Gopala Ratnam Subramaniam (born 2 June 1956), commonly known by his screen name Mani Ratnam, is an Indian film director, screenwriter, and producer who predominantly works in Tamil cinema. The Government of India honoured him with the Padma Shri, acknowledging his contributions to film in 2002.
Gopala Ratnam Subramaniam|
2 June 1956
Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India
|Residence||Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India|
Despite being born into a film family, Mani Ratnam did not develop any interest towards films when he was young. Upon completion of his post graduation in management, he started his career as a consultant. He entered the film industry through the 1983 Kannada film Pallavi Anu Pallavi. The failure of his subsequent films would mean that he was left with fewer offers. However, his fifth directorial outing, Mouna Ragam (1986), established him as a leading filmmaker in Tamil cinema. He followed that with Nayakan (1987). Mani Ratnam is well known for his "Terrorism trilogy" consisting of Roja (1992), Bombay (1995), and Dil Se.. (1998).
He is married to actress Suhasini and has a son with her. He has won several film awards and nominations including six National Film Awards, six Filmfare Awards South and three Bollywood Filmfare Awards.
Mani Ratnam was born on 2 June 1956, as the second child of a family that was closely associated with film production. His father S. Gopala Ratnam was a film distributor who worked for Venus Pictures, and his uncle "Venus" Krishnamurthy was a film producer. His elder brother G. Venkateswaran would go on to produce some of his films. His younger brother is G. Srinivasan, who like Venkateswaran would co-produce some of his films. Mani Ratnam grew up in Madras (now Chennai), along with his siblings and cousins. Despite being a film family, the children were not allowed to watch films as the elders considered it a "taboo". "As a youngster, films seemed like a waste of time", he claimed in a 1994 interview; however, he started watching films more actively when he was studying in the Besant Theosophical School. During this time, he developed an admiration towards actors like Sivaji Ganesan and Nagesh; watching all their films. When he was 15 he discovered director K. Balachander and became a fan. Upon completing his schooling, he graduated with a degree in commerce from the Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda College, affiliated to the Madras University. Later, he did his Master of Business Administration (MBA) in finance from Jamnalal Bajaj Institute of Management Studies, Mumbai. After finishing his post-graduation in 1977, he was employed in a firm in Madras as a management consultant, and continued to work there for sometime.
Mani is married to Suhasini, an established actress in South Indian cinema then. The two first met in 1988 and got married the same year. The couple have a son Nandhan (born 1992). The family resides in Alwarpet, Chennai, where he runs his production company, Madras Talkies.
Mani Ratnam was satisfied with his job as a consultant as he found it to be a mere extension of his academics. During this time his friend Ravi Shankar, son of director B. R. Panthulu, was in the process of making his first film, in Kannada. Mani Ratnam had accompanied Ravi Shankar along with another friend called Raman, son of filmmaker S. Balachander, to complete the script of the film. Mani Ratnam took a sabbatical from his job in order to ensure his participation in the making of the film. Being inexperienced, the makers were largely dependent upon the American Cinematographer magazine. The principal cast included Vishnuvardhan, Srinath, Ambarish, Lakshmi, and Roja Ramani. When the filming was about to begin in Kolar, Karnataka, Mani Ratnam left his consulting job and joined the crew. The film, however, did not take off and was eventually shelved. Nevertheless, he was firm in his idea of becoming a film-maker. Although not pleased with the films made in Tamil cinema till then, he was "amazed" at P. Bharathiraja's 16 Vayathinile (1977), K.Balachander's Apoorva Raagangal (1975), and J. Mahendran's Mullum Malarum (1978) and Uthiripookkal (1979). During this time, he befriended a group of people namely P. C. Sreeram, Santhana Bharathi, and P. Vasu, who shared common interests of entering into the film industry.
With a script in hand, Mani Ratnam had an idea to either get a producer for his film or to narrate the script to a "celebrated" film-maker, so that he could get a chance to work along with them and get to know about the various aspects involved in film-making. He chose three directors—Balachander, Bharathiraja, and Mahendran. As the attempts to meet and convince all the three proved to be unsuccessful, he decided to look out for a producer. In the process, he along with P. C. Sreeram—who would collaborate with him in most of his future projects—met around 20 people; however, all the efforts turned out to be unsuccessful.
Early years and struggle: 1983–1986Edit
Mani Ratnam developed a script—originally written in English—into a film and named it Pallavi Anu Pallavi. His uncle Krishnamurthy agreed to produce the film but imposed a condition that it should be made under a limited budget in Kannada, to which he agreed. As a debutant, Mani Ratnam wanted to make sure that the technical aspects of the film are good. He persuaded Balu Mahendra to do the cinematography as he found the latter's work to be very impressive. He managed to get other crew members B. Lenin (for editing), Thotta Tharani (for art direction) and Ilaiyaraaja (for music composer music), all leading craftsmen in their respective fields then. For the male lead, he cast Anil Kapoor after watching his performance in the Telugu film Vamsa Vruksham (1980). Lakshmi who was a leading actress then, was signed up as the female lead. The film explored the relationship between a young man and an older woman. Although an average grosser at the box-office, the film fetched Mani Ratnam the Best Screenplay Award from the Karnataka State Government for the year 1983. After watching Pallavi Anu Pallavi, N. G. John, a Malayalam film producer, offered him a chance to direct a film in Malayalam. Scripted by T. Damodaran, Unaru was about the corruption in labour unions of Kerala. The film was completed with in two months and got released in April 1984. Mani Ratnam attributed the failure of the film to the conflict of interests that he and the producer had. Following this, he entered Tamil cinema when G. Thyagarajan of Sathya Jyothi Films offered him a chance to direct Pagal Nilavu (1985). The film had Murali and Revathi playing lead roles. It was different from his previous two films in a way that it included dance sequences and a "comedy track". However, the film turned out to be another failure for him. The same year, he directed another Tamil film Idaya Kovil, a romantic drama. He remodeled a ready made script on the lines of Charlie Chaplin's Limelight (1952). Described by himself as an unsatisfied work, the film was a major box-office success. The phase between 1983 and 1986 was the toughest of his career with only Pallavi Anupallavi being a satisfiable film; the rest three were done with a lot of "compromises".
In 1986, Mani directed the Tamil romantic drama Mouna Ragam, which starred Revathi and Mohan. The film was critically acclaimed for portraying urban Tamils in a "realistic" manner. Specifically, it told the story of the friction between a newly-wed couple. The score by Ilaiyaraaja was appreciated and became popular upon release. Mouna Raagam was subsequently dubbed into Telugu under the same title and became a hit in Andhra Pradesh as well. The film elevated Mani's status as a director, and won the National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Tamil at the 34th National Film Awards. He won his first Filmfare Award for directing the film.
In 1987, Mani directed Nayakan starring Kamal Haasan, and the film became a huge success and brought him recognition at the national level. Inspired by the 1972 American crime film, The Godfather, the film was based on the real-life story of underworld don Varadarajan Mudaliar, and tells the story of an orphaned slum-dweller and his rise to top of the Mumbai underworld hierarchy, was included in Time magazine's All-Time 100 Greatest Movies in 2005. Satyajit Ray's The Apu Trilogy and Guru Dutt's Pyaasa are the only other Indian films that have appeared in the list. Indian critics dubbed the film as India's answer to The Godfather. Nayakan was both commercially successful and critically acclaimed winning three National Awards—Best Actor, Best Cinematography and Best Art Direction—at the 35th National Film Awards. The film was India's official entry to the Oscars for Best Foreign Language Film at the 60th Academy Awards, but was not nominated.
Following these two commercial successes, Mani wrote and directed Agni Natchathiram in 1988. The film deals with the story of step-brothers played by Prabhu and Karthik and is notable for its use of new techniques in camera framework, especially during the songs. The film had a successful run in the box office.
In 1989, Telugu actor Nagarjuna requested Mani Ratnam to direct a Telugu film with him in the lead role, which Ratnam agreed to after initial reluctance. It remains the only Telugu film directed by Ratnam. The film Geethanjali which had Nagarjuna and Girija Shettar in the lead, told the story of an ill-fated couple, both of whom are suffering from terminal diseases. Geethanjali was critically acclaimed and won the National Film Award for Best Popular Film Providing Wholesome Entertainment in 1990. In addition, it won the Best Director and Nandi Award for Best Story Writer for Mani. Mani maintained a momentum of making emotional stories of under-served people through the film Anjali in 1990, which starred Baby Shamili as the central character. The film which also had Raghuvaran and Revathy, told the story of an autistic child who changed the lives of people around her. The film proved to be a commercial success and was nominated as India's official entry to the Oscars in the Best Foreign Language Film category at the 63rd Academy Awards. Following Anjali's release, Mani later made another underworld-themed Tamil film, Thalapathi (1991), starring Rajinikanth and Mammootty. The film was an adaptation of Mahabharata, dealt with the friendship between Karna and Duryodhana portrayed by Rajinikanth and Mammmooty respectively. The film met with both critical acclaim and commercial success upon release. Ilaiyaraaja's musical score and Mani's work were highly appreciated as they both went on to win the Music Director and Best Director awards respectively at the 39th Filmfare Awards.
National acclaim: 1992–99Edit
With Thalapathi, Mani ended his long-term association with music director Ilaiyaraaja, bringing in debutant music director A. R. Rahman to score his Tamil classic Roja (1992). The venture was successful, earning Mani various awards. Roja, a romantic film, was about terrorism in the Kashmir region. Starring Arvind Swamy and Madhoo, it was nominated for the Golden St. George Award at the 18th Moscow International Film Festival. It became highly popular, gaining an iconic status in Indian cinema and was dubbed into other languages and met similar success in other regions. Mani took a more light-hearted approach with his next film—Thiruda Thiruda (1993). Scripted by Ram Gopal Varma, the film was a fun filled caper, which was a departure from Mani's previous style and fared moderately well at the box office. Thiruda Thiruda was premiered at the Toronto International Film Festival in 1994.
Mani again teamed up with Ram Gopal Varma to provide the screenplay for the latter's Telugu film Gaayam, a socio-politico film loosely based on The Godfather. In 1995, Mani returned to Tamil language drama through Bombay starring Arvind Swamy and Manisha Koirala, which told the story of a Hindu-Muslim couple in the midst of the 1993 religious Bombay riots and bombings. It was also the first Indian film to focus on marriage between Hindu and Muslim people. The film met with controversy and censorship upon release, was subsequently dubbed into Hindi and was commercially successful and appreciated by critics. It won a number of awards, such as Nargis Dutt Award for Best Feature Film on National Integration, Special Award from the Political Film Society, In the Spirit of Freedom Award at the Jerusalem International Film Festival and the Gala Award at the Edinburgh International Film Festival.
Mani produced his wife's directorial debut film, Indira, and the critical success Iruvar with Mohanlal, Aishwarya Rai, Tabu and Prakash Raj in the lead, his next film as director. Iruvar was honoured the Best Film at the "Festival of the Auteur Films" at the FEST film festival held in Belgrade. In 1998 came the third part of his "terrorism trilogy", named Dil Se.. and starring Shahrukh Khan and Manisha Koirala, with the latter fabricating the second collaboration. It showed the relationship between a young man and a dangerous, disturbed woman. Although they fall in love, she is unable to take the romance further due to her bleak past. The soundtrack album, again composed by A. R. Rahman, gained mass appeal and gave Rahman his next Filmfare Award for Best Music Direction in 1999. Unlike his previous two projects, Dil Se.. opened with well note among the film critics and the film poorly performed in the domestic market, despite being a success overseas. It was screened in many international film festivals, and won the Netpac award (Ex-Aqueo) in the Berlin International Film Festival. In 2000, Mani directed the romantic drama Alaipayuthey that starred R. Madhavan and Shalini. The film focussed on marriage and explored relationships and their consequences, and garnered critical recognition. It was also screened at the Berlin International Film Festival.
Along with Vasanth, he was instrumental in organizing Netru, Indru, Naalai, a stage musical that marked the first theatre production, with numerous other artistes, to aid The Banyan, an organization that rehabilitates women and children with mental illness.
Kannathil Muthamittal and onwards: 2002–2013Edit
Mani's next film, Kannathil Muthamittal, dealt with the story of a child of Sri Lankan Tamil parentage adopted by Indian parents, who wishes to meet her biological mother during the Sri Lankan Civil War. The film was critically acclaimed and commercially successful, winning six National Film Awards, Filmfare Award for Best Direction in Tamil, In the Spirit of Freedom Award at the Jerusalem Film Festival, and an award at the Indian Film Festival of Los Angeles. In 2004, he made Aayutha Ezhuthu, which tells the story of how one incident sends the lives of three youths on a collision course and received positive reviews. Mani made the film simultaneously in Hindi as Yuva, his second venture into Bollywood. Ajay Devgn, Abhishek Bachchan, and Vivek Oberoi replaced Surya Sivakumar, R. Madhavan, and Siddharth, respectively in the Hindi version. Unlike Yuva, Aayutha Ezhuthu was appreciated by critics. Mani suffered his first heart attack while shooting for Aayutha Ezhuthu.
In 2007, Mani made Guru, a biographical film based on the life of Dhirubhai Ambani, a business magnate from India. The film starred Abhishek Bachchan and Aishwarya Rai, through his production house, Madras Talkies. The film is set in the early 1950s, became a box office success, and received critical acclaim. Guru was screened at the Tous Les Cinemas du Monde (World Cinema) section of the 2007 Cannes Film Festival. In 2010, Mani worked on a bilingual film, titled Raavanan in Tamil where in the film look was unveiled at 2010 Cannes Film Festival, as part of its marketing campaign. and Raavan in Hindi. The Tamil version was dubbed into Telugu and titled Villain. The film was released worldwide on 18 June 2010.
The film is loosely based on the Hindu epic Ramayana; its narrative occurs over 14 days when a revolutionist named Veera, who lives in a forest, kidnaps a policeman's wife to avenge his sister's death. The Tamil version received positive reviews from the critics compared to its other versions. The New York Times called the movie a "critics' pick". However, the reviewers of the Hindi version panned the film; Rajeev Masand said it was "a crushing bore of a film, a disappointment on virtually every count" The Tamil version was declared a box office success.
Mani's film, Kadal was released worldwide on 1 February 2013 to mixed reviews from critics and became a box office failure. Later the distributor of the film filed a police complaint against Mani on account of the huge losses suffered by him.
His next film, romantic drama O Kadhal Kanmani starring Dulquer Salmaan and Nithya Menen as the lead pair, was released in April 2015. The cinematography and editing of the film was handled by P.C. Sreeram and A. Sreekar Prasad respectively, while music was scored by A. R. Rahman. The film depicted the life of a young couple in a live-in relationship in Mumbai, and was said to be a "reflection of the modern mindset of urban India", dealing with issues such as marriage and traditional values. Made at a small budget of 6 crores, the film achieved widespread critical acclaim and commercial success.
His next was Kaatru Veliyidai, starring Karthi, Aditi Rao Hydari and RJ Balaji. Kaatru Veliyidai was released with mixed reviews and was an average in box office. And this film won two National Film Awards at the 65th National Film Awards: Best Music Direction (A. R. Rahman) and Best Female Playback Singer (Shashaa Tirupati).
His upcoming, Chekka Chivantha Vaanam is a multi-starer from his home productions, starring Arvind Swami, Silambarasan, Arun Vijay and Vijay Sethupathi as the lead actors, while Jyothika, Aishwarya Rajesh, Aditi Rao Hydari and Dayana Erappa are portraying the female leads. The venture is jointly produced by Mani Ratnam and Subaskaran under their banners Madras Talkies and Lyca Productions, the music is composed by A. R. Rahman, while Santosh Sivan is the cinematographer and Sreekar Prasad is the editor.
Craft, style, and technical collaborationsEdit
Mani Ratnam grew up watching the films of K. Balachander, Guru Dutt and Sivaji Ganesan. He is greatly influenced by the film-making styles of Akira Kurosawa, Martin Scorsese, Krzysztof Kieślowski, Ingmar Bergman and J. Mahendran.
Unlike most of his contemporaries, Mani Ratnam did not assist anybody in film-making prior to entering the industry. A majority of his films are characterized by a string of socio-political themes. Because of his idea of combining art and commercial elements, most of his films garnered both critical acclaim and commercial success. Nayakan, Bombay and Iruvar were inspired from real-life incidents, while Thalapathi and Raavan were based on Indian epics.
Mani Ratnam handled screenplays for a majority of his films. Lauded for his casting in each of his films, he claimed in an interview that "I am not a director who performs and shows. I discuss the role, the scene with my actors and let them bring life to it". Right from the beginning of his career, his works were noted for their technical expertise in areas such as cinematography, art direction, editing and background score. For his debut film, he managed to handpick Balu Mahendra, Thotta Tharani, B. Lenin, and Ilaiyaraaja, leading craftsmen in their respective fields. As his career progressed, he worked with his childhood friend P. C. Sreeram and continued his collaborations with him until Geethanjali. In 1991 for his film Thalapathi, he chose Santosh Sivan and Suresh Urs—both newcomers to the Tamil film industry—to do cinematography and editing respectively. Both would later go onto become a part of his regular crew. While working on Raavan, Santosh Sivan noted "any cameraman can hone his skills just working with [Mani]" and described Mani Ratnam's films as difficult to film. From his debut project till Thalapathi, Ilaiyaraaja was his regular composer. The duo split due to some creative differences after the film. For his next film Roja (1992), he collaborated with debutant A. R. Rahman, who has been his regular composer for all his films till date. Among cinematographers, he has also worked with Madhu Ambat, Rajiv Menon, Ravi K. Chandran, V. Manikandan and Ravi Varman while switching between Sreeram and Santosh Sivan otherwise. Since Alaipayuthey, Sreekar Prasad has been his regular film editor.
Awards and honoursEdit
Mani is well recognized outside India with a retrospective of his films held at various film festivals around the world such as Toronto International Film Festival, Busan International Film Festival, Tokyo Filmex and Birmingham International Film Festival. His films are being screened regularly at many film festivals such as Venice Film Festival, Rotterdam Film Festival, Montreal Film Festival and Palm Springs International Film Festival.
The Government of India honoured Mani with Padma Shri in 2002. He has won several National Film Awards, Filmfare Awards, Filmfare Awards South and state awards. Apart from these awards, many of his films have been screened at various film festivals and have won numerous accolades. Geethanjali, directed by him won the Golden Lotus Award for Best Popular Film at the 37th National Film Awards. Other films like Mouna Ragam, Anjali, and Kannathil Muthamittal have won the Best Regional Film awards at the National Film Awards. Two of his films, Roja and Bombay have won the Nargis Dutt Award for Best Feature Film on National Integration. The former was also nominated for Best Film category at the 18th Moscow International Film Festival. In 2010, Mani was honoured with Jaeger-Lecoultre Glory to the Filmmaker at the 67th Venice International Film Festival. In July 2015, he was honoured with the Sun Mark Lifetime Achievement Award at the Bagri Foundation London Indian Film Festival for his esteemed contribution to international cinema. Around the same time, the Museum of the Moving Image, New York City, paid a special tribute to Mani. His films Roja, Bombay, and Dil Se were screened at the museum as a retrospective.
- Shetty, Kavitha (15 February 1994). "A shooting success". India Today. Archived from the original on 23 July 2013. Retrieved 28 December 2015.
- N, Sathiya Moorthy. "Film producer GV commits suicide". Rediff. Archived from the original on 7 January 2017. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
- "Mani mantra for B-school". The Telegraph. Calcutta, India. 10 September 2007. Archived from the original on 14 January 2012. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
- S, Shivakumar (10 May 2003). "The seamier side of film financing". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 18 July 2013. Retrieved 22 May 2012.
- "Film producer G. Srinivasan dead". The Hindu. 28 May 2007. Archived from the original on 11 August 2011. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
- Singh, Vidya (3 November 2011). "Maniratnam, the filmmaker". The New Indian Express. Archived from the original on 23 October 2013. Retrieved 26 May 2012.
- Rangan 2014, chpt. Pallavi Anupallavi, Unaru, Pagal Nilavu, Idhayakoil.
- India Today 1988, p. 96.
- S. Pradhan, Bharathi (31 October 2010). "Star wives with working lives". The Telegraph. Calcutta, India. Archived from the original on 2 November 2012. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
- Press Trust of India (2 April 2008). "Mani Ratnam's son a hit at party meet". The Indian Express. Archived from the original on 10 November 2012. Retrieved 21 May 2012.
- Ramkumar, Krishna (19 September 2009). "Planet plush!". The Times of India. p. 37. Archived from the original on 26 November 2013. Retrieved 23 May 2012.
- "Security cover for Mani Ratnam reviewed". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 18 January 2003. Archived from the original on 13 September 2012. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
- P. K, Ajith Kumar (27 August 2010). "A life in cinema". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 20 March 2012. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
- "Directorate of Film Festival" (PDF). Directorate of Film Festivals. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 October 2014. Retrieved 11 February 2011.
- Subramanian, Samanth (2 March 2005). "Mani on Mani". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 20 March 2012. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
- Srinivasan; Pavithra (9 September 2010). "Pagal Nilavu (1985)". Rediff. Archived from the original on 3 April 2012. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
- Bhaskaran, Gautaman (7 September 2010). "Venice honours Mani Ratnam". Hindustan Times. Archived from the original on 14 February 2011. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
- Srinivasan, Pavithra (9 June 2010). "Nayagan (1987)". Chennai: Rediff. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
- Hemanth (9 November 2010). "Evolution of Dubbed Films in Andhra Pradesh". South Scope. Archived from the original on 21 October 2013. Retrieved 5 September 2013.
- Nagappan 2011, p. 172.
- Chaudhuri 2005, p. 161.
- "Nayagan/Dayavan". Rediff. 29 March 2011. Archived from the original on 18 May 2012. Retrieved 1 June 2012.
- Babu Jayakumar, G (7 October 2010). "Tragedy brings back memories of Nayagan". The Indian Express. Archived from the original on 21 July 2015. Retrieved 1 June 2012.
- "Apu Trilogy, Pyasa, Nayakan in Time list of 100 great films". Outlook. 23 May 2005. Archived from the original on 24 July 2015. Retrieved 18 April 2012.
- Tourtellotte, Bob (24 May 2005). "Three Indian films make it to top 100 list". Reuters. Los Angeles: Sify.com. Archived from the original on 22 October 2012. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
- India Today 1994, p. 49.
- Parameswaran, Prathibha (19 August 2009). "Sridevi calls me sir, says Kamal Hassan". CNN-IBN. Archived from the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 1 June 2012.
- Kamath, Sudhish (15 July 2005). "Nayagan, Sarkar stand on their own". The Hindu. Chennai. Archived from the original on 18 July 2013. Retrieved 1 June 2012.
- Roy, Piyush (27 January 2008). "India's Oscar drill". The Indian Express. Retrieved 31 May 2012.
- National Film Development Corporation of India 1988, p. 77.
- K, Jeshi (18 June 2005). "When a maestro cranks the camera". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 18 July 2013. Retrieved 31 May 2012.
- "Interview with Nagarjuna about Soggade Chinni Nayana - Telugu cinema actor". www.idlebrain.com.
- "Nagarjuna, Mahesh Babu to star in Mani Ratnam's next".
- "37th National Film Awards" (PDF). Directorate of Film Festivals. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 October 2013. Retrieved 25 May 2012.
- "38th National Film Festival, 1991" (PDF). Directorate of Film Festivals. p. 69. Archived from the original on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 31 May 2012.
- "38th National Film Festival" (PDF). Directorate of Film Festivals. p. 79. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 March 2012. Retrieved 31 May 2012.
- "Rajinikanth's Thalapathi to be remade in Bollywood". Oneindia.in. 22 November 2011. Archived from the original on 15 May 2013. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
- "Rajni's Tamil Top 10". Rediff. Archived from the original on 2 November 2012. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
- S Thakkar, Mehul (11 November 2011). "Mani Ratnam reunites with Bharat Shah". The Times of India. Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
- "Won from the heart-39th Annual Filmfare Awards Nite-Winners". Filmfare. May 1993.
- "18th Moscow International Film Festival (1993)". MIFF. Archived from the original on 3 April 2014. Retrieved 2013-03-09.
- Chaudhuri 2005, p. 162.
- Sen, Raja (18 June 2010). "Raavan is unforgivably boring". Rediff. Archived from the original on 1 February 2015. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
- Thoraval 2000, p. 339.
- Nayar, Parvathi (25 June 2010). "Jewel of Indian cinema". AsiaOne. Archived from the original on 9 October 2014. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- Sri (16 July 2009). "Retrospect: Gaayam (1993)". Telugucinema.com. Archived from the original on 3 March 2012. Retrieved 6 March 2012.
- Chaudhuri 2005, p. 163.
- "Previous Political Film Society Award Winners". Political Film Society. Archived from the original on 18 August 2011. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
- "13th JFF". Jerusalem Film Festival. Archived from the original on 24 May 2012. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
- British Federation of Film Societies 1994, p. 15.
- "A change of guard". Rediff. 3 November 1998. Archived from the original on 19 December 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
- "The Director – Mani Ratnam" (PDF). berlinbabylon14. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 July 2013. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
- "Mani Ratnam admitted to hospital". The Indian Express. 15 April 2009. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
- Gopalan 2005, p. 9.
- "Political Film Society – Previous Award Winners". Political Film Society. Archived from the original on 27 May 2012.
- "Mani Ratnam's best in Bollywood". IBN Live. Archived from the original on 10 October 2013. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
- Sattar, Miral (27 October 2010). "Five Essential Bollywood Movies to Netflix". Time. Time Inc. Archived from the original on 29 May 2012. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
- Nahta, Komal (21 September 2000). "Bollywood films strike gold!". Rediff. Archived from the original on 17 May 2013. Retrieved 24 May 2012.
- "Box Office 1998". Box Office India. Archived from the original on 17 October 2013. Retrieved 24 May 2012.
- "1999 Winners". Berlin International Film Festival. Archived from the original on 2 March 2014. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
- "Film Review: Alaipayuthey". The Hindu. 21 April 2000. Archived from the original on 14 October 2012. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
- "Weaving emotions into celluloid". The Hindu. 21 April 2000. Archived from the original on 18 July 2013. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
- "2000 Winners". Berlin International Film Festival. 2011. Archived from the original on 9 July 2012. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
- R. Kamath, Sudhish (15 June 2005). "Rahman musical extravaganza in the offing". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Archived from the original on 18 July 2013. Retrieved 3 February 2012.
- Kamath, Sudhish (4 August 2005). "The making of Planet Kollywood". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Archived from the original on 14 August 2012. Retrieved 3 February 2005.
- "Banyan pulls out of Dial 100 Mental Health Helpline services". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 23 November 2008. Archived from the original on 18 July 2013. Retrieved 3 February 2012.
- Tulika, Pearl (26 February 2012). "Delicate flower caught in a storm". Rediff. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
- "The 20th JFF". Jerusalem Film Festival. Archived from the original on 19 August 2011. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
- "IFFLA 2003 Film Schedule". Indian Film Festival of Los Angeles. Archived from the original on 9 August 2011. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
- Kehr, Dave (21 May 2004). "Portraits From the Class Struggle in Modern India". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 22 May 2013. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
- Dasgupta, Priyanka (14 January 2007). "Spinning a yarn?". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 5 November 2012. Retrieved 17 April 2012.
- Devi. K, Sangeetha (6 October 2006). "This is as big as it gets". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Archived from the original on 10 November 2012. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
- SALAM, ZIYA US (28 December 2007). "Twinkle, twinkle, all stars!". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Archived from the original on 10 November 2012. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
- Preview: Acceptance in Cannes bestows prestige and honour Archived 30 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Cannes, India celebrate 60 years". Variety. Archived from the original on 12 August 2011.
- PTI (14 May 2010). "Cannes fete off to a start with 'Robin Hood'". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 6 April 2012. Retrieved 9 October 2013.
- "Mani Ratnam to be honoured at Venice". The Indian Express. 18 May 2010. Archived from the original on 24 May 2010. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
- Saltz, Rachael (18 June 2010). "An Indian Epic With Bollywood Glamour". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 24 June 2012. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
- Sivaswamy, Saisuresh (18 June 2010). "Vikram's Raavanan is better, as is Prithviraj's Dev". Rediff. Archived from the original on 3 April 2012. Retrieved 25 May 2012.
- Rajeev Masand (19 June 2010). "Masand: 'Raavan' is a bore of a film". IBN Live. Archived from the original on 1 February 2015.
- "Going Places". The Telegraph. 10 October 2010. Archived from the original on 19 June 2012. Retrieved 30 January 2013.
- "Mani Ratnam gets police protection". The Times of India. 28 February 2013. Retrieved 12 February 2014.
- "Dil Raju suggested 'Ok Bangaram' title to Mani Ratnam". The Indian Express. 23 March 2015. Archived from the original on 3 April 2015. Retrieved 25 March 2015.
- "Kanchana 2 and OK Kanmani are superhits". Sify.com. 21 April 2015. Archived from the original on 5 October 2015. Retrieved 4 October 2015.
- Upadhyaya, Prakash (20 April 2015). "'Ok Kanmani' Review Round-up: Dulquer Salmaan-Nithya Menen's Film Gets Positive Response". International Business Times. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 24 March 2016.
- "Mani Ratnam releases Kaatru Veliyidai poster, Karthi and Aditi Rao Hydari in lead". The Indian Express. 7 July 2016. Archived from the original on 7 July 2016. Retrieved 7 July 2016.
- "Its official! Mani Ratnams next to star Jyothika, Simbu, Vijay Sethupathi, Fahadh Faasil". Retrieved 2017-09-18.
- "Cast for Mani Ratnam's next announced". The News Minute. 2017-09-16. Retrieved 2017-09-18.
- Padmanabhan; Gautam. "Straight From The Heart". Asian Age. Archived from the original on 5 April 2012. Retrieved 19 May 2012.
- "Cannes is not my goal". The Hindu. 12 April 2002. Archived from the original on 8 September 2003. Retrieved 28 March 2014.
- Jayanthi, K. (15 October 1995). "What makes Mani?". The Indian Express. Archived from the original on 20 March 2012. Retrieved 29 February 2012.
- "Tiburon International Film Festival – Mani Ratnam". Tiburon International Film Festival. Archived from the original on 26 November 2013. Retrieved 19 May 2012.
- Rangan 2014, chpt. Filmography and Awards.
- Rangan 2014, chpt. Thalapathy.
- S. R. Ashok Kumar (23 December 2011). "A different role". The Hindu. Retrieved 8 October 2013.
- "Santhosh Sivan on the sets of Raavan". Sify. Archived from the original on 23 September 2012. Retrieved 8 October 2013.
- "Ilayaraja, Mani Ratnam bury differences?". The Times of India. 5 April 2013. Retrieved 8 October 2013.
- "Encountering transitions". The Hindu. 27 January 2013. Archived from the original on 3 April 2013. Retrieved 8 October 2013.
- "Sreekar Prasad on editing a bilingual". Rediff. 20 May 2004. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 8 October 2013.
- Subhash K Jha (24 June 2010). "Let him say what he wants to!". Mid Day. Archived from the original on 28 July 2010. Retrieved 8 October 2013.
- "Padma Awards". Government of India. National Informatics Centre.
- "Competition program: XVIII MIFF (1–12 july 1993)". 34th Moscow International Film Festival. Archived from the original on 3 April 2014. Retrieved 24 May 2012.
- "Venezia 67 Awards". Venice Film Festival. Archived from the original on 13 September 2010. Retrieved 11 September 2010.
- "London Indian Film Festival Awards". London Indian Film Festival. Archived from the original on 19 July 2015. Retrieved 20 July 2015.
- Dore, Shalini (11 June 2015). "Mani Ratnam Tribute Set at Museum of the Moving Image". Variety. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
- Nagappan, Ramu (1 December 2011). Speaking Havoc: Social Suffering and South Asian Narratives. University of Washington Press. ISBN 978-0-295-80171-1.
- Thoraval, Yves (1 February 2000). The cinemas of India. Macmillan India. ISBN 978-0-333-93410-4.
- Film. British Federation of Film Societies. 1994.
- National Film Development Corporation of India (NFDC), Directorate of Film Festivals (1988). Indian cinema. Directorate of Film Festivals, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting.
- Chaudhuri, Shohini (2005). "Cinema of South India and Sri Lanka". Contemporary world cinema: Europe, the Middle East, East Asia and South Asia. Edinburgh University Press. p. 199. ISBN 9780748617999.
- "1994 India". India Today. Aroon Purie for Living Media India Ltd. 21. 1994.
- "1988 India". India Today. Living Media India Limited. 13: 96. 1988.
- Gopalan, Lalitha (2005). "Bombay: BFI Film Classics". BFI Publishing. ISBN 978-0-85170-956-7.
- Rangan, Baradwaj (2014). Conversations with Mani Ratnam. Penguin Books Limited. ISBN 978-81-8475-690-6.
- Bal, Mieke (2004). Narrative Theory: Critical Concepts in Literary and Cultural Studies. Taylor & Francis. p. 1680. ISBN 978-0-415-31661-3.
- Benjamin, S. (2006). A rose by any other name: exploring the politics of Mani Ratnam's Roja. Contemporary South Asia,. pp. 423–435.
- Mallhi, Angie (2006). The Illusion of Secularism: Mani Ratnam's Bombay and the Consolidation of Hindu Hegemony. University of Victoria: CAPI Occasional Paper #31.Victoria: Centre for Asia-Pacific Initiatives.
- Terska Ciecko, Anne (2006). "National Cinema and State Authority". Contemporary Asian Cinema: Popular culture in a Global Frame. Berg: Berg Publishers. ISBN 978-1-84520-237-8.
- Gopalan, Lalitha (2005). Bombay: BFI Film Classics. London: BFI Publishing. ISBN 978-0-85170-956-7.
- Nagappan, Ramu (2005). "Momentary Pleasures of Reconciliation". Speaking Havoc: Social Suffering & South Asian Narratives. Washington: University of Washington Press. ISBN 978-0-295-98488-9.
- Velayutham, Selvaraj (2008). Tamil Cinema: The Cultural Politics of India's Other Film Industry. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-39680-6.