Chinnaiya Manrayar Ganesan, known by his stage name Sivaji Ganesan, (1 October 1928 – 21 July 2001) was an Indian actor, producer and composer. Considered to be one of the greatest actors in Indian cinema, he was active in Tamil cinema during the latter half of the 20th century. His acting and dialogue delivery skills is still viewed as one of the greatest in Indian Cinema history. He was well known for his versatility and variety of roles depicted on screen, which gave him also the Tamil honorific name Nadigar Thilagam (lit. the pride of actors). In a career that spanned close to five decades, he had acted in 288 films in Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam and Hindi. His eidetic memory helped him remember his scripts at a glance.
Portrait of Sivaji Ganesan on his autobiography
Vettaithidhal Chinnaiya Manrayar Ganesamoorthy & V.C.Ganesan
1 October 1928
|Died||21 July 2001 (aged 72)|
|Cause of death||Long QT syndrome|
|Other names||Nadigar Thilagam|
Prabhu Ganesan, Shanthi, Thenmozhi
|Parent(s)||Father : Chinnaiya Manrayar|
Mother : Rajamani Ammal
Ganesan was the first Indian film actor to win a "Best Actor" award in an International film festival, the Afro-Asian Film Festival held in Cairo, Egypt in 1960. Many leading South Indian film actors have stated that their acting was influenced by Ganesan. He received the President Award for Best Tamil Actor on twelve occasions. In addition, he received four Filmfare Awards South and a National Film Award (Special Jury). In 1997, Ganesan was conferred the Dadasaheb Phalke Award, the highest honour for films in India. He was also the first Indian actor to be made a Chevalier of the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres.
Ganesan is remembered as an iconic figure of Tamil cinema. He has been described by the Los Angeles Times as "The Marlon Brando of South India". In spite of his celebrated film career, his short stint in politics became a futile attempt.
Ganesan was born on 1 October 1928 to Chinnaiah Manrayar and Rajamani Ammal to a thevar family in vettaithidal,Mannargudi, Thanjavur. Without his father'sconsent, Ganesan decided to join a touring stage drama company at the age of seven. At the age of 10, he moved to Tiruchirappalli and joined a drama troupe in Sangiliyandapuram and began to perform in stage plays. From the drama troupe trainers, he was lucky enough to learn acting and dancing skills. He was trained in Bharatanatyam, Kathak and Manipuri dance styles.
Ganesan exhibited the ability to remember lengthy lines easily. The group favoured Ganesan to play the lead and he would continue to do so. His portrayal of the character of Chhatrapati Shivaji in the stage play Shivaji Kanda Hindu Rajyam earned him the name "Sivaji", which was conferred on him at a public function presided over by social reformer E. V. Ramasamy. Since then, he was referred by the name of "Sivaji".
Early career: 1952–1959Edit
Two factors can be attributed the entry of Ganesan into films: The principal artists in Tamil films during the 1940s and 1950s were Telugus, whose acting was not matched by their dialogue delivery in Tamil. (In fact, Sivaji Ganesan lent his voice to Mukkamala Krishna Murthy, a Telugu actor, for a Tamil film Niraparathi. The film was well received by the Tamil audience. Secondly, the 1950s saw the growth of the Dravidian movement in Tamil Nadu, under the leadership of C. N. Annadurai, and M. Karunanidhi. Their transformation of language skills to films through script writing ensured their instant acceptance. Ganesan's entry into films at this stage of popularity was easy and inevitable, and he could establish himself in a better position.
Ganesan made his acting debut in the 1952 Tamil film Parasakthi, directed by the famous directors Krishnan-Panju, produced by P. A. Perumal Mudaliar of National pictures, co-starring actress Pandari Bai. Periyar E. V. Ramasamy recommended him for the lead role in Parasakthi to the producer, which was supposed to be portrayed by the Telugu actor Akkineni Nageswara Rao. The script was written by later Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu, M. Karunanidhi. Since actors who are well-trained in classical dance can effectively showcase expressions called Nava Rasa on their faces, Ganesan went on to become one of the popular actors in Tamil cinema in the 1950s. His unique voice had a greater appeal. His style of dialogue delivery with a long spell of dialogues — like a poetry recitation with much clarity — earned him critical recognition.
Andha Naal (1954) was a trendsetter in Tamil cinema because it had no songs and Ganesan played an anti-hero. The film won the president's silver medal the following year. The same year, he co-starred with his competitor M. G. Ramachandran in Koondukkili, where he played the antagonist.
Donning versatile roles: 1959–1964Edit
His role in the film Veerapaandiya Kattabomman won him the Best Actor Award at the Afro-Asian Film Festival held in March 1960 at Cairo. Incidentally, Ganesan was also the first Indian actor to get an award for Best Actor abroad. He has worked with many actresses, including Bhanumathi Ramakrishna, Pandaribai, Vyjayanthimala, Savithri, Padmini, Devika, Rajasree, B. Sarojadevi, K. R. Vijaya, Vanisri and J. Jayalalitha of his time. He also co-starred with other actors such as Gemini Ganesan, S.S. Rajendran, Muthuraman, Sivakumar, M. R. Radha and S. V. Ranga Rao in numerous films in which he played the main lead.
Puranic and Historical Roles: 1965–1969Edit
His portrayal of Lord Shiva in the movie Thiruvilayadal (1965) won him many accolades. In the film Navarathri (1964), Ganesan played nine different roles that represented the nine emotional states of a person. Sanjeev Kumar and Akkineni Nageswara Rao were inspired by this film and reprised the nine roles in Navarathri (1966) and Naya Din Nayi Raat in 1974 respectively. Ganesan could strike a balance between commercial cinema, Mythological cinema and experimental cinema. His epical portrayals in films such as Thiruvilayaadal, Thiruvarutselvar, Saraswati Sabatham, Harischandra, Thirumal Perumai, Karnan and Thillana Mohanambal won him critical acclaim. He played a variety of roles such as freedom fighters, like Kappalottiya Thamizhan, Vanchinathan, Tiruppur Kumaran, Bhagat Singh and epic characters like Harichandra, Karna, Bharatha, Narada, Appar, Nayanmars and Alwars. Spanning genres like epics to Crime thrillers; from romantic escapades to comic flicks and action flicks, Ganesan has covered it all.
Superstardom – Varied Roles: 1970–1979Edit
Ganesan played supporting role to Rajendra Kumar in the Hindi film Dharti in 1970, which was a remake of his 1969 Tamil film Sivandha Mann, in which he played the lead role. In the Hindi version, Ganesan played the role which Muthuraman had played in the original. Several directors such as Krishnan-Panju, T. R. Sundaram, A. P. Nagarajan, L. V. Prasad, B. R. Panthulu, T. Prakash Rao, A. Bhim Singh, K. Shankar, A. C. Tirulokchandar, C. V. Sridhar, P. Madhavan, K. S. Gopalakrishnan and K. Vijayan directed Ganesan in different roles. Kongara Jaggayya offered his voice to Sivaji when his movies were dubbed into Telugu.
In the 1960s and 1970s his films have been well received and he was able to deliver constant hits. Some of his famous hits during this period are Vasantha Maaligai, Gauravam, Thankappathakkam and Sathyam. Many of his films inspired remakes in Sinhalese. Films such as Pilot Premnath and Mohana Punnagai were shot in Sri Lanka, with Sri Lankan actors such as Malini Fonseka and Geetha Kumarasinghe playing the female lead. In 1979, he appeared in the biggest blockbuster of his career, Thirisoolam, an adaptation of the Kannada film Shankar Guru in which Rajkumar had played the lead role.
Matured roles: 1980–1999Edit
The 1980s was a period in which Ganesan started enacting more matured roles. But still films such as Rishi Moolam, Yamanukku Yaman and Chiranjeevi had Ganesan portraying lead roles. Muthal Mariyathai (1985) won him a Filmfare Award and Tamil Nadu State film Award under Best Actor category. In 1992, he acted with Kamal Haasan in the critically acclaimed Thevar Magan, which won him a Special Mention Award at the 40th National Film Awards. His other films released during this period are Pasumpon, En Aasai Rasave and Once More, where he was cast in prominent roles. He worked in Poopparikka Varugirom, which released as his last film before his death, however the last film he worked in before his death was Padayappa (1999).
Chinna Ponnusamy Padayatchi is the teacher of theatrical arts who trained Ganesan in his troupe. During an interview with V.S. Srinivasan, Ganesan said: "Theatre has taught me everything. My teacher (Chinna Ponnuswamy Padayachi of Chidambaram) taught me Bharatnatyam, acting, body movements & practically everything. Padayachi, was himself an outstanding stage actor and I learnt in an atmosphere that was reminiscent of an ashram school."
Until 1955, Ganesan was a staunch sympathizer of the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam. Once, he went to the Tirumala town in Tirupati district and worshiped Lord Venkateswara in the world-famous temple there. Due to this act, he was heavily criticized by his party men; as DMK propounded atheism and looked down worshiping God. Ganesan was very hurt by this incident.
Later in 1961, Ganesan became a strong supporter of the Indian National Congress. Due to his popularity, he was requested to be part of the National Congress Tamil Nadu. His respect for Kamaraj made him support Congress. He was made the Rajya Sabha Member of Parliament by then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. Indira Gandhi's death in 1984 also brought Ganesan's political career to an end.
After 1988, he floated his own political party (Thamizhaga Munnetra Munnani) and contested in only 50 seats, trying to play safe instead of contesting in all seats which possibly cost him the chance to win the elections because 50 seats would not make a significant difference to any election result.
In 1989, he became the President of the Tamil Nadu wing of the Janata Dal.
Unlike his highly successful acting career, his political career was rather unsuccessful.
Ganesan was the second son of his family. He had two brothers. Ganesan married Kamala in 1952 and had four children. His younger son Prabhu is a notable Tamil actor. Ganesan established a film production company in the late 1950s, now called Sivaji Productions, which is now being looked after by his eldest son Ramkumar. He has two daughters Shanthi and Thenmozhi. Three of his grandsons have also appeared in films, with Ramkumar's two sons Dushyanth Ramkumar and Shivaji Dev, both having the stage name of Junior Sivaji. Moreover, Vikram Prabhu debuted in the critically acclaimed film Kumki in 2012.
Suffering from respiratory problems, Ganesan was admitted to the Apollo Hospital in Chennai on 1 July 2001. He also had been suffering from a prolonged heart ailment for about 10 years. He died at 7:45 pm (IST) on 21 July 2001 at the age of 72 just three months prior to his 73rd birthday for which he had special plans. A documentary Parasakthi Muthal Padayappa Varai was made to commemorate Sivaji Ganesan's legacy. His funeral the next day was telecast live on Sun TV and was attended by thousands of viewers, politicians and personalities from the South Indian film fraternity. His eldest son, Ramkumar, performed his last rites at the Besant Nagar Crematorium, Chennai.
When President Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt visited India, Sivaji Ganesan was the only individual granted permission by the then-Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, to host a party for Nasser. Nasser was given a number of valuable mementos depicting the civilisation and culture of South India. Sivaji Ganesan was the first artist from India to visit the United States, in the cultural exchange programme of the US government, in 1962, invited by the then-US President John F. Kennedy, where he took the role of India's cultural ambassador. During his visit there, he was honoured by being made the honorary mayor of Niagara Falls, New York for one day and was presented the golden key to the city. The only other Indian who has had this honour before Ganesan was Jawaharlal Nehru. When Sivaji returned from America, there was a huge crowd to receive him at the Madras Airport and MGR was there. When Sivaji returned from Egypt after winning the best actor award, there was a huge crowd to receive him at the Madras Airport. On 22 March 1976, he went over to Mauritius on an invitation from Prime Minister Ramagoolam and took part in their independence day celebrations and stayed as their government guest for four days.
During his visit to the United States in June 1995, he visited Columbus, Ohio. Participating in the dinner hosted to honour Ganesan, the Mayor of the city, Greg Lashutka honoured him by announcing him as an honorary citizen of Columbus. On the same occasion, the Mayor of Mount Vernon read out and gave him a special welcome citation. The Columbus Tamil Sangam was formulated on that day and Ganesan was made the honorary President of that association.
Ganesan has remained as one of the popular Tamil actors with a large fan base. At the peak of his career, Ganesan had 30000 registered fan clubs, which worked at promoting his image and films.
It was Sivaji's tragedy that, as the years progressed, opportunities for him to display his acting talent became scarce. But he did act in cameo roles, often stealing the scenes, as in Thevar Magan, which won him the National Awards Jury's Special Jury award in 1993. Sivaji, incidentally, declined the award.
Sivaji Ganesan is considered as one of the best Indian actors of all time. He was also acknowledged as a consummate actor and one of the most imitated ones. He was praised for his body language and his resounding voice and dialogue delivery. Ganesan is known for his versatility and has acted as a blind man in Paalum Pazhumum, a physically handicapped person in Bhaagapirivinai, enacting Nine numbers of totally different personas from various social strata and the corresponding body language ( gait, voice, facial expression, etc., ) in " Navarathiri", thereby becoming probably the first-time in Indian cinema history as an actor reprising Nine roles in a single film and in extension, inspiring subsequent films (atleast) in tamil like "Navarathinam" ( the great MGR - starred ), "Dasavatharam" ( featuring Sivaji's torch-bearer Kamal Haasan ), a man with a scared face as in Deiva Magan, a murderer in Pudhiya Paravai, or a traitor as in Andha Naal, the first movie that had no songs at all.
Awards and honoursEdit
Ganesan has won the President's Award for more than 12 times for his performance in various films. He was also honored with civilian awards such as Padma Shri, Padma Bhushan and Dada Saheb Palke Award, the highest award in India for people involved in film industry.
Civilian honours – National & InternationalEdit
- 1966 – Padma Shri from the Government of India
- 1984 – Padma Bhushan from the Government of India
- 1995 – Chevalier awarded by the National Order of the Legion of Honour of France. On 22 April 1995 at a ceremony held at the MAC Stadium in Chennai, Ganesan was presented with the Chevalier title and medallion by the French ambassador to India, Philip Petit.
- He is first Indian actor to get the best actor award from a foreign film festival 1960 – Best Actor in Asia – Africa Continent Award at the Afro-Asian Film Festival for Veerapandiya Kattabomman
Other International honorsEdit
- 1960 – One-day Mayor for the city of Niagara Falls and was presented with the Golden Key of Cairo. Pandit Jawaharlal is the only person besides Mr. Ganesan getting this honor
- 1964 – Cultural Ambassador of India invited by John F. Kennedy under the Cultural Exchange Programme
- 1991 – Citizenship in the Columbus, Ohio, USA by the Government of United States
National Film AwardsEdit
- 1992 – National Film Award – Special Jury Award for Thevar Magan
- 1996 – Dadasaheb Phalke Award.
Filmfare Awards SouthEdit
- 1972 – Filmfare Best Tamil Actor Award for Gnana Oli
- 1973 – Filmfare Best Tamil Actor Award for Gauravam
- 1985 – Filmfare Best Tamil Actor Award for Muthal Mariyathai
- 1985 - Filmfare Lifetime Achievement Award – South
Tamil Nadu State Film AwardsEdit
- 1969 – Tamil Nadu State Film Award for Best Actor for Deiva Magan
- 1970 - Tamil Nadu State Film Award for Best Film - First Prize
- 1989 - Tamil Nadu State Film Honorary Award - MGR Award
- 1986 – Honorary doctorate from the Annamalai University
- 1997 – Kalaimamani from the Government of Tamil Nadu
- 1998 – NTR National Award from the Government of Andhra Pradesh
Pondicherry (Puducherry) was the first state to erect a statue of Sivaji Ganesan in honour of his acting skills and his huge fan base in the state and it was unveiled by the then Puducherry Chief Minister N. Rangasamy. A statue of Ganesan was erected on Kamarajar Road in Chennai, Tamil Nadu to honour the actor and was unveiled by the then Tamil Nadu Chief Minister M. Karunanidhi in 2006. The South Indian Film Artistes' Association as a tribute to Ganesan, declared that 1 October, the birth day of Ganesan, would be observed as Actors' Day by the association Chennai film industry. The Government of Maharashtra has instituted a state award, in the name of Ganesan, which is given under the Best Actor category every year entitled "Sivaji Ganesan Award".
- "Sivaji Ganesan's birth anniversary". The Times of India. 15 January 2017. Retrieved 20 May 2018.
- "A doyen among actors". Frontline. 2001. Retrieved 20 May 2018.
- "The stamp is been issued, honouring Sivaji Ganesan". Maharashtrapost. 2001. Retrieved 20 May 2018.
- "Deputy CM Panneerselvam inaugurates Sivaji Ganesan's memorial". thehindu.com. 1 October 2017. Retrieved 20 May 2018.
- "Autobiography of an actor : Sivaji Ganesan, October 1928-July 2001". Sivaji Prabhu Charities Trust, 2007. 2007. Retrieved 20 May 2018.
- S. Muthiah (1987). Madras discovered: a historical guide to looking around, supplemented with tales of "Once upon a city". Affiliated East-West Press. p. 269. Archived from the original on 14 June 2013. Retrieved 12 July 2012.
- "Legendary film actor Sivaji Ganesan passes away". India Today. Retrieved 2018-05-31.
- "Deputy CM Panneerselvam inaugurates Sivaji Ganesan's memorial". thehindu.com. 1 October 2017. Retrieved 20 May 2018.
- "Sivaji: The legend lives on". The Hindu Business Line. 24 July 2001. Archived from the original on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
- NK, Jarshad (6 February 2013). "The Economic Times". Archived from the original on 9 February 2013. Retrieved 16 February 2013.
- "An actor and a gentleman". The Hindu. 11 July 2004. Archived from the original on 9 November 2012. Retrieved 2 June 2011.
- "Shivaji Ganesan Biography – Sivaji Ganesan Childhood, Profile & Filmography". Lifestyle.iloveindia.com. Archived from the original on 17 April 2011. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
- "Forever Sivaji – Tamil Movie News". IndiaGlitz. Archived from the original on 13 June 2011. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
- "Tamil Nadu News : "Stage artistes don't get due regard"". The Hindu. 20 July 2010. Archived from the original on 23 December 2010. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
- R. L, Hardgrave (1979). Essays in the political sociology of South India. Usha. Archived from the original on 14 December 2016. Retrieved 11 June 2011.
- "Padmabushan Chevalier Sivaji V.C.Ganesan". Sivajiprabhu.com. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
- "Nadigar Thilagam Sivaji Ganesan, South Indian Cinema Photo, Nadigar Thilagam Sivaji Ganesa". Timescontent.com. 19 July 1997. Archived from the original on 17 January 2011. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
- "Tamil Film Actor Sivaji Ganesan Dead". Rediff. 21 July 2001. Archived from the original on 23 January 2011. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
- "India's first and finest music e-zine". The Music Magazine. 23 July 2001. Archived from the original on 26 July 2011. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
- "Sivaji Ganesan – Nadigar Thilakam". Sivaji.org. Archived from the original on 13 September 2012. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
- "Marlon Brando Sivaji Ganesan | Sivaji Ganesan; the Brando of South India – Los Angeles Times". Articles.latimes.com. 23 July 2001. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
- "Did Sivaji Ganesan overact? – Behindwoods.com – Andha Naal negative role". Behindwoods. Archived from the original on 3 February 2016. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
- "Tamil cinema's lodestar". Hinduonnet.com. Archived from the original on 24 November 2002. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
- "Deputy CM Panneerselvam inaugurates Sivaji Ganesan's memorial". thehindu.com. 1 October 2017. Retrieved 20 May 2018.
- "Shivaji Ganesan". IMDb. Retrieved 2018-05-31.
- "unique naming convention in Tamil cinema| Thehindu". Thehindu. Retrieved 2018-05-31.
- "Shivaji Ganesan". IMD. Retrieved 2018-05-31.
- "Friday Review Chennai / Interview: Into realms of the past". The Hindu. 19 January 2007. Archived from the original on 17 April 2012. Retrieved 2 June 2011.
- "Sivaji: The curtain drops". The Times of India. 24 July 2001. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
- "Literary Review / Book Review: The making of an actor". The Hindu. 3 August 2008. Archived from the original on 24 February 2012. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
- "Tamil movies : CM inspects the Sivaji statue! To be unveiled on July 21st!!". Behindwoods. 30 June 2006. Archived from the original on 11 May 2012. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
- "Talent, charisma and much more". The Hindu. 27 July 2001. Archived from the original on 28 November 2010. Retrieved 2 June 2011.
- "Friday Review Thiruvananthapuram / Cinema : Dancing attendance on cinema". The Hindu. 18 September 2009. Archived from the original on 9 November 2012. Retrieved 2 June 2011.
- The making of an actor Archived 24 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine., THE HINDU Sunday, 4 August 2008
- "Afro-Asian film festival". Nadigarthilagam.com. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
- "Directorate of Film Festival" (PDF). iffi.nic.in. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 October 2015. Retrieved 26 August 2016.
- "Metro Plus Chennai / Columns : Movie hall crosses a milestone". The Hindu. 18 January 2011. Archived from the original on 9 November 2012. Retrieved 2 June 2011.
- "Navaratri 1964". The Hindu. 7 September 2007. Archived from the original on 15 October 2009.
- "A doyen among actors". Hindu.com. 1 October 1928. Archived from the original on 9 November 2012. Retrieved 2 June 2011.
- "The Hindu : When a man is God, savant, king and mortal". Thehindujobs.com. 23 July 2001. Archived from the original on 23 May 2011. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
- India who's who. INFA Publications. 1990. Archived from the original on 14 December 2016.
- "Shivaji Ganesan Biography - Sivaji Ganesan Childhood, Profile & Filmography". lifestyle.iloveindia.com. Archived from the original on 24 August 2014. Retrieved 20 July 2014.
- "Rediff On The Net, Movies: A chat with Tamil thespian Chevalier Sivaji Ganesan". www.rediff.com. Archived from the original on 15 February 2017. Retrieved 2016-11-17.
- "Book Review: The Legends Of Indian Cinema – Sivaji Ganesan | Bollywood.com : Entertainment news, movie, music and fashion reviews". Bollywood.com. Archived from the original on 8 July 2011. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
- "The Hindu : Montage of images". Thehindujobs.com. 9 August 2001. Archived from the original on 1 October 2011. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
- "Chip off the old block". The Hindu. 27 November 2002. Archived from the original on 24 November 2011. Retrieved 2 June 2011.
- "Life Chennai : The making of a Rajnikant-starrer". The Hindu. 27 September 2004. Archived from the original on 9 November 2012. Retrieved 2 June 2011.
- "Sivaji Ganesan dead". The Times of India.
- Sivaji: The legend lives on Archived 17 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine., Business Line, Tue 24 July 2001
- "Thespian Sivaji Ganesan laid to rest amid tears". mid-day.com. Archived from the original on 28 September 2013. Retrieved 20 July 2014.
- Padmabushan Chevalier Dr.'Sivaji' V.C. Ganesan Archived 16 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine., sivajiprabhu.com
- Outlook. Hathway Investments Pvt Ltd. 2005. pp. 17–25.
- Sivaji Ganesan: Tamil cinema's versatile actor par excellence Archived 8 August 2014 at the Wayback Machine., DBSJeyaraj.com, 26 July 2014
- "'Sivaji' Ganesan dead". The Hindu. 22 July 2001. Archived from the original on 9 November 2012. Retrieved 2 June 2011.
- The Imagined Universe. "Of I-day pride and I-days past | The Imagined Universe". Elekhni.com. Archived from the original on 10 July 2011. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
- The Times of India directory and year book including who's who. Times of India Press. 1984.
- Collections. Update Video Publication. 1991.
- "Lifetime Achievement Award (South) winners down the years..." Filmfare Awards. Retrieved 26 August 2016.
- "Stars light up awards gala". The Hindu. 19 February 2004. Archived from the original on 9 November 2012. Retrieved 2 June 2011.
- "Sivaji Ganesan statue unveiled". The Hindu. 2006-02-12. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 2016-11-25.
- "All awards but the national award". Archives.chennaionline.com. Archived from the original on 10 October 2010. Retrieved 5 May 2011.