
|1971||The Last Generation||Archive footage|
|1972||The Other Side of the Wind||Maggie||Unreleased|
|1973||The President's Plane Is Missing||Hester Madigan|
|1973||The Exorcist||Pazuzu||Voice only|
|1975||Who is the Black Dahlia?||Grandmother|
|1978||Charlie's Angels||Norma||Episode: "Angels in Springtime"|
|1978||Flying High||Claire||Episode: "In the Still of the Night"|
|1979||The Concorde ... Airport '79||Nelli|
|1981||Magnum, P.I.||Agatha Kimball||Episode: "Don't Say Goodbye"|
|1986||Amazing Stories||Miss Lestrange (Voice)||Episode: "Family Dog"|
|1988||Cagney & Lacey||Sister Elizabeth||Episode: "Land of the Free"|
- Bergan, Ronald (19 March 2004). "Obituary: Mercedes McCambridge". The Guardian. Retrieved 2018-02-23.
- Lackmann, Ronald W. (2005). Mercedes Mccambridge: A Biography And Career Record. McFarland. pp. 7–10. ISBN 0-7864-1979-2.
- "Mercedes McCambridge, 87, Actress Known for Strong Roles". The New York Times. NYTimes.com. March 18, 2004. Retrieved 2013-10-24.
- "Mercedes McCambridge Biography (1918-)". Filmreference.com. Retrieved 2013-10-24.
- "The Exorcist actress Mercedes McCambridge dies at 85". USA Today. March 17, 2004. Retrieved 2013-10-24.
- H.W. Wilson Company (1965). Current Biography Yearbook. H. W. Wilson Co. ISSN 0084-9499. Retrieved 2014-10-15.
- "(photo caption)". The Lincoln Star. July 6, 1941. p. 36. Retrieved July 10, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
- Dunning, John. (1998). On the Air: The Encyclopedia of Old-Time Radio. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-507678-3. P. 196.
- "Dead Walk Alone On Inner Sanctum". Harrisburg Telegraph. November 30, 1946. p. 17. Retrieved September 12, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
- Terrace, Vincent (2003). Radio Program Openings and Closings, 1931-1972. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc. p. 67. ISBN 978-0-7864-4925-5. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
- Cox, Jim (2005). The A to Z of American Radio Soap Operas. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press, Inc. pp. 78–79. ISBN 978-0-8108-6833-5. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
- SMITH, MARK CHALON (1991-02-28). "FILM : 'Johnny Guitar' Pulls Some Kinky Strings". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved 2018-02-24.
- Friedkin, William (2013). The Friedkin Connection: A Memoir. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-006177512-3. Retrieved 2013-10-24.
- "Murders on Main". Arkansas Online. Retrieved 2018-02-24.
- "15 Years Later, Murder-Suicide Fades From View (Fifth Monday)". Arkansas Business. Retrieved 2018-02-24.
- Lackmann, Ronald W. Mercedes Mccambridge: A Biography And Career Record. McFarland & Company. 2005. ISBN 0-7864-1979-2.
- McCambridge, Mercedes. The Quality of Mercy: An Autobiography. Times Books, 1981. ISBN 0-8129-0945-3.
- Terrace, Vincent. Radio Programs, 1924–1984. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland, 1999. ISBN 0-7864-0351-9.