Seven Samurai (Japanese: 七人の侍 Hepburn: Shichinin no Samurai) is a 1954 Japanese epic samurai drama film co-written, edited, and directed by Akira Kurosawa. The story takes place in 1586 during the Sengoku Period of Japanese history. It follows the story of a village of farmers that hire seven rōnin (masterless samurai) to combat bandits who will return after the harvest to steal their crops.
Theatrical release poster
|Directed by||Akira Kurosawa|
|Produced by||Sōjirō Motoki|
|Music by||Fumio Hayasaka|
|Edited by||Akira Kurosawa|
|Budget||¥125 million ($1.1 million)|
|Box office||¥268 million ($2.3 million)|
Since its release, Seven Samurai has consistently ranked highly in critics' lists of the greatest films, such as the BFI's Sight & Sound and Rotten Tomatoes polls. It was also voted the greatest foreign-language film in BBC's 2018 international critics' poll. It has remained highly influential, often seen as one of the most "remade, reworked, referenced" films in cinema.
Bandits discuss raiding a mountain village, but their chief decides to wait until after the harvest inasmuch as they had raided it fairly recently. The plan is inadvertently overheard by a farmer, whereupon the villagers ask Gisaku, the village elder and miller, for advice. He states that he once saw a village that had hired samurai had remain untouched by raiders, and declares they should hire samurai to defend themselves. Since they have no money, Gisaku advises them to find hungry samurai.
After having little success initially, the scouting group watches Kambei, an aging but experienced rōnin, rescue a young boy who had been taken hostage by a thief. A young samurai named Katsushirō asks to become Kambei's disciple. The villagers then ask for help, and after initial reluctance, Kambei agrees. He recruits his old friend Shichirōji and, with Katsushirō's assistance, three other samurai: the friendly, wily Gorobei; the good-willed Heihachi; and Kyūzō, a taciturn master swordsman whom Katsushirō regards with awe. Although inexperienced, Katsushirō is accepted because time is short. Kikuchiyo, a man who carries a family scroll that he claims proves he is a samurai (though the birth date on it is for a young child), follows the group despite attempts to drive him away.
On arrival, the samurai find the villagers cowering in their homes, refusing to greet them. Feeling insulted by such a cold reception, Kikuchiyo rings the village alarm bell, prompting the villagers to come out of hiding. The samurai are both pleased and amused by this, and accept him as a comrade-in-arms. Slowly the samurai and farmers begin to trust each other as they train together. Katsushirō forms a relationship with Shino, a farmer's daughter, who had been masquerading as a boy for protection from the supposedly lustful samurai. However, the six samurai are angered when Kikuchiyo brings them armor and weapons, which the villagers most likely acquired by killing injured or dying samurai. Kikuchiyo retorts that samurai are responsible for battles, raids, taxation and forced labor that devastate the villagers' lives. By so doing, he reveals his origin as an orphaned farmer's son. The samurais' anger turns to shame.
Three bandit scouts are spotted. Two are killed, while another reveals the location of their camp. Against the wishes of the samurai, the villagers kill the prisoner. The samurai burn down the bandits' camp in a pre-emptive strike. Rikichi, a troubled villager who helps the samurai, breaks down when he sees his wife, who had apparently been kidnapped and made a concubine in a previous raid. On seeing Rikichi, she walks back into her burning hut. Heihachi is killed trying to save Rikichi, whose grief is compounded.
When the bandits finally attack, they are confounded by new fortifications, including a moat and wooden fence. Several bandits are killed according to Kambei's plan: The bandits are allowed to enter the village singly, to be hunted down and killed by groups of farmers armed with bamboo spears. Gisaku refuses to abandon his mill on the outskirts of the village and perishes with his family, who tried to save him. A lone baby is rescued by Kikuchiyo, who breaks down in tears, as it reminds him of his own childhood.
The bandits possess three Japanese matchlock firearms. Kyūzō ventures out alone and returns with one. An envious Kikuchiyo abandons his post—and his contingent of farmers—to bring back another. He is chastised by Kambei because, while he was gone, the bandits killed some of his farmers. The bandits attack again, and Gorobei is slain. That night, Kambei predicts that, due to their dwindling numbers, the bandits will make one last all-out attack. Meanwhile, Katsushirō and Shino's relationship is discovered by her father. He hits her until Kambei and the villagers intervene. Shichirōji calms everyone down by saying the couple should be forgiven because they are young and that before any battle, passions can run high.
The next morning in a torrential downpour, Kambei orders that the remaining thirteen bandits be allowed into the village. As the battle winds down, their leader, armed with a gun, enters the women's hut, from where he shoots Kyūzō. An enraged Kikuchiyo charges the hut; he is shot, but kills the bandit chief before dying.
The three surviving samurai watch as the joyful villagers sing whilst planting their crops. Kambei—standing beneath the funeral mounds of their four comrades—reflects that it is another pyrrhic victory for the samurai: "In the end we lost this battle too. The victory belongs to the farmers, not to us."
The seven samuraiEdit
- Takashi Shimura as Kambei Shimada (島田勘兵衛 Shimada Kanbei), a war-weary but honourable and strategic rōnin, and the leader of the seven.
- Yoshio Inaba as Gorōbei Katayama (片山五郎兵衛 Katayama Gorōbei), a skilled archer, who acts as Kambei's second-in-command and helps create the master plan for the village's defense.
- Daisuke Katō as Shichirōji (七郎次), Kambei's old friend and former lieutenant.
- Seiji Miyaguchi as Kyūzō (久蔵), a serious, stone-faced and supremely skilled swordsman.
- Minoru Chiaki as Heihachi Hayashida (林田平八 Hayashida Heihachi), an amiable though less-skilled fighter, whose charm and wit maintain his comrades' morale in the face of adversity.
- Isao Kimura as Katsushirō Okamoto (岡本勝四郎 Okamoto Katsushirō), the untested son of a wealthy landowner samurai, who Kambei reluctanctly takes in as a disciple.
- Toshiro Mifune as Kikuchiyo (菊千代), a humorous, mercurial and temperamental rogue who lies about being a samurai, but eventually proves his worth and resourcefulness.
- Yoshio Tsuchiya as Rikichi (利吉), a hotheaded and relatively young villager
- Bokuzen Hidari as Yohei (与平), a very timid old man who shares some comic scenes with Kikuchiyo
- Yukiko Shimazaki as Rikichi's wife
- Kamatari Fujiwara as Manzō (万造), a farmer who disguises his daughter as a man to try to protect her from the samurai
- Keiko Tsushima as Shino (志乃), Manzō's daughter
- Kokuten Kōdō as Gisaku (儀作), the elder miller and village patriarch, referred to as "Grandad"
- Yoshio Kosugi as Mosuke, one of the farmers sent to town to hire samurai
- Shinpei Takagi as the bandit chief
- Shin Otomo as the bandit second-in-command
- Haruo Nakajima as a bandit
- Eijirō Tōno as a thief
- Atsushi Watanabe as a bun seller
- Jun Tatara as a coolie
- Sachio Sakai as a coolie
- Takeshi Seki as a coolie
- Tatsuya Nakadai as a samurai wandering through town (uncredited)
Akira Kurosawa had originally wanted to direct a film about a single day in the life of a samurai. Later, in the course of his research, he discovered a story about samurai defending farmers. According to actor Toshiro Mifune, the film was originally going to be called Six Samurai, with Mifune playing the role of Kyuzo. During the six-week scriptwriting process, Kurosawa and his screenwriters realized that "six sober samurai were a bore—they needed a character that was more off-the-wall". Kurosawa recast Mifune as Kikuchiyo and gave him creative license to improvise actions in his performance.
The film took a year to complete. It had become a topic of wide discussion long before it was released. After three months of pre-production the film had 148 shooting days spread out over a year—four times the span covered in the original budget, which eventually came to almost half a million dollars. Toho Studios closed down production at least twice. Each time, Kurosawa calmly went fishing, reasoning that the studio had already heavily invested in the production and would allow him to complete the picture. The film's final battle scene, originally scheduled to be shot at the end of summer, was shot in February in near-freezing temperatures. Mifune later recalled that he had never been so cold in his life.
Kurosawa and the writers were innovative in refining the theme of the assembly of heroic characters to perform a mission. According to Michael Jeck's DVD commentary, Seven Samurai was among the first films to use the now-common plot element of the recruiting and gathering of heroes into a team to accomplish a specific goal, a device used in later films such as The Guns of Navarone, Sholay, the western remake The Magnificent Seven, and Pixar's animated film A Bug's Life. Film critic Roger Ebert speculates in his review that the sequence introducing the leader Kambei (in which the samurai shaves off his topknot, a sign of honor among samurai, in order to pose as a monk to rescue a boy from a kidnapper) could be the origin of the practice, now common in action movies, of introducing the main hero with an undertaking unrelated to the main plot. Other plot devices such as the reluctant hero, romance between a local woman and the youngest hero, and the nervousness of the common citizenry had appeared in other films before this but were combined in this film.
Kurosawa refused to shoot the peasant village at Toho Studios and had a complete set constructed at Tagata on the Izu Peninsula, Shizuoka. Although the studio protested the increased production costs, Kurosawa was adamant that "the quality of the set influences the quality of the actors' performances... For this reason, I have the sets made exactly like the real thing. It restricts the shooting but encourages that feeling of authenticity." He also spoke of 'intense labour' of making the film: "It rained all the time, we didn't have enough horses. It was just the kind of picture that is impossible to make in this country."
Through the creative freedom provided by the studio, Kurosawa made use of telephoto lenses, which were rare in 1954, as well as multiple cameras which allowed the action to fill the screen and place the audience right in the middle of it. "If I had filmed it in the traditional shot-by-shot method, there was no guarantee that any action could be repeated in exactly the same way twice." He found it to be very effective and he later used it in movies that were less action-oriented. His method was to put one camera in the most orthodox shooting position, another camera for quick shots and a third camera "as a kind of guerilla unit". This method made for very complicated shoots, for which Kurosawa choreographed the movement of all three cameras by using diagrams.
The martial arts choreography for the film was led by Yoshio Sugino of the Tenshin Shōden Katori Shintō-ryū. Initially Junzo Sasamori of the Ono-ha Itto-ryu was working along with Sugino, but he was asked by the Ministry of Education to teach in Europe during production.
Following the filming, Kurosawa quickly earned a reputation with his crew as the "world's greatest editor" because of his practice of editing late at night during the shooting. He described this as a practical necessity that is incomprehensible to most directors, who on major production spent at least several months with their editors assembling and cutting the film after shooting is completed.:89
At three hours, twenty-seven minutes (207 minutes), Seven Samurai would be the longest picture of Kurosawa's career. Toho Studios originally cut fifty minutes off the film when screening it for American distributors for fear that no American audience would be willing to sit through the entire picture.
A 198-minute VHS copy was acquired by the British Film Institute in 1989, and a digitally restored version of 190 minutes was exhibited in the UK in 1991; it was the first film released for sale by the British Film Institute accompanied by a documentary, historical notes and biographies. A near-complete 203 minute version was re-released in the U.S. in 2002.
A Criterion Collection DVD version of the film was released containing the complete original version of the film (207 minutes) on one disc and a second Criterion DVD released in 2006 also contains the digitally remastered, complete film on two discs, as well as an additional disc of extra material. A region 4 DVD of the full 207 minute cut was released in 2004 by Madman Entertainment under its Eastern Eye label. A Blu-ray edition of the full length edition was released by the Criterion Collection on October 19, 2010.
Seven Samurai grossed ¥268 million in the first 12 months of its release. Eventually, it became Japan's third highest-grossing film of 1954. Overseas, the film's 2002 re-release grossed $271,841 in the United States and $4,124 in France. As of 2017, Seven Samurai is the best-selling home video title ever released by the British Film Institute.
On the review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, the film holds a perfect approval rating of 100% based on 59 reviews, with an average rating of 9.3/10. The site's critical consensus reads: "Arguably Akira Kurosawa's masterpiece, The Seven Samurai is an epic adventure classic with an engrossing story, memorable characters, and stunning action sequences that make it one of the most influential films ever made". It once ranked fifth on Rotten Tomatoes's action/adventure voting list. It is ranked number seven on Rotten Tomatoes' top 100 art house and international films.
In 1982, it was voted number three in the Sight & Sound critics' poll of greatest films. In the Sight & Sound directors' poll, it was voted at number ten in 1992 and number nine in 2002. It also ranked number seventeen on the 2012 Sight & Sound critics' poll, in both cases being tied with Kurosawa's own Rashomon (1950). Seven Samurai has also been ranked number one on Empire magazine's list of "The 100 Best Films of World Cinema" in 2010.
Kurosawa both directed and edited many of his films, including Seven Samurai. In 2012, the Motion Picture Editors Guild listed Seven Samurai as the 33rd best-edited film of all time based on a survey of its members. In 2018, it was voted the greatest foreign-language film of all time in BBC's poll of 209 critics in 43 countries.
Seven Samurai was a technical and creative watershed that became Japan's highest-grossing movie and set a new standard for the industry. Its influence can be most strongly felt in the western The Magnificent Seven (1960), a film specifically adapted from Seven Samurai. Director John Sturges took Seven Samurai and adapted it to the Old West, with the samurai replaced by gunslingers. Many of The Magnificent Seven's scenes mirror those of Seven Samurai.
However, in an interview with R. B. Gadi, Kurosawa expressed how "the American copy of The Magnificent Seven is a disappointment, although entertaining. It is not a version of Seven Samurai".:42 Stephen Prince argues that considering Samurai films and Westerns respond to different cultures and contexts, what Kurosawa found useful was not their content but rather he was inspired by their levels of syntactic movement, framing, form and grammar.
Battle Beyond the Stars is an American 1980 science fiction film directed by Jimmy T. Murakami and produced by Roger Corman. The film, intended as a "Magnificent Seven in outer space", is based on the plots of The Magnificent Seven and Seven Samurai. The movie acknowledges its debt to Seven Samurai by calling the protagonist's homeworld Akir and its inhabitants the Akira.
The anime series Samurai 7 is a science fiction version of Seven Samurai.
Several elements from The Seven Samurai are also argued to have been adapted for Star Wars. The Clone Wars episode "Bounty Hunters" pays direct homage to Akira Kurosawa by adapting the film's plot.
There have been pachinko machines based on Seven Samurai in Japan. Seven Samurai pachinko machines have sold 94,000 units in Japan as of March 2018[update], grossing approximately $470 million.
Awards and nominationsEdit
- Venice Film Festival (1954)
- Mainichi Film Award (1955)
- Winner - Best Supporting Actor - Seiji Miyaguchi
- Nominated - BAFTA Award for Best Film
- Nominated - BAFTA Award for Best Foreign Actor - Toshiro Mifune
- Nominated - BAFTA Award for Best Foreign Actor - Takashi Shimura
- Nominated - Best Art Direction-Set Decoration, Black-and-White - So Matsuyama
- Nominated - Best Costume Design, Black-and-White - Kohei Ezaki
- Jussi Awards (1959)
- Sharp, Jasper (7 May 2015). "Still crazy-good after 60 years: Seven Samurai". British Film Institute. Retrieved 16 February 2015.
- Because the Japanese language has no definite article, the question arises as to whether the proper English translation of the title is Seven Samurai or The Seven Samurai. While the former is the literal translation, either may be considered idiomatically correct.
- "Kikuchiyo" has a genealogy which shows he was "born the 17th of the 2nd month of Tenshô 2 (1574), a wood-dog year". Kanbei's comment is "o-nushi 13 sai niwa mienu ga" (You don't look 13…). Since the traditional way of counting ages in Japan is by the number of calendar years one has lived in, this means the story takes place in 1586.
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- Toho Masterworks. Akira Kurosawa: It Is Wonderful to Create (DVD) (in Japanese).
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- Toshiro Mifune interview (Pamphlet). Criterion Collection. 25 August 1993.
- Richie, Donald (1996). The Films of Akira Kurosawa (3 ed.). Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 107. ISBN 0520200268.
- Nixon, Rob. "Behind the Camera of the Seven Samurai". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- Lack, Jonathan R. "An Appreciation of Akira Kurosawa's Seven Samurai". Fade to Lack. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
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- Cardullo, Bert (2008). Akira Kurosawa: Interviews. University Press of Mississippi. ISBN 978-1578069972.
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- "The 100 Best Films Of World Cinema - 1. Seven Samurai". Empire.
- "The 75 Best Edited Films". Editors Guild Magazine. 1 (3). May 2012.
- Anderson, Joseph L. (1962). "When the Twain Meet: Hollywood's remake of 'Seven Samurai'" (PDF). Film Quarterly. 15 (13): 55–58. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 February 2015. Retrieved 17 February 2015.
- Prince, Stephen (1999). The warrior's camera : the cinema of Akira Kurosawa (Rev. and expanded ed.). Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. p. 18. ISBN 978-0691010465.
- Schell, Michael. "Film review: The Invincible Six". Schellsburg. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
- "Battle Beyond the Stars". rottentomatoes.com. 25 December 1980. Retrieved 10 March 2016.
- Gray, Beverly (2004). Roger Corman: blood-sucking vampires, flesh-eating cockroaches, and driller killers. Thunder's Mouth Press. p. 147. ISBN 978-1-56025-555-0.
- Armstrong, Olivia (November 19, 2014). "'Seven Samurai' and 'A Bug's Life' Are The Same Movie".
- Brew, Simon (December 7, 2010). "The origins of A Bug's Life".
- "In Memory of Akira Kurosawa". ForceCast.net. April 7, 2010.
- Fact Book: Supplementary Financial Document for the Year Ended March 31, 2018 (PDF). Fields Corporation. 11 May 2018. pp. 20–21.
- Graser, Marc (2 August 2013). "'Dark Knight' Producer Plays Pachinko to Launch Next Franchise (EXCLUSIVE)". Variety.
Each machine typically costs around $5,000 each.
- "NY Times: Seven Samurai". NY Times. Retrieved 22 December 2008.
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- Seven Samurai at AllMovie
- Seven Samurai at Box Office Mojo
- Seven Samurai on IMDb
- Seven Samurai at Metacritic
- Seven Samurai at Rotten Tomatoes
- The Hours and Times: Kurosawa and the Art of Epic Storytelling an essay by Kenneth Turan at the Criterion Collection
- A Time of Honor: Seven Samurai and Sixteenth-Century Japan an essay by Philip Kemp at the Criterion Collection