Laurel and Hardy
Laurel and Hardy were a comedy double act during the early Classical Hollywood era of American cinema. The team was composed of Englishman Stan Laurel (1890–1965) and American Oliver Hardy (1892–1957). They became well known during the late 1920s through the mid-1940s for their slapstick comedy, with Laurel playing the clumsy and childlike friend of the pompous bully Hardy. The duo's signature tune is known variously as "The Cuckoo Song", "Ku-Ku", or "The Dance of the Cuckoos". It was played over the opening credits of their films and has become as emblematic of the duo as their bowler hats.
|Laurel and Hardy|
|Notable works and roles||The Music Box, Babes in Toyland, Way Out West, Helpmates, Another Fine Mess, Sons of the Desert, Block-Heads, Busy Bodies|
|Memorial(s)||Ulverston, Cumbria, England|
|Former members||Stan Laurel|
Prior to emerging as a team, both actors had well-established film careers. Laurel had appeared in over 50 films as an actor (while also working as a writer and director), while Hardy had been in more than 250 productions. The two comedians had previously worked together as cast members on the film The Lucky Dog in 1921. However, they were not a comedy team at that time and it was not until 1926 that they appeared in a movie short together, when both separately signed contracts with the Hal Roach film studio. Laurel and Hardy officially became a team in 1927 when they appeared together in the silent short film Putting Pants on Philip. They remained with the Roach studio until 1940 and then appeared in eight "B" movie comedies for 20th Century Fox and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer from 1941 to 1945. After finishing their movie commitments at the end of 1944, they concentrated on performing in stage shows and embarked on a music hall tour of England, Ireland, and Scotland. They made their last film in 1950, a French-Italian co-production called Atoll K.
They appeared as a team in 107 films, starring in 32 short silent films, 40 short sound films, and 23 full-length feature films. They also made 12 guest or cameo appearances that included the Galaxy of Stars promotional film of 1936. On December 1, 1954, the pair made one American television appearance when they were surprised and interviewed by Ralph Edwards on his live NBC-TV program This Is Your Life. Since the 1930s, the works of Laurel and Hardy have been released in numerous theatrical reissues, television revivals, 8-mm and 16-mm home movies, feature-film compilations, and home videos. In 2005, they were voted the seventh-greatest comedy act of all time by a UK poll of fellow comedians. The official Laurel and Hardy appreciation society is known as The Sons of the Desert which was named after a fictitious fraternal society featured in the Laurel and Hardy film Sons of the Desert.
Stan Laurel (June 16, 1890 – February 23, 1965) was born Arthur Stanley Jefferson in Ulverston, Lancashire (today Cumbria), England into a theatrical family. His father Arthur Joseph Jefferson was a theatrical entrepreneur and theatre owner in northern England and Scotland who, with his wife, was a major force in the industry. In 1905, the Jefferson family moved to Glasgow to be closer to their business mainstay of the Metropole Theatre, and Laurel made his stage debut in a Glasgow hall called the Britannia Panopticon one month short of his 16th birthday. Arthur Jefferson secured Laurel his first acting job with the juvenile theatrical company of Levy and Cardwell, which specialized in Christmas Pantomimes. In 1909, Laurel was employed by Britain's leading comedy impresario Fred Karno as a supporting actor, and as an understudy for Charlie Chaplin. Laurel said of Karno, "There was no one like him. He had no equal. His name was box-office."
In 1912, Laurel left England with the Fred Karno Troupe to tour the United States. Laurel had expected the tour to be merely a pleasant interval before returning to London; however, he migrated to the U.S. during the trip. In 1917, Laurel was teamed with Mae Dahlberg as a double act for stage and film; they were living as common law husband and wife. The same year, Laurel made his film debut with Dahlberg in Nuts in May. While working with Mae, he began using the name "Stan Laurel" and changed his name legally in 1931. Dahlberg demanded roles in his films, and her tempestuous nature made her difficult to work with. Dressing room arguments were common between the two; it was reported that producer Joe Rock paid her to leave Laurel and to return to her native Australia. In 1925, Laurel joined the Hal Roach film studio as a director and writer. From May 1925 until September 1926, he received credit in at least 22 films. Laurel starred in over 50 films for various producers before teaming up with Hardy. Prior to that, he experienced only modest success. It was difficult for producers, writers, and directors to write for his character, with American audiences knowing him either as a "nutty burglar" or as a Charlie Chaplin imitator.
Oliver Hardy (January 18, 1892 – August 7, 1957) was born Norvell Hardy in Harlem, Georgia. By his late teens, Hardy was a popular stage singer and he operated a movie house in Milledgeville, Georgia, the Palace Theater, financed in part by his mother. For his stage name, he took his father's first name calling himself "Oliver Norvell Hardy" while offscreen his nicknames were "Ollie" and "Babe". The nickname "Babe" originated from an Italian barber near the Lubin Studios in Jacksonville, Florida who would rub Hardy's face with talcum powder and say "That's nice-a baby!" Other actors in the Lubin company mimicked this and Hardy was billed as "Babe Hardy" in his early films.
Seeing film comedies inspired an urge to take up comedy himself and, in 1913, he began working with Lubin Motion Pictures in Jacksonville. He started by helping around the studio with lights, props, and other duties, gradually learning the craft as a script-clerk for the company. It was around this time that Hardy married his first wife Madelyn Salosihn. In 1914, Hardy was billed as "Babe Hardy" in his first film, Outwitting Dad. Between 1914 and 1916 Hardy made 177 shorts as Babe with the Vim Comedy Company that were released up to the end of 1917. Exhibiting a versatility in playing heroes, villains and even female characters, Hardy was in demand for roles as a supporting actor, comic villain or second banana. For 10 years he memorably assisted star comic and Charlie Chaplin imitator Billy West, Jimmy Aubrey, Larry Semon, and Charley Chase. In total, Hardy starred or co-starred in more than 250 silent shorts of which roughly 150 have been lost. He was rejected for enlistment by the Army during World War I due to his size. In 1917, after the collapse of the Florida film industry, Hardy and his wife Madelyn moved to California to seek new opportunities.
History as Laurel and HardyEdit
Hal Roach has described how the two actors came together as a team. First, Hardy had already been working for Roach (and others), when Roach who had seen Laurel in vaudeville, hired Laurel. Laurel has very light blue eyes, and Roach discovered that due to the technology of the film at that time Laurel's eyes wouldn't photograph properly — blue photographed as white. This problem is apparent in their first silent film together, The Lucky Dog, in which an attempt was made to compensate for the problem by making-up Laurel's eyes very heavily. For about a year Roach had Laurel work at the studio as a writer. Then panchromatic film was developed, they did a test for Laurel, and found that the problem was solved. So they put Laurel and Hardy together in a film, and the two seemed to complement each other. Usually comedy teams were composed of a straight man and a funny man, and these two were both comedians — but they both knew how to play the straight man when the script needed it. Roach said, "You could always cut to a close-up of either one, and their reaction was good for another laugh."
Style of comedy and characterizationsEdit
The humor of Laurel and Hardy was highly visual, with slapstick used for emphasis. They often had physical arguments with each other (in character), which were quite complex and involved cartoon violence, and their characters precluded them from making any real progress in the simplest endeavors. Much of their comedy involves milking a joke, where a simple idea provides a basis from which to build multiple gags without following a defined narrative.
Stan Laurel was of average height and weight, but appeared small and slight next to Oliver Hardy, who was 6 ft 1 in (185 cm) tall and weighed about 280 lb (127 kg) in his prime. They used some details to enhance this natural contrast. Laurel kept his hair short on the sides and back, growing it long on top to create a natural "fright wig". At times of shock, he would simultaneously cry while pulling up his hair. In contrast, Hardy's thinning hair was pasted on his forehead in spit curls and he sported a toothbrush moustache. To achieve a flat-footed walk, Laurel removed the heels from his shoes. Both wore bowler hats, with Laurel's being narrower than Hardy's, and with a flattened brim. The characters' normal attire called for wing collar shirts, with Hardy wearing a neck tie which he would twiddle and Laurel a bow tie. Hardy's sports jacket was a tad small and done up with one straining button, whereas Laurel's double-breasted jacket was loose fitting.
A popular routine the team performed was a "tit-for-tat" fight with an adversary. This could be with their wives—often played by Mae Busch, Anita Garvin, or Daphne Pollard—or with a neighbor, often played by Charlie Hall or James Finlayson. Laurel and Hardy would accidentally damage someone's property, and the injured party would retaliate by ruining something belonging to Laurel or Hardy. After calmly surveying the damage, they would find something else to vandalize, and the conflict would escalate until both sides were simultaneously destroying items in front of each other. An early example of the routine occurs in their classic short, Big Business (1929), which was added to the National Film Registry in 1992. Another short film which revolves around such an altercation was titled Tit for Tat (1935).
One of their best-remembered dialogues was the "Tell me that again" routine. Laurel would tell Hardy a genuinely smart idea he came up with, and Hardy would reply, "Tell me that again." Laurel would attempt to repeat the idea, but babble utter nonsense. Hardy, who had difficulty understanding Laurel's idea when expressed clearly, would understand the jumbled version perfectly. While much of their comedy remained visual, various lines of humorous dialogue appeared in Laurel and Hardy's talking films. Some examples include:
- "You can lead a horse to water but a pencil must be led." (Laurel, Brats)
- "I was dreaming I was awake but I woke up and found meself asleep." (Laurel, Oliver the Eighth)
- "A lot of weather we've been having lately." (Hardy, Way Out West)
In some cases, their comedy bordered on the surreal, in a style that Stan Laurel called "white magic". For example, in the 1937 film Way Out West, Laurel clenches his fist and pours tobacco into it as if it were a pipe. He then flicks his thumb upward as if working a lighter. His thumb ignites and he matter-of-factly lights his "pipe". Amazed at seeing this, Hardy unsuccessfully attempts to duplicate it throughout the film. Much, later he finally succeeds, only to be terrified when his thumb catches fire. Laurel repeats the pipe joke in the 1938 film Block-Heads, again to Hardy's bemusement. This time, the joke ends when a match Laurel was using relights itself, Hardy throws it into the fireplace, and it explodes with a loud bang.
Rather than showing Hardy suffering the pain of misfortunes, such as falling down stairs or being beaten by a thug, banging and crashing sound effects were often used so the audience could visualize the scene themselves. The 1927 film Sailors Beware was a significant film for Hardy because two of his enduring trademarks were developed. The first was his "tie twiddle" to demonstrate embarrassment. Hardy, while acting, had been met with a pail of water in the face. He said, "I had been expecting it, but I didn't expect it at that particular moment. It threw me mentally and I couldn't think what to do next, so I waved the tie in a kind of tiddly-widdly fashion to show embarrassment while trying to look friendly." His second trademark was the "camera look", in which he breaks the fourth wall. Hardy said: "I had to become exasperated so I just stared right into the camera and registered my disgust." Offscreen, Laurel and Hardy were quite the opposite of their movie characters: Laurel was the industrious "idea man", while Hardy was more easygoing.
The catchphrase most used by Laurel and Hardy on film is: "Well, here's another nice mess you've gotten me into!" The phrase was earlier used by W. S. Gilbert in both The Mikado from 1885 and The Grand Duke from 1896. It was first used by Hardy in The Laurel-Hardy Murder Case in 1930. In popular culture the catchphrase is often misquoted as "Well, here's another fine mess you've gotten me into." The misquoted version of the phrase was never used by Hardy and the misunderstanding stems from the title of their film Another Fine Mess. Numerous variations of the quote appeared on film. For example, in Chickens Come Home Ollie says impatiently to Stan "Well. ... " with Stan replying, "Here's another nice mess I've gotten you into." The films Thicker than Water and The Fixer-Uppers use the phrase "Well, here's another nice kettle of fish you pickled me in!" In Saps at Sea the phrase becomes "Well, here's another nice bucket of suds you've gotten me into!"
Another regular catchphrase, cried out by Ollie in moments of distress or frustration, as Stan stands helplessly by, is "Why don't you do something to help me?" Another, not-as-often used catchphrase of Ollie's, particularly after Stan has accidentally given a verbal idea to an adversary of theirs to torment them even more is, "Why don't you keep your (big) mouth shut?!"
"D'oh!" is a catchphrase used by the mustachioed Scottish actor James Finlayson who appeared in 33 Laurel and Hardy films. The phrase, expressing surprise, impatience, or incredulity, was the inspiration for "D'oh!" as spoken by the actor Dan Castelleneta portraying the character Homer Simpson in the long-running animated comedy The Simpsons. Homer's first intentional use of "d'oh!" occurred in the Ullman short "Punching Bag" (1988). In Laurel and Hardy's first sound film, Unaccustomed As We Are, Hardy uses the expression when his character's wife smashes a record over his head.
The first film pairing of the two, although as separate performers, took place in the silent film The Lucky Dog in 1921. The exact date the film was produced is not recorded but film historian Bo Bergulund dated it between late 1920 and January 1921. The association was casual, according to interviews given in the 1930s, and both of them had forgotten it entirely. The plot sees Laurel's character befriended by a stray dog which, after some lucky escapes, saves him from being blown up by dynamite. Hardy's character is a mugger attempting to rob Laurel. Several years later both comedians separately signed with the Hal Roach film studio and next appeared in the 1926 film 45 Minutes From Hollywood.
Hal Roach was considered to be the most important person in the development of their film careers. He brought the team together and they worked for Hal Roach Studios for over 20 years. Charley Rogers worked closely with the three men for many years and said, "It could not have happened if Laurel, Hardy and Roach had not met at the right place and the right time." Their first "official" film together as a team was Putting Pants on Philip, released on December 3, 1927. The plot involves Laurel as Philip, a young Scots man newly arrived in the United States, in full kilted splendor, suffering mishaps involving the kilt. His uncle, played by Hardy, is shown trying to put trousers on him. Also, in 1927, the pair starred in The Battle of the Century, a lost but now found classic short, which involved over 3,000 cream pies.
Laurel said to the duo's biographer John McCabe: "Of all the questions we're asked, the most frequent is how did we come together? I always explain that we came together naturally." Laurel and Hardy were joined by accident and grew by indirection. In 1926, both were part of the Roach Comedy All Stars which was a group of actors of similar standing who took part in a series of films. Quite unwittingly Laurel and Hardy's parts grew larger while those of their fellow stars diminished because Laurel and Hardy were considered to be great actors. Their teaming up was suggested by Leo McCarey who was their supervising director from 1927 and 1930. It was during this period that McCarey and Laurel jointly devised the team's format. McCarey also influenced the slowing down of their comedy to a more natural pace. After teaming up they played the same characters for 30 years.
Although Hal Roach employed writers and directors such as H. M. Walker, Leo McCarey, James Parrott and James W. Horne on the Laurel and Hardy films, Laurel would rewrite entire sequences or scripts. He would also have the cast and crew improvise on the sound stage; he would then meticulously review the footage during the editing process. By 1929 Laurel was the head writer and it was reported that the writing sessions were gleefully chaotic. Stan had three or four writers who joined in a perpetual game of 'Can You Top This?' As Laurel obviously relished writing gags, Hardy was more than happy to leave the job to his partner and was once quoted as saying "After all, just doing the gags was hard enough work, especially if you have taken as many falls and been dumped in as many mudholes as I have. I think I earned my money". From this point, Laurel was an uncredited film director for their films. He ran the Laurel and Hardy set, no matter who was in the director's chair, but never felt compelled to assert his authority. Roach remarked: "Laurel bossed the production. With any director, if Laurel said 'I don't like this idea,' the director didn't say 'Well, you're going to do it anyway.' That was understood." As Laurel made so many suggestions there was not much left for the credited director to do.
In 1929 the silent era of film was coming to an end, and many actors saw their careers decline with the advent of sound. Many silent film actors failed to make the transition because they decided their prime duty was to tell stories in words or they overemphasized their speech. Laurel and Hardy avoided this pitfall because they continued making primarily visual films. They did not ignore sound but were not ruled by it. As a team they proved skilful in their melding of visual and verbal humor and made a seamless transition to the talking era in their first sound film Unaccustomed As We Are from 1929. The title took its name from the familiar phrase "Unaccustomed as we are to public speaking". In the opening dialogue, Laurel and Hardy began by spoofing the slow and self-conscious speech of the early talking actors which became a routine they would use regularly.
The first feature film starring Laurel and Hardy was Pardon Us from 1931. The following year The Music Box, whose plot revolved around the pair pushing a piano up a long flight of steps, won an Academy Award for Best Live Action Short Subject. While many enthusiasts claim the superiority of The Music Box, their 1929 silent film Big Business is by far the most consistently acclaimed. The plot of this film sees Laurel and Hardy as Christmas tree salesman involved in a classic tit-for-tat battle with a character played by James Finlayson that eventually destroys his house and their car. Big Business was added to the National Film Registry in the United States as a national treasure in 1992. The film Sons of the Desert from 1933 is often claimed to be Laurel and Hardy's best feature-length film. A number of their films were reshot with Laurel and Hardy speaking in Spanish, Italian, French or German. The plots for these films were similar to the English-language version although the supporting cast were often native language speaking actors. While Laurel and Hardy could not speak these foreign languages they received voice coaching for their lines. The film Pardon Us from 1931 was reshot in all four foreign languages while the films Blotto, Hog Wild and Be Big! were made in French and Spanish versions. Night Owls was made in both Spanish and Italian and Below Zero along with Chickens Come Home were only made in Spanish.
The 1934 film Babes in Toyland remains a perennial on American television during the Christmas season. When interviewed Hal Roach spoke scathingly about the film and Laurel's behavior during the production. Laurel was unhappy with the plot, and after an argument was allowed to make the film his way. The rift damaged Roach-Laurel relations to the point that Roach said that after Toyland, he no longer wished to produce Laurel and Hardy films. Nevertheless, their association continued for another six years. Hoping for greater artistic freedom, Laurel and Hardy split with Roach.
Laurel and Hardy signed with 20th Century-Fox in 1941 (as well as Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer in 1942). However, the working conditions were now completely different as they were hired simply as actors, relegated to the B-film divisions, and were initially not allowed to improvise or contribute to the scripts. When the films proved popular the studios allowed the team more input and Laurel and Hardy starred in eight features until 1944. These films, while considered far from the team's best work, were still financially very successful. The films, budgeted between $250,000 and $300,000 each, earned millions at the box office. The Fox films were so profitable that the studio kept making Laurel and Hardy comedies after Fox discontinued its other "B" series films.
The year 1946 was a year of rest but 1947 included their first European tour in 15 years. A film named "Robin Hood" was planned to be filmed during the tour but was not realized.
The team in limbo, Stan still encouraged Babe to take big and small movie parts. Hardy pal John Wayne hired Babe to co star in The Fighting Kentuckian for Republic Pictures, and Bing Crosby got him a small part in Frank Capra's Riding High.
In 1950–51, Laurel and Hardy made their final feature-length film together, Atoll K. This film was a French-Italian co-production directed by Leo Joannon, but was plagued by problems with language barriers, production issues, and the serious health issues of both Laurel and Hardy. During the filming, Hardy began to lose weight precipitously and developed an irregular heartbeat. Laurel was experiencing painful prostate complications as well. Critics were disappointed with the storyline, English dubbing and Laurel's sickly physical appearance in the film. The final draft of the script was handed to Laurel upon arrival, which he found objectionable. He quickly rewrote the screenplay and hired old American friend, Alf Goulding, to direct the Laurel and Hardy scenes, considered to be their best footage since Hal Roach in terms of being faithful to their individual characterizations. The film was not a success and it brought an end to Laurel and Hardy's film careers.
After Atoll K wrapped around April 1951, the team used the remainder of the year to rest. Stan did take part in a silent newsreel, Swim Meet, in character, as co-director of a local California contest.
Most Laurel and Hardy films have survived and have not gone out of circulation permanently. Three of their 107 films are considered lost and have not been seen in their complete form since the 1930s. The silent film Hats Off from 1927 has vanished completely. The first half of the 1927 film Now I'll Tell One is lost and the second half has yet to be released on video. In the 1930 operatic Technicolor musical The Rogue Song, Laurel and Hardy appear in 10 sequences and only one of which is known to exist with the complete soundtrack.
Following the making of Atoll K, Laurel and Hardy took some months off, allowing Laurel to recuperate. Upon their return to the European stage in 1952, they undertook a well-received series of public appearances, performing a short sketch Laurel had written called "A Spot of Trouble". Hoping to repeat the success the following year Laurel wrote a routine entitled "Birds of a Feather". On September 9, 1953, their boat arrived in Cobh in the Republic of Ireland. Laurel recounted their reception:
The love and affection we found that day at Cobh was simply unbelievable. There were hundreds of boats blowing whistles and mobs and mobs of people screaming on the docks. We just couldn't understand what it was all about. And then something happened that I can never forget. All the church bells in Cobh started to ring out our theme song "Dance of the Cuckoos" and Babe (Oliver Hardy) looked at me and we cried. I'll never forget that day. Never.
While on tour of Britain and Ireland in 1953, Stan and Babe appeared on radio in Ireland and on a live BBC television broadcast of the popular show Face the Music with host Henry Hall a week later. These shows do not appear to have been preserved on record, tape, or kinescope, but notes from the Face The Music television appearance have been recently discovered. According to the notes, Ollie informs Stan that the television program has an audience of six million and that host Henry Hall is "going to introduce us to them". To which Stan replies "That's going to take a long time, isn't it?"
On May 17, 1954, the pair made their last live stage performance in Plymouth, UK at the Palace Theatre. On December 1, 1954, the team made their only American television appearance when they were surprised and interviewed by Ralph Edwards on his live NBC-TV program This Is Your Life. Lured to the Knickerbocker Hotel as a subterfuge for a business meeting with producer Bernard Delfont the doors opened to their suite #205, flooding the room with light and the voice of Edwards. This telecast was preserved on a kinescope and later released on home video. Partly due to the positive response from the television broadcast the pair was renegotiating with Hal Roach, Jr. for a series of color NBC Television specials to be called Laurel and Hardy's Fabulous Fables. However, plans for the specials had to be shelved as the aging comedians continued to suffer from declining health. In 1955, Laurel and Hardy made their final public appearance together while taking part in the program This Is Music Hall. This was a BBC Television program about the Grand Order of Water Rats, a British variety organization. Laurel and Hardy provided a filmed insert in which they reminisce about their friends in British variety. They made their final appearance on camera in 1956 in a private home movie, shot by a family friend at the Reseda, CA home of Stan Laurel's daughter, Lois. It contains no audio and is three minutes in length.
In 1956, while following his doctor's orders to improve his health due to a heart condition, Hardy lost over 100 pounds (45 kg; 7.1 st). However, he suffered several strokes that resulted in the loss of mobility and speech. Despite having a long and successful career, it was reported that Hardy's home was sold to help cover the cost of his medical expenses during this time. He died of a stroke on August 7, 1957, and longtime friend Bob Chatterton stated that Hardy weighed just 138 pounds (63 kg; 9.9 st) at the time of his death. Hardy was laid to rest at Pierce Brothers' Valhalla Memorial Park, North Hollywood. Following Hardy's death, Laurel and Hardy's films were returned to movie theaters as clips of their work were featured in Robert Youngson's silent-film compilation The Golden Age of Comedy.
For the remaining eight years of his life, Stan Laurel refused to perform and even turned down Stanley Kramer's offer of a cameo in his landmark 1963 movie It's a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World. In 1960, Laurel was given a special Academy Award for his contributions to film comedy but was unable to attend the ceremony, due to poor health, and actor Danny Kaye accepted the award for him. Despite not appearing onscreen after Hardy's death, Laurel did contribute gags to several comedy filmmakers. During this period most of his communication was in the form of written correspondence and he insisted on answering every fan letter personally. Late in life, he hosted visitors of the new generation of comedians and celebrities including Dick Cavett, Jerry Lewis, Peter Sellers, Marcel Marceau, and Dick Van Dyke. Laurel lived until 1965 and survived to see the duo's work rediscovered through television and classic film revivals. He died on February 23 in Santa Monica and is buried at Forest Lawn-Hollywood Hills in Los Angeles, California.
Supporting cast membersEdit
Laurel and Hardy's films included a supporting cast of comic actors, some of whom appeared regularly.
- Harry Bernard played bit parts as a waiter, a bartender or a cop.
- Mae Busch often played the formidable Mrs. Hardy and other characters, particularly sultry femme fatales.
- Charley Chase, the Hal Roach film star and brother of James Parrott, a writer/director of several Laurel and Hardy films, made four appearances.
- Dorothy Coburn appeared in nearly a dozen early silent shorts.
- Baldwin Cooke played bit parts as a waiter, a bartender or a cop.
- Richard Cramer appeared as a scowling, menacing villain or opponent.
- Peter Cushing, well before becoming a star in Hammer Horror films, made an appearance in A Chump at Oxford.
- Bobby Dunn appeared as a cross-eyed bartender and telegram messenger, as well as the genial shoplifter in Tit for Tat.
- Eddie Dunn made several appearances, notably as the belligerent taxi driver in Me and My Pal.
- James Finlayson, a balding, mustachioed Scotsman known for displays of indignation and squinting, pop-eyed "double takes," made 33 appearances and is perhaps their most celebrated foil.
- Anita Garvin appeared in a number of Laurel and Hardy films, often cast as Mrs. Laurel.
- Billy Gilbert made many appearances, most notably as bombastic, blustery foreign characters such as those in The Music Box (1932) and Block-Heads.
- Charlie Hall, who usually played angry, diminutive adversaries, appeared nearly 50 times.
- Jean Harlow had a small role in the silent short Double Whoopee (1929) and two other films in the early part of her career.
- Arthur Housman made several appearances as a comic drunk.
- Isabelle Keith was the only actress to appear as wife to both Laurel and Hardy (in Perfect Day and Be Big!, respectively).
- Edgar Kennedy, master of the "slow burn," often appeared as a cop, a hostile neighbor or a relative.
- Walter Long played grizzled, unshaven, physically threatening villains.
- Sam Lufkin appeared several times, usually as a cop or streetcar conductor.
- Charles Middleton made a handful of appearances, usually as a sourpuss adversary.
- James C. Morton appeared as a bartender or exasperated policeman.
- Vivien Oakland appeared in several early silent films, and later talkies including Scram! and Way Out West.
- Blanche Payson was featured in several sound shorts, including Oliver's formidable wife in Helpmates.
- Daphne Pollard was featured as Oliver's diminutive but daunting wife.
- Viola Richard appeared in several early silent films, most notably as the beautiful cave girl in Flying Elephants (1928).
- Charley Rogers, an English actor and gag writer, appeared several times.
- Tiny Sandford was a tall, burly, physically imposing character actor who played authority figures, notably cops.
- Thelma Todd appeared several times before her own career as a leading lady comedienne.
- Ben Turpin, the cross-eyed Mack Sennett comedy star, made two memorable appearances.
- Ellinor Vanderveer made many appearances as a dowager, high society matron or posh party guest.
The duo's famous signature tune, known variously as "The Cuckoo Song", "Ku-Ku" or "The Dance of the Cuckoos", was composed by Roach musical director Marvin Hatley as the on-the-hour chime for the Roach studio radio station. Laurel heard the tune on the station and asked Hatley if they could use it as the Laurel and Hardy theme song. The original theme, recorded by two clarinets in 1930, was recorded again with a full orchestra in 1935. Leroy Shield composed the majority of the music used in the Laurel and Hardy short sound films. A compilation of songs from their films, titled Trail of the Lonesome Pine, was released in 1975. The title track was released as a single in the UK and reached #2 in the charts.
Influence and legacyEdit
Laurel and Hardy's influence over a very broad range of comedy and other genres has been considerable. Writers, artists and performers as diverse as Samuel Beckett, Jerry Lewis, Peter Sellers, Marcel Marceau Steve Martin, John Cleese, Harold Pinter, Alec Guinness, J. D. Salinger, Rene Magritte and Kurt Vonnegut amongst many others, have acknowledged an artistic debt. The exposure on television of (especially) their short films from the 1960s onwards has ensured a continued influence on generations of comedians born after both their deaths.
Posthumous revivals and popular cultureEdit
Since the 1930s, the works of Laurel and Hardy have been released again in numerous theatrical reissues, television revivals (broadcast, especially public television and cable), 16 mm and 8 mm home movies, feature-film compilations and home video. After Stan Laurel's death in 1965, there were two major motion-picture tributes: Laurel and Hardy's Laughing '20s was Robert Youngson's compilation of the team's silent-film highlights, and The Great Race was a large-scale salute to slapstick that director Blake Edwards dedicated to "Mr. Laurel and Mr. Hardy". For many years the duo were impersonated by Jim MacGeorge (as Laurel) and Chuck McCann (as Hardy) in children's TV shows and television commercials for various products. Numerous colorized versions of copyright-free Laurel and Hardy features and shorts have been reproduced by a multitude of production studios. Although the results of adding color were often in dispute, many popular titles are currently only available in the colorized version. The color process often renders the print into an unwatchable state, with some scenes being altered or deleted, depending on the source material used. Their film Helpmates was the first film to undergo the process and was released by Colorization Inc., a subsidiary of Hal Roach Studios, in 1983. Colorization was a success for the studio and Helpmates was released on home video with the colorized version of The Music Box in 1986.
There are three Laurel and Hardy museums. One is in Laurel's birthplace, Ulverston, United Kingdom and another one is in Hardy's birthplace, Harlem, Georgia, United States. The third one is located in Solingen, Germany. Maurice Sendak showed three identical Oliver Hardy figures as bakers preparing cakes for the morning in his award-winning 1970 children's book In the Night Kitchen. This is treated as a clear example[by whom?] of "interpretative illustration" wherein the comedians' inclusion harked back to the author's childhood.[Note 1] The Beatles used cut-outs of Stan Laurel and Oliver Hardy in the cutout celebrity crowd for the cover of their 1967 album Sergeant Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band. A 2005 poll by fellow comedians and comedy insiders of the top 50 comedians for The Comedian's Comedian, a TV documentary broadcast on UK's Channel 4, voted the duo the seventh-greatest comedy act ever, making them the top double act on the list.
Merchandiser Larry Harmon claimed ownership of Laurel's and Hardy's likenesses and has issued Laurel and Hardy toys and coloring books. He also co-produced a series of Laurel and Hardy cartoons in 1966 with Hanna-Barbera Productions. His animated versions of Laurel and Hardy guest-starred in a 1972 episode of Hanna-Barbera's The New Scooby-Doo Movies. In 1999, Harmon produced a direct-to-video feature live-action comedy entitled The All-New Adventures of Laurel and Hardy: For Love or Mummy. Actors Bronson Pinchot and Gailard Sartain were cast playing the lookalike nephews of Laurel and Hardy named Stanley Thinneus Laurel and Oliver Fatteus Hardy.
The Indian comedy duo Ghory and Dixit was known as the Indian Laurel and Hardy. In 2011 the German/French TV station Arte released. in co-production with the German TV station ZDF the 90-minute documentary Laurel & Hardy: Their Lives and Magic. The film, titled in the original German Laurel and Hardy: Die komische Liebesgeschichte von "Dick & Doof", was written and directed by German film-maker Andreas Baum. It includes many movie clips, rare and unpublished photographs, interviews with family, fans, friends, showbiz pals and newly recovered footage. Laurel´s daughter Lois Laurel Hawes said of the film: "The best documentary about Laurel and Hardy I have ever seen!". It has also been released as a Director´s Cut with a length of 105 minutes, plus 70 minutes of bonus materials on DVD.
The official Laurel and Hardy appreciation society is known as The Sons of the Desert, after a fraternal society in their film of the same name (1933). It was founded in New York City in 1965 by Laurel and Hardy biographers John McCabe, Orson Bean, Al Kilgore, Chuck McCann, and John Municino with the sanction of Stan Laurel. Since the group's inception, well over 150 chapters of the organization have formed across North America, Europe, and Australia. An Emmy-winning film documentary about the group, Revenge of the Sons of the Desert, has been released on DVD as part of The Laurel and Hardy Collection, Vol. 1.
Around the worldEdit
Laurel and Hardy are popular around the world but are known under different names in various countries and languages.
|Iran||(لورل و هاردی) (Laurel and Hardy)|
|Poland||"Flip i Flap" (Flip and Flap)|
|Germany||"Dick und Doof" (Chubby and Dumb)|
|Brazil||"O Gordo e o Magro" (The Fat and the Skinny)|
|Sweden and Norway||"Helan och Halvan" (The Whole and the Half)|
|Spain||"El Gordo y el Flaco" (The Fat and the Skinny)|
|Italy||"Stanlio e Ollio" also as "Cric e Croc" up to the 1970s|
|Hungary||"Stan és Pan" (Stan and Pan)|
|Romania||"Stan și Bran" (Stan and Bran)|
|The Netherlands, Flemish Belgium||"Laurel en Hardy", "Stan en Ollie", "De Dikke en de Dunne" (The Fat and the Skinny)|
|Denmark||"Gøg og Gokke" (Roughly translates to Wacky and Pompous)|
|Portugal||"O Bucha e o Estica" (The Fat and the Skinny)|
|Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia||"Stanlio i Olio"|
|Slovenia||"Stan in Olio"|
|Greece||"Hondros kai Lignos" (Χοντρός και Λιγνός) (Fat and Skinny)|
|India (Marathi)||Jaadya Aani Radya (जाड्या आणि रड्या) (Stout and Worrywart)|
|Finland||Ohukainen ja Paksukainen (Thin one and Thick one)|
|Iceland||"Steini og Olli"|
|Israel||"השמן והרזה" (The Fat and the Skinny)|
|Vietnam (South)||"Mập - Ốm" (The Fat and the Skinny)|
|Korea (South)||"뚱뚱이와 홀쭉이" (The Fat and the Skinny)|
|Malta||"L-Oħxon u l-Irqiq" ("The Fat and the Thin One")|
- "Laurel and Hardy." Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved: June 12, 2011.
- Rawlngs, Nate. "Top 10 across-the-pond duos." Time Magazine July 20, 2010. Retrieved: June 18, 2012.
- Smith 1984, p. 24.
- McGarry 1992, p. 67.
- Seguin, Chris. "Forgotten Laurel & Hardy film emerges on French DVD." The Laurel & Hardy Magazine, December 3, 2013.
- "Cook voted 'comedians' comedian'." BBC News, 2 January 2005. Retrieved: 3 December 2013.
- Louvish 2002, p. 11.
- Louvish 2002, p. 14.
- Louvish 2002, p. 22.
- Mitchell 2010, p. 200.
- Louvish 2002, p. 25.
- Mitchell 2010, p. 159.
- Louvish 2001, p. 18.
- McCabe 1987, p. 26.
- McCabe 1987, pp. 42–43.
- Mitchell 2010, p. 169.
- Mitchell 2010, p. 158.
- Louvish 2002, p. 113.
- Louvish 2002, p. 170.
- Louvish 2002, p. 182.
- McCabe 1987, p. 249.
- Louvish 2002, p. 117.
- Louvish 2001, p. 37.
- Bergen 1992, p. 26.
- Cullen et al. 2007, p. 661.
- McIver 1998, p. 36.
- McCabe 1989, p. 19.
- Everson 2000, p. 22.
- McCabe 1989, p. 30.
- Louvish 2001, pp. 107–108.
- McCabe 1989, p. 32.
- Nizer, Alvin. "The comedian's comedian." Archived 2014-01-02 at the Wayback Machine. Liberty Magazine, Summer 1975. Retrieved: December 3, 2013.
-  Redfern Nick. Research into Film. April 22, quoting from The Silent Picture, issue 6, Spring 1970, p. 4
- Bann, Richard W.. "The Legacy of Mr. Laurel & Mr. Hardy." laurel-and-hardy.com. Retrieved: December 8, 2013.
- Mitchell 2010
- St. Mark, Tyler. "Laurel & Hardy: The Hat Facts (Part 1)." laurel-and-hardy.com, 2010. Retrieved: December 8, 2013.
- Chilton, Martin."Laurel and Hardy: It's still comedy genius." The Telegraph, December 5, 2013. Retrieved: December 8, 2013.
- McCabe 1975, p. 18.
- McCabe 1987, p. 123.
- McCabe 1987, p. 124.
- Gehring 1990, p. 5.
- Andrews 1997, p. 389.
- "What's the story with... Homer's D'oh!". The Herald, Glasgow, July 21, 2007, p. 15. Retrieved: July 25, 2010.
- Gehring 1990, p. 42.
- Mitchell 2010, p. 181.
- Barr 1967, p. 9.
- Mitchell 2010, p. 180.
- Gehring 1990, p. 273.
- McCabe 1987, p. 98.
- McCabe 1987, p. 100.
- Gehring 1990, p. 62.
- Gehring 1990, p. 263
- Mitchell 2010, p. 229.
- Barry, Dan (July 8, 2015). "Comedy's Sweet Weapon: The Cream Pie". New York Times. Retrieved July 8, 2015.
- McCabe 1987, p. 117.
- McCabe 1987, p. 118.
- McCabe 1987, p. 120.
- Mitchell 2010, p. 188.
- Skretvedt 1987, p. 54.
- Mitchell 2010, p. 28.
- Skretvedt 1987, p. 50.
- Skretvedt 1987, p. 52.
- Skretvedt 1987, pp. 59–61.
- Skretvedt 1987, p. 61.
- Sagert 2010, p. 40.
- McCabe 1987, p. 153.
- Mitchell 2010, p. 305.
- Louvish 2002, p. 252.
- Gehring 1990, p. 23.
- Skretvedt 1987, p. 230.
- McCabe 2004, p. 73.
- Mitchell 2010, p. 39.
- Mitchell 2010, p. 38.
- "Big Business awards." IMDb. Retrieved: December 19, 2011.
- Mitchell 2010, p. 268.
- Fullerton, Pat. "Laurel & Hardy Overseas." Archived 2012-09-06 at Archive.is patfullerton.com. Retrieved: April 20, 2011.
- Mitchell 2010, p. 27.
- Lawrence, Danny. The Making of Stan Laurel: Echoes of a British Boyhood. McFarland, 2011. Retrieved: December 7, 2013.
- MacGillivray 2009, p. 6.
- MacGillivray 2009, p. 9.
- MacGillivray 2009, p. 190.
- MacGillivray 2009, p. 126.
- McGarry 1992, p. 73.
- Dorman, Trevor. "A Guide to the lost films of Laurel and Hardy – Update." The Laurel and Hardy Magazine. Retrieved: April 20, 2011.
- Haines 1993, p. 13.
- McCabe 1975, p. 398.
- Baker, Glenn A. "History's harbour." The Sydney Morning Herald, March 13, 2011. Retrieved: April 16, 2012.
- Rascher, Matthias. "1956 Home movie: Laurel & Hardy together for the last time." |Openculture.com, May 13, 2011. Retrieved: December 7, 2013.
- Smith 1984, p. 191.
- Bowen, Peter. "Stan Laurel dies." Archived 2013-12-11 at the Wayback Machine. Focus Features, February 23, 2010. Retrieved: December 7, 2013.
- "Letters from Stan.com 1961." Archived 2013-12-11 at the Wayback Machine. The Stan Laurel Correspondence Archive Project, 2013. Retrieved: December 7, 2013.
- "Raw footage of Stan Laurels funeral with Dick Van Dyke, Buster Keaton and more." Youtube. Retrieved: March 30, 2015.
- Smith 1984, p. 187.
- "Laurel and Hardy Films: The People." laurelandhardyfilms.com, Retrieved: April 3, 2011.
- Louvish 2001, p. 267.
- Louvish 2002, p. 268.
- Patterson, Michael in Brewer, Mary F. (2009) Harold Pinter's The Dumb Waiter, Rodolpi, p. 249
- Harness, Kyp (2006) The Art of Laurel and Hardy: Graceful Calamity in the Films, McFarland, p. 5
- McCann, Chuck. "Laurel & Hardy Tribute." chuckmccann.net: Chuck McCann, November 30, 2007. Retrieved: March 1, 2010.
- Tooze, Gary. "Laurel & Hardy – The Collection (21-disc Box Set)." Archived 2007-04-09 at the Wayback Machine. dvdbeaver.com. Retrieved: April 20, 2011.
- "Laurel & Hardy Museum: Ulverston akedistrictletsgo.co.uk, June 2004. Retrieved: March 1, 2010.
- "Laurel and Hardy Museum of Harlem, Georgia" www.laurelandhardymuseum.com Retrieved: December 30, 2014.
- "Laurel & Hardy Museum Solingen" www.laurel-hardy-museum.com(German) Retrieved: December 30, 2014.
- Lewis, Peter. "In the Night Kitchen." commonsensemedia.org. Retrieved: April 20, 2011.
- Lanes 1980, p. 47.
- Salamon, Julie. "Sendak in All His Wild Glory." The New York Times, April 15, 2005. Retrieved: May 28, 2008.
- Krurer, Ron. "Laurel and Hardy cartoons by Hanna-Barbera." toontracker.com. Retrieved: March 1, 2010.
- "The All New Adventures of Laurel & Hardy in 'For Love or Mummy'." IMDb, 1999. Retrieved: March 1, 2010.Pinchot would also play the role opposite Mark Linn Baker as Oliver Hardy in the Perfect Strangers season 7 episode The Gazebo.
- Pednekar, Aparna. "Bollywood comedy comes of age." Hindustan Times, July 8, 2014.
- Laurel & Hardy: Their Lives and Magic, retrieved 2018-11-22
- "Shop". www.laurelandhardyshop.com. Retrieved 2018-12-05.
- MacGillivray, Scott. "Welcome to Sons Of The Desert." The International Laurel & Hardy Society. Retrieved: December 7, 2013.
- Rense, Rip. "A fan club just for 'The Boys' : Films: The Sons of the Desert has been meeting since 1965 to honor Laurel and Hardy." Los Angeles Times, November 9, 1989. Retrieved: December 7, 2013.
- Andrews, Robert. Famous Lines: A Columbia Dictionary of Familiar Quotations. New York: Columbia University Press, 1997. ISBN 0-231-10218-6
- Anobile, Richard J., ed. A Fine Mess: Verbal and Visual Gems from The Crazy World of Laurel & Hardy. New York: Crown Publishers, 1975. ISBN 0-517-52438-4
- Barr, Charles. Laurel and Hardy (Movie Paperbacks). Berkeley: University of California Press, 1968; First edition 1967, London: Studio Vista. ISBN 0-520-00085-4
- Bergen, Ronald. The Life and Times of Laurel and Hardy. New York: Smithmark, 1992. ISBN 0-8317-5459-1
- Brooks, Leo M. The Laurel & Hardy Stock Company. Hilversum, Netherlands: Blotto Press, 1997. ISBN 90-901046-1-5
- Byron, Stuart and Elizabeth Weis, eds. The National Society of Film Critics on Movie Comedy. New York: Grossman/Viking, 1977. ISBN 978-0-670-49186-5
- Crowther, Bruce. Laurel and Hardy: Clown Princes of Comedy. New York: Columbus Books, 1987. ISBN 978-0-86287-344-8
- Cullen, Frank, Florence Hackman and Donald McNeilly. Vaudeville, Old and New: An Encyclopedia of Variety Performers in America. London: Routledge, 2007. ISBN 978-0-415-93853-2
- Durgnat, Raymond. "Beau Chumps and Church Bells" (essay). The Crazy Mirror: Hollywood Comedy and the American Image. New York: Dell Publishing, 1970. ISBN 978-0-385-28184-3
- Everson, William K. The Complete Films of Laurel and Hardy. New York: Citadel, 2000; First edition 1967. ISBN 0-8065-0146-4
- Everson, William K. The Films of Hal Roach. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1971. ISBN 978-0-87070-559-5
- Gehring, Wes D. Laurel & Hardy: A Bio-Bibliography. Burnham Bucks, UK: Greenwood Press, 1990. ISBN 978-0313251726
- Gehring, Wes D. Film Clowns of the Depression: Twelve Defining Comic Performances. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Co., 2007. ISBN 978-0-7864-2892-2.
- Guiles, Fred Lawrence. Stan: The Life of Stan Laurel. New York: Stein & Day, 1991; First edition 1980. ISBN 978-0-8128-8528-6.
- Harness, Kyp. The Art of Laurel and Hardy: Graceful Calamity in the Films. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Co., 2006. ISBN 0-7864-2440-0.
- Kanin, Garson. Together Again!: Stories of the Great Hollywood Teams. New York: Doubleday & Co., 1981. ISBN 978-0-385-17471-8.
- Kerr, Walter. The Silent Clowns. New York: Da Capo Press, 1990, First edition 1975, Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 978-0-306-80387-1.
- Lahue, Kalton C. World of Laughter: The Motion Picture Comedy Short, 1910-1930. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1966. ISBN 978-0-8061-0693-9.
- Louvish, Simon. Stan and Ollie: The Roots of Comedy: The Double Life of Laurel and Hardy. London: Faber & Faber, 2001. ISBN 0-571-21590-4.
- Louvish, Simon. Stan and Ollie: The Roots of Comedy: The Double Life of Laurel and Hardy. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2002. ISBN 0-3122-6651-0.
- Maltin, Leonard. Movie Comedy Teams. New York: New American Library, 1985; First edition 1970. ISBN 978-0-452-25694-1.
- Maltin, Leonard, Selected Short Subjects (First published as The Great Movie Shorts. New York: Crown Publishers, 1972.) New York: Da Capo Press, 1983. ISBN 978-0-452-25694-1.
- Maltin, Leonard. The Laurel & Hardy Book (Curtis Films Series). Sanibel Island, Florida: Ralph Curtis Books, 1973. ISBN 0-00-020201-0.
- Maltin, Leonard. The Great Movie Comedians. New York: Crown Publishers, 1978. ISBN 978-0-517-53241-6.
- Marriot, A. J. Laurel & Hardy: The British Tours. Hitchen, Herts, UK: AJ Marriot, 1993. ISBN 0-9521308-0-7
- Marriot, A. J. Laurel and Hardy: The U.S. Tours. Hitchen, Herts, UK: AJ Marriot, 2011. ISBN 978-0-9521308-2-6
- Mast, Gerald. The Comic Mind: Comedy and the Movies. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1979; First edition 1973. ISBN 978-0-226-50978-5.
- McCabe, John. Mr. Laurel & Mr. Hardy: An Affectionate Biography. London: Robson Books, 2004; First edition 1961; Reprint: New York: Doubleday & Co., 1966. ISBN 1-86105-606-0.
- McCabe, John. The Comedy World of Stan Laurel. Beverly Hills: Moonstone Press, 1990; First edition 1974, Doubleday & Co. ISBN 0-940410-23-0.
- McCabe, John, with Al Kilgore and Richard W. Bann. Laurel & Hardy. New York: Bonanza Books, 1983; First edition 1975, E.P. Dutton. ISBN 978-0-491-01745-9.
- McCabe, John. Babe: The Life of Oliver Hardy. London: Robson Books, 2004; First edition 1989, Citadel. ISBN 1-86105-781-4.
- McCaffrey, Donald W. "Duet of Incompetence" (essay). The Golden Age of Sound Comedy: Comic Films and Comedians of the Thirties. New York: A.S. Barnes, 1973. ISBN 978-0-498-01048-4.
- McGarry, Annie. Laurel & Hardy. London: Bison Group, 1992. ISBN 0-86124-776-0.
- MacGillivray, Scott. Laurel & Hardy: From the Forties Forward. Second edition: New York: iUniverse, 2009 ISBN 978-1440172397; first edition: Lanham, Maryland: Vestal Press, 1998.
- McIntyre, Willie. The Laurel & Hardy Digest: A Cocktail of Love and Hisses. Ayrshire, Scotland: Willie McIntyre, 1998. ISBN 978-0-9532958-0-7.
- McIver, Stuart B. Dreamers, Schemers and Scalawags. Sarasota, Florida: Pineapple Press Inc., 1998. ISBN 978-1-56164-155-0
- Mitchell, Glenn. The Laurel & Hardy Encyclopedia. New York: Batsford, 2010; First edition 1995. ISBN 978-1-905287-71-0.
- Nollen, Scott Allen. The Boys: The Cinematic World of Laurel and Hardy. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Co., 1989. ISBN 978-0-7864-1115-3.
- Okuda, Ted and James L. Neibaur. Stan Without Ollie: The Stan Laurel Solo Films: 1917-1927. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Co., 2012. ISBN 978-0-7864-4781-7.
- Robb, Brian J. The Pocket Essential Laurel & Hardy. Manchester, UK: Pocket Essentials, 2008. ISBN 978-1-84243-285-3.
- Robinson, David. The Great Funnies: A History of Film Comedy. New York: E.P. Dutton, 1969. ISBN 978-0-289-79643-6.
- Sanders, Jonathan. Another Fine Dress: Role Play in the Films of Laurel and Hardy. London: Cassell, 1995. ISBN 978-0-304-33196-3.
- Scagnetti, Jack. The Laurel & Hardy Scrapbook. New York: Jonathan David Publishers, 1982. ISBN 978-0-8246-0278-9.
- Sendak, Maurice. In the Night Kitchen. New York: HarperCollins, 1970. ISBN 0-06-026668-6.
- Skretvedt, Randy. Laurel and Hardy: The Magic Behind the Movies. Anaheim, California: Past Times Publishing Co., 1996; First edition 1987, Moonstone Press. ISBN 978-0-94041-077-0.
- Smith, Leon. Following the Comedy Trail: A Guide to Laurel & Hardy and Our Gang Film Locations. Littleton, Massachusetts: G.J. Enterprises, 1984. ISBN 978-0938817055.
- Staveacre, Tony. Slapstick!: The Illustrated Story. London: Angus & Robertson Publishers, 1987. ISBN 978-0-207-15030-2.
- Stone, Rob, et al. Laurel or Hardy: The Solo Films of Stan Laurel and Oliver Hardy. Manchester, New Hampshire: Split Reel, 1996. ISBN 0-9652384-0-7.
- Ward, Richard Lewis. A History of the Hal Roach Studios. Carbondale, Illinois: Southern Illinois University Press, 2006. ISBN 978-0-8093-2637-2.
- Weales, Gerald. Canned Goods as Caviar: American Film Comedy of the 1930s. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985. ISBN 978-0-226-87664-1.