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Hindi cinema, often metonymously referred to as Bollywood and formerly known as Bombay cinema,[6] is the Indian Hindi-language film industry based in Mumbai (formerly Bombay), Maharashtra. The term is a portmanteau of "Bombay" and "Hollywood". The industry is related to Tamil film industry (Kollywood), Telugu film industry (Tollywood) and other industries, making up Indian Cinema – the world's largest.[7][8]

Hindi cinema
(Bollywood)
India film clapperboard (variant).svg
Main distributorsEros International
Reliance Big Pictures
UTV Motion Pictures
Yash Raj Films[1][2]
Produced feature films (2017)[3]
Total364
Fictionalmatus
Gross box office
Total15,500 crore ($2.31 billion) (2016)[4]
National filmsIndia: ₹3,500 crore ($565 million) (2014)[5]

Although the American film industry had produced over 150 musical films by 1930 after The Jazz Singer (1927, the world's first musical talkie), India took more than three years to import the sound technology before producing its first musical talkie: Alam Ara in 1931. Bollywood has produced major motion pictures in this genre since then, exceeding Hollywood's total musicals since the 1960s (when musical films declined in the West). Bollywood is known for its musicals, although non-musicals are also produced. Bollywood films tend to use a colloquial dialect of Hindi-Urdu (or Hindustani), mutually intelligible by Hindi and Urdu speakers,[9][10][11] and modern Bollywood films increasingly incorporate elements of Hinglish.[9]

Indian cinema is the world's largest film industry in film production, with an annual output of 1,986 feature films in 2017. Bollywood is its largest film producer, with 364 Hindi films produced in 2017.[3] Bollywood represents 43 percent of Indian net box-office revenue; Tamil and Telugu cinema represent 36 percent, and the remaining regional cinema constituted 21 percent in 2014.[5] Bollywood is one of the largest centers of film production in the world.[12][13][14] In 2001 ticket sales, Indian cinema (including Bollywood) reportedly sold an estimated 3.6 billion tickets worldwide, compared to Hollywood's 2.6 billion tickets sold.[15][16][17]

Contents

Etymology

"Bollywood" is a portmanteau derived from Bombay (the former name for Mumbai) and Hollywood, California, the center of the American film industry.[18] Unlike Hollywood, Bollywood is not a physical place; its name is criticized by some film journalists and critics, who believe it implies that the industry is a poor cousin of Hollywood.[18][19]

According to OxfordDictionaries.com, the word "Bollywood" originated during the 1970s,[20] when Indian cinema overtook Hollywood in film production. A number of journalists have been credited by newspapers with coining the word.[21] According to a 2004 article in The Hindu, journalist Bevinda Collaco coined the word;[22] a Telegraph article the following year report that Amit Khanna was its creator.[23]

According to Madhava Prasad, author of Surviving Bollywood, the term "Bollywood" was preceded by "Tollywood", which then referred to the cinema of West Bengal. The Bengali film industry, based in Tollygunge, Calcutta, was referred to as "Tollywood" in a 1932 American Cinematographer article.[24]

History

Early history (1910s–1940s)

 
Dadasaheb Phalke is considered the father of Indian cinema, including Bollywood.[25][26][27]

Dadasaheb Phalke's silent Raja Harishchandra (1913) is the first feature film made in India. By the 1930s, the industry was producing over 200 films per year.[28] The first Indian sound film, Ardeshir Irani's Alam Ara (1931), was commercially successful.[29] With a great demand for talkies and musicals, Bollywood and the other regional film industries quickly switched to sound films.

The 1930s and 1940s were tumultuous times; India was buffeted by the Great Depression, World War II, the Indian independence movement, and the violence of the Partition. Although most Bollywood films were unabashedly escapist, a number of filmmakers tackled tough social issues or used the struggle for Indian independence as a backdrop for their films.[28] Irani made the first Hindi color film, Kisan Kanya, in 1937. The following year, he made a color version of Mother India. However, color did not become a popular feature until the late 1950s. At this time, lavish romantic musicals and melodramas were cinematic staples.

Before the 1947 partition of India, which divided the country into the Republic of India and Pakistan, the Bombay film industry (now called Bollywood) was closely linked to the Lahore film industry (now the Lollywood industry of Pakistani cinema); both produced films in Hindi-Urdu (or Hindustani), the lingua franca of northern and central India.[30] Another centre of Hindi-Urdu film production was the Bengali film industry in Calcutta, Bengal Presidency (now Kolkata, West Bengal), which produced Hindi-Urdu films and local Bengali language films.[31][32]

Many actors, filmmakers and musicians from the Lahore industry migrated to the Bombay industry during the 1940s, including actors K.L. Saigal, Prithviraj Kapoor, Dilip Kumar and Dev Anand and singers Mohammed Rafi, Noorjahan, and Shamshad Begum. Around the same time, filmmakers and actors from the Calcutta film industry began migrating to Bombay; as a result, Bombay became the center of Hindi-Urdu film production in the Republic of India after partition. For decades after partition, the Bombay industry was dominated by actors, filmmakers and musicians from Bengal and the Punjab (particularly the present-day Pakistani Punjab).[30]

Golden Age (late 1940s–1960s)

The period from the late 1940s to the early 1960s, after India's independence, is regarded by film historians as the Golden Age of Hindi cinema.[33][34][35] Some of the most critically acclaimed Hindi films of all time were produced during this time. Examples include Pyaasa (1957) and Kaagaz Ke Phool (1959), directed by Guru Dutt and written by Abrar Alvi; Awaara (1951) and Shree 420 (1955), directed by Raj Kapoor and written by Khwaja Ahmad Abbas, and Aan (1952), directed by Mehboob Khan and starring Dilip Kumar. The films explored social themes, primarily dealing with working-class life in India (particularly urban life) in the first two examples. Awaara presented the city as both nightmare and dream, and Pyaasa critiqued the unreality of urban life.[36]

Mehboob Khan's Mother India (1957), a remake of his earlier Aurat (1940), was the first Indian film nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film; it lost by a single vote.[37] Mother India defined conventional Hindi cinema for decades.[38][39][40] It spawned a genre of dacoit films, in turn defined by Gunga Jumna (1961).[41] Written and produced by Dilip Kumar, Gunga Jumna was a dacoit crime drama about two brothers on opposite sides of the law (a theme which became common in Indian films during the 1970s).[42] Some of the best-known epic films of Hindi cinema were also produced at this time, such as K. Asif's Mughal-e-Azam (1960).[43] Other acclaimed mainstream Hindi filmmakers during this period included Kamal Amrohi and Vijay Bhatt.

 
Nargis, Raj Kapoor and Dilip Kumar in Andaz (1949). Kapoor and Kumar are among the greatest and most influential movie stars in the history of Indian cinema,[44][45] and Nargis is one of its greatest actresses.[46]

Well-known actors at the time included Dilip Kumar, Pradeep Kumar, Raj Kapoor, Dev Anand, and Guru Dutt; actresses included Suraiya, Nargis, Sumitra Devi, Madhubala, Meena Kumari, Waheeda Rehman, Nutan, Sadhana, Mala Sinha and Vyjayanthimala.[47] The three most popular male Indian actors of the 1950s and 1960s were Dilip Kumar, Raj Kapoor, and Dev Anand, each with a unique acting style. Kapoor adopted Charlie Chaplin's tramp; Anand modeled himself on suave Hollywood stars like Gregory Peck and Cary Grant, and Kumar pioneered a form of method acting which predated Hollywood method actors such as Marlon Brando. Kumar, who was described as "the ultimate method actor" by Satyajit Ray and is considered one of India's greatest actors, inspired future generations of Indian actors. Much like Brando's influence on Robert De Niro and Al Pacino, Kumar had a similar influence on Amitabh Bachchan, Naseeruddin Shah, Shah Rukh Khan and Nawazuddin Siddiqui.[44][45]

While commercial Hindi cinema was thriving, the 1950s also saw the emergence of a parallel cinema movement.[36] Although the movement (emphasising social realism} was led by Bengali cinema, it also began gaining prominence in Hindi cinema. Early examples of parallel cinema include Dharti Ke Lal (1946), directed by Khwaja Ahmad Abbas and based on the Bengal famine of 1943,;[48] Neecha Nagar (1946) directed by Chetan Anand and written by Khwaja Ahmad Abbas,[49] and Bimal Roy's Do Bigha Zamin (1953). Their critical acclaim and the latter's commercial success paved the way for Indian neorealism[50] and the Indian New Wave (synonymous with parallel cinema).[51] Internationally acclaimed Hindi filmmakers involved in the movement included Mani Kaul, Kumar Shahani, Ketan Mehta, Govind Nihalani, Shyam Benegal, and Vijaya Mehta.[36]

 
Rajesh Khanna in 2010. The first Indian actor to be called a "superstar", he starred in 15 consecutive hit films from 1969 to 1971.

After the social-realist film Neecha Nagar received the Palme d'Or at the inaugural 1946 Cannes Film Festival,[49] Hindi films were frequently in competition for Cannes' top prize during the 1950s and early 1960s and some won major prizes at the festival.[52] Guru Dutt, overlooked during his lifetime, received belated international recognition during the 1980s.[52][53] Film critics polled by the British magazine Sight & Sound included several of Dutt's films in a 2002 list of greatest films,[54] and Time's All-Time 100 Movies lists Pyaasa as one of the greatest films of all time.[55]

During the late 1960s and early 1970s, the industry was dominated by musical romance films with romantic-hero leads; the most popular star was Rajesh Khanna.[56] Other actors during this period include Shammi Kapoor, Jeetendra, Sanjeev Kumar, and Shashi Kapoor; actresses inclue Sharmila Tagore, Mumtaz, Saira Banu, Helen, and Asha Parekh.

Classic Bollywood (1970s–1980s)

The Salim-Javed screenwriting duo, consisting of Salim Khan (left) and Javed Akhtar, revolutionized Indian cinema in the 1970s[57] and are considered Bollywood's greatest screenwriters.[58]

By 1970, Hindi cinema was thematically stagnant[59] and dominated by musical romance films.[56] The arrival of screenwriting duo Salim-Javed (Salim Khan and Javed Akhtar) was a paradigm shift, revitalizing the industry.[59] They began the genre of gritty, violent, Bombay underworld crime films early in the decade with films such as Zanjeer (1973) and Deewaar (1975).[60][61] Salim-Javed reinterpreted the rural themes of Mehboob Khan's Mother India (1957) and Dilip Kumar's Gunga Jumna (1961) in a contemporary urban context, reflecting the socio-economic and socio-political climate of 1970s India[59][62] and channeling mass discontent, disillusionment[59] and the unprecedented growth of slums[63] with anti-establishment themes and those involving urban poverty, corruption and crime.[64][65] Their "angry young man", personified by Amitabh Bachchan,[65] reinterpreted Dilip Kumar's performance in Gunga Jumna in a contemporary urban context[59][62] and voicef the anguish of the urban poor.[63]

By the mid-1970s, romantic confections had given way to gritty, violent crime films and action films about gangsters (the Bombay underworld]]) and bandits (dacoits). Salim-Javed's writing and Amitabh Bachchan's acting popularized the trend with films such as Zanjeer and (particularly) Deewaar, a crime film inspired by Gunga Jumna[42] which pitted "a policeman against his brother, a gang leader based on real-life smuggler Haji Mastan" (Bachchan); according to Danny Boyle, Deewaar was "absolutely key to Indian cinema".[66] In addition to Bachchan, other actors who rode the crest of the trend (which lasted into the early 1990s) include Feroz Khan,[67] Mithun Chakraborty, Naseeruddin Shah, Jackie Shroff, Sanjay Dutt, Anil Kapoor and Sunny Deol. Actresses from the era include Hema Malini, Jaya Bachchan, Raakhee, Shabana Azmi, Zeenat Aman, Parveen Babi, Rekha, Dimple Kapadia, Smita Patil, Jaya Prada and Padmini Kolhapure.[47]

 
Amitabh Bachchan in 2014. The most successful Indian actor in the 1970s and 1980s, he is considered one of India's greatest and most influential movie stars.[68][69][70][71][72]

The name "Bollywood" was coined during the 1970s,[22][21] when the conventions of commercial Bollywood films were defined.[73] Key to this was the masala film, which combines a number of genres (action, comedy, romance, drama, melodrama, and musical). The masala film was pioneered early in the decade by filmmaker Nasir Hussain,[74] and the Salim-Javed screenwriting duo,[73] pioneering the Bollywood-blockbuster format.[73] Yaadon Ki Baarat (1973), directed by Hussain and written by Salim-Javed, has been identified as the first masala film and the first quintessentially Bollywood film.[75][73] Salim-Javed wrote more successful masala films during the 1970s and 1980s.[73] Masala films made Amitabh Bachchan the biggest Bollywood star of the period. A landmark of the genre was Amar Akbar Anthony (1977),[76][75] directed by Manmohan Desai and written by Kader Khan, and Desai continued successfully exploiting the genre.

Both genres (masala and violent-crime films) are represented by the blockbuster Sholay (1975), written by Salim-Javed and starring Amitabh Bachchan. It combined the dacoit film conventions of Mother India and Gunga Jumna with spaghetti Westerns, spawning the Dacoit Western (also known as the curry Western) which was popular during the 1970s.[41]

Some Hindi filmmakers, such as Shyam Benegal, Mani Kaul, Kumar Shahani, Ketan Mehta, Govind Nihalani and Vijaya Mehta, continued to produce realistic parallel cinema throughout the 1970s.[77][36] Although the art film bent of the Film Finance Corporation was criticised during a 1976 Committee on Public Undertakings investigation which accused the corporation of not doing enough to encourage commercial cinema, the decade saw the rise of commercial cinema with films such as Sholay (1975) which consolidated Amitabh Bachchan's position as a star. The devotional classic Jai Santoshi Ma was also released that year.[78]

By 1983, the Bombay film industry was generating an estimated annual revenue of ₹700 crore (7 billion,[79] $693.14 million),[80] equivalent to $1.74 billion (₹11,133 crore, 111.33 billion) when adjusted for inflation. The most internationally acclaimed Hindi film of the 1980s was Mira Nair's Salaam Bombay! (1988), which won the Camera d'Or at the 1988 Cannes Film Festival and was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film.

New Bollywood (1990s–present)

Shah Rukh Khan, one of the "Three Khans", in 2012. He was the most successful Indian actor for most of the 1990s and 2000s.[81]
Aamir Khan, one of the "Three Khans", in 2008. He has been the most successful Indian actor since the late 2000s.[81]

Hindi cinema experienced another period of stagnation during the late 1980s with a box-office decline due to increasing violence, a decline in musical quality, and a rise in video piracy; middle-class family audiences began abandoning the cinema. The turning point came with Qayamat Se Qayamat Tak (1988), directed by Mansoor Khan, written and produced by his father Nasir Hussain and starring his cousin, Aamir Khan, and Juhi Chawla. Its blend of youthfulness, family entertainment, emotional intelligence and strong melodies lured audiences back to the big screen.[82][83] It formed a new template for Bollywood musical romance films which defined 1990s Hindi cinema.[83]

Known since the 1990s as "New Bollywood",[84] contemporary Bollywood is linked to economic liberalization in India during the early 1990s.[85] Early in the decade, the pendulum swung back toward family-centred romantic musicals. Qayamat Se Qayamat Tak was followed by blockbusters such as Maine Pyar Kiya (1989), Chandni (1989), Hum Aapke Hain Kaun (1994), Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge (1995), Raja Hindustani (1996), Dil To Pagal Hai (1997), Pyaar To Hona Hi Tha (1998) and Kuch Kuch Hota Hai (1998). A new generation of popular actors emerged, such as Aamir Khan, Aditya Pancholi, Ajay Devgan, Akshay Kumar, Salman Khan (Salim Khan's son), and Shahrukh Khan; actresses included Madhuri Dixit, Sridevi, Juhi Chawla, Meenakshi Seshadri, Manisha Koirala, Kajol, and Karisma Kapoor.[47] Action and comedy films were also successful, with actors like Govinda, Sunny Deol, Sunil Shetty, Akshay Kumar and Ajay Devgan, who (with Akshay Kumar) became popular for performing dangerous stunts in his well-known Khiladi series and other action films.[86][87] Other actresses during this time included Raveena Tandon, Twinkle Khanna, Sonali Bendre, Sushmita Sen, Mahima Chaudhary and Shilpa Shetty.

The decade marked the entrance of new performers in art and independent films, some of which were commercially successful; the most influential example was Satya (1998), directed by Ram Gopal Varma and written by Anurag Kashyap. Its critical and commercial success led to the emergence of a genre known as Mumbai noir:[88] urban films reflecting the city's social problems.[89] This led to a resurgence of parallel cinema by the end of the decade.[88] The films featured actors like Nana Patekar and Manoj Bajpai and actresses such as Manisha Koirala, Tabu, Pooja Bhatt and Urmila Matondkar, whose performances were praised by critics.

 
Salman Khan, one of the Three Khans, with Bollywood actresses (from left) Kareena Kapoor, Rani Mukerji, Preity Zinta, Katrina Kaif, Karisma Kapoor and Priyanka Chopra in Mumbai (2010)

Since the 1990s, the three biggest Bollywood stars have been the Three Khans: Aamir, Shah Rukh, and Salman,[90][91] who have starred in most of the top ten highest-grossing Bollywood films. The Khans have had successful careers since the late 1980s,[90] and have dominated the Indian box office for three decades.[92][93] Shah Rukh Khan was the most successful Indian actor for most of the 1990s and 2000s, and Aamir Khan has been the most successful Indian actor since the late 2000s;[81] according to Forbes, he was "arguably the world's biggest movie star" in 2017 due to his popularity in India and China.[94]

The 2000s saw increased Bollywood recognition worldwide due to growing (and prospering) NRI and Desi communities overseas. The growth of the Indian economy and a demand for quality entertainment in this era led the country's film industry to new heights in production values, cinematography and screenwriting as well as technical advances in areas such as special effects and animation.[95] Some of the largest production houses, among them Yash Raj Films and Dharma Productions were the producers of new modern films.[95] Some popular films of the decade were Kaho Naa... Pyaar Hai (2000), Gadar: Ek Prem Katha (2001), Lagaan (2001), Koi... Mil Gaya (2003), Munna Bhai M.B.B.S. (2003), Rang De Basanti (2006), Lage Raho Munna Bhai (2006), Dhoom 2 (2006), Krrish (2006) and Jab We Met (2007) among others. This decade also saw the rise of popular actors and movie stars like Arjun Rampal, Hrithik Roshan, Abhishek Bachchan, Vivek Oberoi, Shahid Kapoor and John Abraham, as well as actresses like Aishwarya Rai, Rani Mukerji, Preity Zinta, Ameesha Patel, Lara Dutta, Bipasha Basu, Kareena Kapoor, Priyanka Chopra and Katrina Kaif.

 
Akshay Kumar, one of the most successful Indian actors since the 1990s, in 2013[96][97][98][99]

During the 2010s, the industry saw established stars such as Salman Khan, Akshay Kumar and Shahrukh Khan making big-budget masala films like Dabangg (2010), Ek Tha Tiger (2012), Rowdy Rathore (2012), Chennai Express (2013), Kick (2014) and Happy New Year (2014) with much-younger actresses. Although the films were often not praised by critics, they were commercially successful. Aamir Khan has been credited with redefining and modernizing the masala film, which originated with his uncle Nasir Hussain's Yaadon Ki Baarat (in which he first appeared) with his distinct brand of socially conscious cinema.[100] His films blur the distinction between commercial masala films and realistic parallel cinema, combining the entertainment and production values of the former with the believable narratives and strong messages of the latter and earning commercial success and critical acclaim in India and overseas.[101]

Most stars from the 2000s continued successful careers into the next decade, and the 2010s saw a new generation of popular actors such as Ranbir Kapoor, Ranveer Singh, Varun Dhawan, Sidharth Malhotra, Sushant Singh Rajput, Arjun Kapoor, Aditya Roy Kapur and Tiger Shroff. Actresses include Vidya Balan, Kangana Ranaut, Deepika Padukone, Sonam Kapoor, Anushka Sharma, Sonakshi Sinha, Jacqueline Fernandez, Shraddha Kapoor and Alia Bhatt, with Balan and Ranaut widely recognised for successful female-centred films such as The Dirty Picture (2011), Kahaani (2012), Queen (2014), and Tanu Weds Manu Returns (2015). Kareena Kapoor and Bipasha Basu are among the few actresses from the 2000s who have worked for 15 years in the industry.

Influences on Bollywood

Moti Gokulsing and Wimal Dissanayake identify six major influences which have shaped Indian popular cinema:[102]

  • The branching structures of ancient Indian epics, like the Mahabharata and Ramayana. Indian popular films often have plots which branch off into sub-plots.
  • Ancient Sanskrit drama, with its stylized nature and emphasis on spectacle in which music, dance and gesture combine "to create a vibrant artistic unit with dance and mime being central to the dramatic experience." Matthew Jones of De Montfort University also identifies the Sanskrit concept of rasa, or "the emotions felt by the audience as a result of the actor’s presentation", as crucial to Bollywood films.[103]
  • Traditional folk theater, which became popular around the 10th century with the decline of Sanskrit theater. Its regional traditions include the Jatra of Bengal, the Ramlila of Uttar Pradesh, and the Terukkuttu of Tamil Nadu.
  • Parsi theatre, which "blended realism and fantasy, music and dance, narrative and spectacle, earthy dialogue and ingenuity of stage presentation, integrating them into a dramatic discourse of melodrama. The Parsi plays contained crude humour, melodious songs and music, sensationalism and dazzling stagecraft."
  • Hollywood, where musicals were popular from the 1920s to the 1950s.
  • Western musical television (particularly MTV), which has had an increasing influence since the 1990s. Its pace, camera angles, dance sequences and music may be seen in 2000s Indian films. An early example of this approach was Mani Ratnam's Bombay (1995).

Sharmistha Gooptu identifies Indo-Persian-Islamic culture as a major influence. During the early 20th century, Urdu was the lingua franca of popular cultural performance across northern India and established in popular performance art traditions such as nautch dancing, Urdu poetry, and Parsi theater. Urdu and related Hindi dialects were the most widely understood across northern India, and Hindustani became the standard language of early Indian talkies. Films based on "Persianate adventure-romances" led to a popular genre of "Arabian Nights cinema".[104]

Scholars Chaudhuri Diptakirti and Rachel Dwyer and screenwriter Javed Akhtar identify Urdu literature as a major influence on Hindi cinema.[105][106][10] Most of the screenwriters and scriptwriters of classic Hindi cinema came from Urdu literary backgrounds,[105][10] from Khwaja Ahmad Abbas and Akhtar ul Iman to Salim-Javed and Rahi Masoom Raza; a handful came from other Indian literary traditions, such as Bengali and Hindi literature.[105] Most of Hindi cinema's classic scriptwriters wrote primarily in Urdu, including Salim-Javed, Gulzar, Rajinder Singh Bedi, Inder Raj Anand, Rahi Masoom Raza and Wajahat Mirza.[10] Urdu poetry and the ghazal tradition strongly influenced filmi (Bollywood lyrics).[106][10]

Todd Stadtman identifies several foreign influences on 1970s commercial Bollywood masala films, including New Hollywood, Italian exploitation films, and Hong Kong martial arts cinema.[67] After the success of Bruce Lee films (such as Enter the Dragon) in India,[107] Deewaar (1975) and other Bollywood films incorporated fight scenes inspired by 1970s martial arts films from Hong Kong cinema until the 1990s.[108] Bollywood action scenes emulated Hong Kong rather than Hollywood, emphasising acrobatics and stunts and combining kung fu (as perceived by Indians) with Indian martial arts such as pehlwani).[109]

Influence of Bollywood

India

Perhaps Bollywood's greatest influence has been on nationalism in India, where (with the rest of Indian cinema) it has become part of the "Indian story".[110] In India, Bollywood is often associated with India's national identity. According to economist and Bollywood biographer Meghnad Desai, "Cinema actually has been the most vibrant medium for telling India its own story, the story of its struggle for independence, its constant struggle to achieve national integration and to emerge as a global presence".[110]

Scholar Brigitte Schulze has written that Indian films, most notably Mehboob Khan's Mother India (1957), played a key role in shaping the Republic of India's national identity in the early years after independence from the British Raj; the film conveyed a sense of Indian nationalism to urban and rural citizens alike.[111] Bollywood has long influenced Indian society and culture as the biggest entertainment industry; many of the country's musical, dancing, wedding and fashion trends are Bollywood-inspired. Bollywood fashion trendsetters have included Madhubala in Mughal-e-Azam (1960) and Madhuri Dixit in Hum Aapke Hain Koun..! (1994).[90]

Bollywood has also had a socio-political impact on Indian society, reflecting Indian politics.[112] In classic 1970s Bollywood films, Bombay underworld crime films written by Salim-Javed and starring Amitabh Bachchan such as Zanjeer (1973) and Deewaar (1975) reflected the socio-economic and socio-political realities of contemporary India. They channeled growing popular discontent and disillusionment and state failure to ensure welfare and well-being at a time of inflation, shortages, loss of confidence in public institutions, increasing crime[59] and the unprecedented growth of slums.[63] Salim-Javed and Bachchan's films dealt with urban poverty, corruption and organised crime;[64] they were perceived by audiences as anti-establishment, often with an "angry young man" protagonist presented as a vigilante or anti-hero[65] whose suppressed rage voiced the anguish of the urban poor.[63]

Overseas

Bollywood has been a significant form of soft power for India, increasing its influence and changing overseas perceptions of India.[113][114] In Germany, Indian stereotypes included bullock carts, beggars, sacred cows, corrupt politicians, and catastrophes before Bollywood and the IT industry transformed global perceptions of India.[115] According to author Roopa Swaminathan, "Bollywood cinema is one of the strongest global cultural ambassadors of a new India."[114][116] Its role in expanding India's global influence is comparable to Hollywood's similar role with American influence.[90]

During the 2000s, Bollywood began influencing musical films in the Western world and was instrumental role in reviving the American musical film. Baz Luhrmann said that his musical film, Moulin Rouge! (2001), was inspired by Bollywood musicals;[117] the film incorporated a Bollywood-style dance scene with a song from the film China Gate. The critical and financial success of Moulin Rouge! began a renaissance of Western musical films such as Chicago, Rent, and Dreamgirls.[118]

Indian film composer A. R. Rahman wrote the music for Andrew Lloyd Webber's Bombay Dreams, and a musical version of Hum Aapke Hain Koun was staged in London's West End. The Bollywood sports film Lagaan (2001) was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film, and two other Bollywood films (2002's Devdas and 2006's Rang De Basanti) were nominated for the BAFTA Award for Best Film Not in the English Language.

Danny Boyle's Slumdog Millionaire (2008), which won four Golden Globes and eight Academy Awards, was inspired by Bollywood films[66][119] and is considered an "homage to Hindi commercial cinema".[120] It was also inspired by Mumbai-underworld crime films, such as Deewaar (1975), Satya (1998), Company (2002) and Black Friday (2007).[66] Deewaar had a Hong Kong remake, The Brothers (1979),[121] which inspired John Woo's internationally acclaimed breakthrough A Better Tomorrow (1986);[122][121] the latter was a template for Hong Kong action cinema's heroic bloodshed genre.[123][124] "Angry young man" 1970s epics such as Deewaar and Amar Akbar Anthony (1977) also resemble the heroic-bloodshed genre of 1980s Hong Kong action cinema.[125]

The influence of filmi may be seen in popular music worldwide. Technopop pioneers Haruomi Hosono and Ryuichi Sakamoto of the Yellow Magic Orchestra produced a 1978 electronic album, Cochin Moon, based on an experimental fusion of electronic music and Bollywood-inspired Indian music.[126] Truth Hurts' 2002 song "Addictive", produced by DJ Quik and Dr. Dre, was lifted[clarification needed] from Lata Mangeshkar's "Thoda Resham Lagta Hai" in Jyoti (1981).[127] The Black Eyed Peas' Grammy Award winning 2005 song "Don't Phunk with My Heart" was inspired by two 1970s Bollywood songs: "Ye Mera Dil Yaar Ka Diwana" from Don (1978) and "Ae Nujawan Hai Sub" from Apradh (1972).[128] Both songs were composed by Kalyanji Anandji, sung by Asha Bhosle, and featured the dancer Helen.[129]

The Kronos Quartet re-recorded several R. D. Burman compositions sung by Asha Bhosle for their 2005 album, You've Stolen My Heart: Songs from R.D. Burman's Bollywood, which was nominated for Best Contemporary World Music Album at the 2006 Grammy Awards. Filmi music composed by A. R. Rahman (who received two Academy Awards for the Slumdog Millionaire soundtrack) has frequently been sampled by other musicians, including the Singaporean artist Kelly Poon, the French rap group La Caution and the American artist Ciara. Many Asian Underground artists, particularly those among the overseas Indian diaspora, have also been inspired by Bollywood music.[citation needed]

Genres

 
Melodrama and romance are common ingredients in Bollywood films, such as Achhut Kanya (1936).

Bollywood films are primarily musicals, and are expected to have catchy song-and-dance numbers woven into the script. A film's success often depends on the quality of such musical numbers.[130] A film's music is often released before the film itself, increasing its audience.[citation needed]

Indian audiences expect value for money, and a good film is generally referred to as paisa vasool, (literally "money's worth").[131] Songs, dances, love triangles, comedy and dare-devil thrills are combined in a three-hour show (with an intermission). These are called masala films, after the Hindi word for a spice mixture. Like masalas, they are a mixture of action, comedy and romance; most have heroes who can fight off villains single-handedly. Bollywood plots have tended to be melodramatic, frequently using formulaic ingredients such as star-crossed lovers, angry parents, love triangles, family ties, sacrifice, political corruption, kidnapping, villains, kind-hearted courtesans, long-lost relatives and siblings, reversals of fortune and serendipity.

Parallel cinema films, in and outside Bollywood, tended to be less popular at the box office. A large Indian diaspora in English-speaking countries and increased Western influence in India have nudged Bollywood films closer to Hollywood.[132]

According to film critic Lata Khubchandani, "Our earliest films ... had liberal doses of sex and kissing scenes in them. Strangely, it was after Independence the censor board came into being and so did all the strictures."[133] Although Bollywood plots feature Westernised urbanites dating and dancing in clubs rather than pre-arranged marriages, traditional Indian culture continues to exist outside the industry and is an element of resistance by some to Western influences.[132] Bollywood plays a major role, however, in Indian fashion.[132] Studies have indicated that some people, unaware that changing fashion in Bollywood films is often influenced by globalisation, consider the clothes worn by Bollywood actors as authentically Indian.[132]

Casts and crews

 
Madhuri Dixit in 2012; she is considered one of the greatest actresses of Indian cinema for her critical and commercial success during the 1980s and 1990s.

Bollywood employs people from thoughout India. It attracts thousands of aspiring actors and actresses hoping for a break in the industry. Models and beauty contestants, television actors, stage actors and ordinary people come to Mumbai with the hope of becoming a star.[134] As in Hollywood, very few succeed. Since many Bollywood films are shot abroad, many foreign extras are employed.[135]

Very few non-Indian actors are able to make a mark in Bollywood, although many have tried. There have been exceptions, however, and the hit film Rang De Basanti starred the English Alice Patten. Kisna, Lagaan, and The Rising: Ballad of Mangal Pandey also featured foreign actors, and Australian-born actress Emma Brown Garett has starred in a few Indian films.[citation needed]

Bollywood can be insular, and relatives of film-industry figures have an edge in obtaining coveted roles in films or being part of a film crew. However, industry connections are no guarantee of a long career: competition is fierce, and film-industry scions will falter if they do not succeed at the box office. Stars such as Dilip Kumar, Dharmendra, Amitabh Bachchan, Rajesh Khanna, Rishi Kapoor, Anil Kapoor, Sunny Deol, Sridevi, Madhuri Dixit and Shah Rukh Khan lacked show-business connections.

Dialogues and lyrics

Film scripts (known as dialogues in Indian English) and their song lyrics are often written by different people. Scripts are usually written in an unadorned Hindi-Urdu, known as Hindustani, which would be understood by the largest possible audience.[136] Bollywood films tend to use a colloquial dialect of Hindi-Urdu, mutually intelligible by Hindi and Urdu speakers.[9] Most of the classic scriptwriters of what is known as Hindi cinema, including Salim-Javed, Gulzar, Rajinder Singh Bedi, Inder Raj Anand, Rahi Masoom Raza and Wajahat Mirza, primarily wrote in Urdu. Salim-Javed wrote in Urdu script, which was then transcribed by an assistant into Devanagari script so Hindi readers could read the Urdu dialogues.[10] During the 1970s, the Urdu writers and screenwriters Krishan Chander and Ismat Chughtai said that "more than seventy-five per cent of films are made in Urdu" but were categorized as Hindi films by the government.[11] Urdu poetry has strongly influenced Bollywood songs, whose lyrics also draw from the ghazal tradition.[106]

Some films have used regional dialects to evoke a village setting, or archaic Urdu in medieval historical films. In her book, The Cinematic ImagiNation, Jyotika Virdi wrote about the presence of Urdu in Hindi films: "Urdu is often used in film titles, screenplay, lyrics, the language of love, war, and martyrdom." Virdi notes that although Urdu was widely used in classic Hindi cinema decades after partition because it was widely taught in pre-partition India, its use has declined in modern Hindi cinema: "The extent of Urdu used in commercial Hindi cinema has not been stable ... the decline of Urdu is mirrored in Hindi films ... It is true that many Urdu words have survived and have become part of Hindi cinema's popular vocabulary. But that is as far as it goes ... For the most part, popular Hindi cinema has forsaken the florid Urdu that was part of its extravagance and retained a 'residual' Urdu".[137] However, Urdu continues to be used in Bollywood films for dialogues and (particularly) songs.[138]

Contemporary mainstream films also use English; according to the article "Bollywood Audiences Editorial", "English has begun to challenge the ideological work done by Urdu."[139] Some film scripts are first written in Latin script.[140] Characters may shift from one language to the other to evoke a particular atmosphere (for example, English in a business setting and Hindi in an informal one). The blend of Hindi, Urdu and English sometimes heard in modern Bollywood films, known as Hinglish, has become increasingly common.[9]

Cinematic language (in dialogues or lyrics) is often melodramatic, invoking God, family, mother, duty, and self-sacrifice. Song lyrics are often about love. Bollywood song lyrics (especially in older films) frequently use the poetic vocabulary of court Urdu, with a number of Persian loanwords.[141] Another source for love lyrics in films such as Jhanak Jhanak Payal Baje and Lagaan is the long Hindu tradition of poetry about the loves of Krishna, Radha, and the gopis.

Music directors often prefer working with certain lyricists, and the lyricist and composer may be seen as a team. This phenomenon has been compared to the pairs of American composers and songwriters who created classic Broadway musicals.

Sound

Sound in Bollywood films was once rarely recorded on location (otherwise known as sync sound). Therefore, the sound was usually created (or re-created) entirely in the studio,[142] with the actors reciting their lines as their images appear on-screen in the studio in the process known as "looping in the sound" or ADR—with the foley and sound effects added later. This created several problems, since the sound in these films usually occurs a frame or two earlier or later than the mouth movements or gestures.[142] The actors had to act twice: once on-location, once in the studio—and the emotional level on set is often very difficult to re-create. Commercial Indian films, not just the Hindi-language variety, are known for their lack of ambient sound, so there is a silence underlying everything instead of the background sound and noises usually employed in films to create aurally perceivable depth and environment.

The ubiquity of ADR in Bollywood cinema became prevalent in the early 1960s with the arrival of the Arriflex 3 camera, which required a blimp (cover) to shield the sound of the camera, for which it was notorious, from on-location filming. Commercial Indian filmmakers, known for their speed, never bothered to blimp the camera, and its excessive noise required that everything had to be re-created in the studio. Eventually, this became the standard for Indian films.

The trend was bucked in 2001, after a 30-year hiatus of synchronised sound, with the film Lagaan, in which the sound was done on the location.[142] This opened up a heated debate on the use and economic feasibility of on-location sound, and several Bollywood films have employed on-location sound since then.

Makeup

In 1955 the Bollywood group Cine Costume Make-Up Artist & Hair Dressers' Association (CCMAA) created a rule that did not allow women to obtain memberships as makeup artists.[143] However, in 2014 the Supreme Court of India ruled that this rule was in violation of the Indian constitutional guarantees granted under Article 14 (right to equality), 19(1)(g) (freedom to carry out any profession) and Article 21 (right to liberty).[143] The judges of the Supreme Court of India stated that the ban on women makeup artist members had no "rationale nexus" to the cause sought to be achieved and was "unacceptable, impermissible and inconsistent" with the constitutional rights guaranteed to the citizens.[143] The Court also found illegal the rule which mandated that for any artist, female or male, to work in the industry, they must have domicile status of five years in the state where they intend to work.[143] In 2015 it was announced that Charu Khurana had become the first woman to be registered by the Cine Costume Make-Up Artist & Hair Dressers' Association.[144]

Song and dance

 
A group of Bollywood singers at the Indian Singers' Rights Association (ISRA) meet in 2013.

Bollywood film music is called filmi music (from Hindi, meaning "of films"). Songs in Bollywood were first introduce with the release of Ardeshir Irani's Alam Ara (1931) song De De Khuda Ke Naam pay pyaare.[145] Bollywood songs are generally pre-recorded by professional playback singers, with the actors then lip synching the words to the song on-screen, often while dancing. While most actors, especially today, are excellent dancers, few are also singers. One notable exception was Kishore Kumar, who starred in several major films in the 1950s while also having a stellar career as a playback singer. K. L. Saigal, Suraiyya, and Noor Jehan were also known as both singers and actors. Some actors in the last thirty years have sung one or more songs themselves; for a list, see Singing actors and actresses in Indian cinema.

Songs are what make and break the movie; they determine if it is going to be a flop or a hit: "Few films without successful musical tracks, and even fewer without any songs and dances, succeed"[146] With the increase of globalization, there has also been a change in the type of music that Bollywood films entail; the lyrics of the songs have increasingly been a mix of Hindi and English languages, as opposed to the strict Hindi prior to Globalization. Also, with the inspiration of global trends, such as Salsa, Pop and Hip Hop, there has been a modification of the type of music heard in Bollywood films.[146]

Playback singers are prominently featured in the opening credits and have their own fans who will go to an otherwise lackluster movie just to hear their favourites. Going by the quality as well as the quantity of the songs they rendered, most notable singers of Bollywood are Lata Mangeshkar, Asha Bhosle, Geeta Dutt, Shamshad Begum, Kavita Krishnamurthy, Sadhana Sargam and Alka Yagnik among female playback singers; and K. L. Saigal, Talat Mahmood, Mukesh, Mohammed Rafi, Manna Dey, Hemant Kumar, Kishore Kumar, Kumar Sanu, Udit Narayan and Sonu Nigam among male playback singers. Kishore Kumar and Mohammed Rafi are often considered arguably the finest of the singers that have lent their voice to Bollywood songs, followed by Lata Mangeshkar, who, through the course of a career spanning over six decades, has recorded thousands of songs for Indian movies. The composers of film music, known as music directors, are also well-known. Their songs can make or break a film and usually do. Remixing of film songs with modern beats and rhythms is a common occurrence today, and producers may even release remixed versions of some of their films' songs along with the films' regular soundtrack albums.

The dancing in Bollywood films, especially older ones, is primarily modelled on Indian dance: classical dance styles, dances of historic northern Indian courtesans (tawaif), or folk dances. In modern films, Indian dance elements often blend with Western dance styles (as seen on MTV or in Broadway musicals), though it is usual to see Western pop and pure classical dance numbers side by side in the same film. The hero or heroine will often perform with a troupe of supporting dancers. Many song-and-dance routines in Indian films feature unrealistically instantaneous shifts of location or changes of costume between verses of a song. If the hero and heroine dance and sing a duet, it is often staged in beautiful natural surroundings or architecturally grand settings. This staging is referred to as a "picturisation".

Songs typically comment on the action taking place in the movie, in several ways. Sometimes, a song is worked into the plot, so that a character has a reason to sing. Other times, a song is an externalisation of a character's thoughts, or presages an event that has not occurred yet in the plot of the movie. In this case, the event is often two characters falling in love. The songs are also often referred to as a "dream sequence", and anything can happen that would not normally happen in the real world.

Previously song and dance scenes often used to be shot in Kashmir, but due to political unrest in Kashmir since the end of the 1980s,[147] those scenes have since then often been shot in Western Europe, particularly in Switzerland and Austria.[148][149]

Renowned contemporary Bollywood dancers include Madhuri Dixit, Hrithik Roshan, Aishwarya Rai Bachchan, Sridevi, Meenakshi Seshadri, Malaika Arora Khan, Shahid Kapoor and Tiger Shroff.[150] Older Bollywood dancers are people such as Helen,[151] known for her cabaret numbers, Madhubala, Vyjanthimala, Padmini, Hema Malini, Mumtaz, Cuckoo Moray,[152] Parveen Babi[153] , Waheeda Rahman,[154] Meena Kumari,[155] and Shammi Kapoor.[156]

For the last few decades Bollywood producers have been releasing the film's soundtrack, as tapes or CDs, before the main movie release, hoping that the music will pull audiences into the cinema later. Often the soundtrack is more popular than the movie. In the last few years some producers have also been releasing music videos, usually featuring a song from the film. However, some promotional videos feature a song which is not included in the movie.

Finances

Bollywood films are multi-million dollar productions, with the most expensive productions costing up to 1 billion rupees (roughly USD 20 million). The latest Science fiction movie Ra.One was made at an immense budget of 1.35 billion (roughly USD 27 million), making it the most expensive movie ever produced in Bollywood.[157] Sets, costumes, special effects, and cinematography were less than world-class up until the mid-to-late 1990s, although with some notable exceptions. As Western films and television gain wider distribution in India itself, there is an increasing pressure for Bollywood films to attain the same production levels, particularly in areas such as action and special effects. Recent Bollywood films have employed international technicians to improve in these areas, such as Krrish (2006) which has action choreographed by Hong Kong based Tony Ching. The increasing accessibility to professional action and special effects, coupled with rising film budgets, has seen an explosion in the action and sci-fi genres.

Sequences shot overseas have proved a real box office draw, so Mumbai film crews are increasingly filming in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, the United States, continental Europe and elsewhere. Nowadays, Indian producers are winning more and more funding for big-budget films shot within India as well, such as Lagaan, Devdas and other recent films.

Funding for Bollywood films often comes from private distributors and a few large studios. Indian banks and financial institutions were forbidden from lending money to movie studios. However, this ban has now been lifted.[158] As finances are not regulated, some funding also comes from illegitimate sources, such as the Mumbai underworld. The Mumbai underworld has been known to be involved in the production of several films, and are notorious for patronising several prominent film personalities. On occasion, they have been known to use money and muscle power to get their way in cinematic deals. In January 2000, Mumbai mafia hitmen shot Rakesh Roshan, a film director and father of star Hrithik Roshan. In 2001, the Central Bureau of Investigation seized all prints of the movie Chori Chori Chupke Chupke after the movie was found to be funded by members of the Mumbai underworld.[159]

Another problem facing Bollywood is widespread copyright infringement of its films. Often, bootleg DVD copies of movies are available before the prints are officially released in cinemas. Manufacturing of bootleg DVD, VCD, and VHS copies of the latest movie titles is a well-established 'small-scale industry' in parts of South Asia and South East Asia. The Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) estimates that the Bollywood industry loses $100 million annually in loss of revenue from unlicensed home videos and DVDs. Besides catering to the homegrown market, demand for these copies is large amongst some sections of the Indian diaspora, too. (In fact, bootleg copies are the only way people in Pakistan can watch Bollywood movies, since the Government of Pakistan has banned their sale, distribution and telecast). Films are frequently broadcast without compensation by countless small cable TV companies in India and other parts of South Asia. Small convenience stores run by members of the Indian diaspora in the US and the UK regularly stock tapes and DVDs of dubious provenance, while consumer copying adds to the problem. The availability of illegal copies of movies on the Internet also contributes to the industry's losses.

Satellite TV, television and imported foreign films are making huge inroads into the domestic Indian entertainment market. In the past, most Bollywood films could make money; now fewer tend to do so. However, most Bollywood producers make money, recouping their investments from many sources of revenue, including selling ancillary rights. There are also increasing returns from theatres in Western countries like the United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States, where Bollywood is slowly getting noticed. As more Indians migrate to these countries, they form a growing market for upscale Indian films.

For a comparison of Hollywood and Bollywood financial figures, see chart. It shows tickets sold in 2002 and total revenue estimates. Bollywood sold 3.6 billion tickets and had total revenues (theatre tickets, DVDs, television and so on.) of US$1.3 billion, whereas Hollywood films sold 2.6 billion tickets and generated total revenues (again from all formats) of US$51 billion.

Advertising

Many Indian artists used to make a living by hand-painting movie billboards and posters (The well-known artist M.F. Hussain used to paint film posters early in his career). This was because human labour was found to be cheaper than printing and distributing publicity material.[160] Now, a majority of the huge and ubiquitous billboards in India's major cities are created with computer-printed vinyl. The old hand-painted posters, once regarded as ephemera, are becoming increasingly collectible as folk art.[160][161][162][163]

Releasing the film music, or music videos, before the actual release of the film can also be considered a form of advertising. A popular tune is believed to help pull audiences into the theatres.[164]

Bollywood publicists have begun to use the Internet as a venue for advertising. Most of the better-funded film releases now have their own websites, where browsers can view trailers, stills, and information about the story, cast, and crew.[165]

Bollywood is also used to advertise other products. Product placement, as used in Hollywood, is widely practised in Bollywood.[166]

Bollywood movie stars appear in print and television advertisements for other products, such as watches or soap (see Celebrity endorsement). Advertisers say that a star endorsement boosts sales.

International shoots

With the increasing prominence of international setting such as Switzerland, London, Paris, New York, Mexico, Brazil, Singapore and so on, it does not entail that the people and cultures residing in these exotic settings are represented. Contrary to these spaces and geographies being filmed as they are, they are actually Indianized by adding Bollywood actors and Hindi speaking extras to them. While immersing in Bollywood films, viewers get to see their local experiences duplicated in different locations around the world.

Rao states that "Media representation can depict India's shifting relation with the world economy, but must retain its 'Indianness' in moments of dynamic hybridity",[146] where "Indianness" refers to the cultural identity and political affiliation. With Bollywood's popularity among diasporic audiences, "Indianness" poses a problem, but at the same time, it gives back to its homeland audience, a sense of uniqueness from other immigrant groups.[167]

Awards

The Filmfare Awards ceremony is one of the most prominent film events given for Hindi films in India.[168] The Indian screen magazine Filmfare started the first Filmfare Awards in 1954, and awards were given to the best films of 1953. The ceremony was referred to as the Clare Awards after the magazine's editor. Modelled after the poll-based merit format of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, individuals may submit their votes in separate categories. A dual voting system was developed in 1956.[169] The Filmfare awards are frequently accused of bias towards commercial success rather than artistic merit.

The National Film Awards were introduced in 1954. Since 1973, the Indian government has sponsored the National Film Awards, awarded by the government run Directorate of Film Festivals (DFF). The DFF screens not only Bollywood films, but films from all the other regional movie industries and independent/art films. These awards are handed out at an annual ceremony presided over by the President of India. Under this system, in contrast to the National Film Awards, which are decided by a panel appointed by Indian Government, the Filmfare Awards are voted for by both the public and a committee of experts.[170]

Notable private awards ceremonies for Hindi films, held within India are:

Notable private awards ceremonies for Hindi films, held overseas are:

Most of these award ceremonies are lavishly staged spectacles, featuring singing, dancing, and numerous celebrities.

Global markets

Besides being popular among the South Asian diaspora, in far off locations, from Nigeria and Senegal to Egypt and Russia, generations of non-Indian fans have grown up with Bollywood over the decades, bearing witness to the cross-cultural appeal of Indian films.[171] Indian cinema's early contacts with other regions became visible with its films making early inroads into the Soviet Union, Middle East, Southeast Asia,[172] and China.[173]

Over the last years of the 20th century and beyond, Bollywood progressed in its popularity as it entered the consciousness of Western audiences and producers,[95][174] with Western actors now actively seeking roles in Bollywood movies.[175]

Asia-Pacific

South Asia

Bollywood films are widely watched in other South Asian countries, including Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Nepal. In these countries, Hindi-Urdu is widely understood.

Many Pakistanis watch Bollywood films, as they understand Hindi (due to its linguistic similarity to Urdu).[176] Pakistan banned the legal import of Bollywood movies in 1965. However, trade in unlicensed DVDs[177] and illegal cable broadcasts ensured the continued popularity of Bollywood releases in Pakistan. Exceptions were made for a few films, such as the 2006 colorized re-release of the classic Mughal-e-Azam or the 2006 film Taj Mahal. Early in 2008, the Pakistani government eased the ban and allowed the import of even more movies; 16 were screened in 2008.[178] Continued easing followed in 2009 and 2010. The new policy is opposed by nationalists and representatives of Pakistan's small film industry but is embraced by cinema owners, who are making profits after years of low receipts.[179] The most popular male actors there are the three Khans of Bollywood: Salman Khan, Shah Rukh Khan, and Aamir Khan. The most popular female actress there was Madhuri Dixit;[180] at India-Pakistan cricket matches in the 1990s, many Pakistani fans frequently chanted the slogan, "Madhuri dedo, Kashmir lelo!" ("Give Madhuri, take Kashmir!").[181]

Bollywood films are very popular in Nepal, to the extent that Bollywood films earn more than Nepali films there. Actors such as Salman Khan, Akshay Kumar and Shah Rukh Khan are most popular in Nepal, with their films having audiences fully pack cinema halls across the country.

Bollywood films also very popular in Afghanistan, due to the country's proximity to the Indian subcontinent and cultural similarities present in the films. For example, India seems to share a similar style of music and musical instruments with Afghanistan. Some of the popular stars there include Shah Rukh Khan, Ajay Devgan, Sunny Deol, Aishwarya Rai, Preity Zinta, and Madhuri Dixit.[182] A number of Bollywood films were filmed inside Afghanistan, while some dealt with the country, including Dharmatma, Kabul Express, Khuda Gawah and Escape From Taliban.[183][184]

Southeast Asia

Bollywood films are popular in Southeast Asia, particularly in Maritime Southeast Asia. The three Khans of Bollywood (Shah Rukh Khan, Aamir Khan, and Salman Khan) are very popular in the Malay world, including Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore. Bollywood is also fairly popular in Thailand.[185]

In Indonesia, due to Indian cultural ties, Bollywood films have been popular in the country, where they were first introduced at the end of World War II in 1945. The "angry young man" films of Amitabh Bachchan and Salim-Javed were popular in the 1970s and 1980s, before Bollywood's popularity gradually began declining in the 1980s and 1990s. Bollywood experienced a revival in Indonesia with the release of Shah Rukh Khan's Kuch Kuch Hota Hai (1998) in 2001, becoming a bigger box-office success there than Titanic (1997). Since then, Bollywood has had a strong presence in Indonesia, particularly Shah Rukh Khan films such as Mohabbatein (2000), Kabhi Khushi Kabhie Gham (2001), Kal Ho Naa Ho (2003), Chalte Chalte (2003), and Veer-Zaara (2004), as well as Koi Mil Gaya (2003).[186]

East Asia

In East Asia, some Bollywood films are widely appreciated in countries such as China, Japan, and South Korea. Several Hindi films have had mainstream commercial success in Japan, including Mehboob Khan's Aan (1952) starring Dilip Kumar and Aziz Mirza's Raju Ban Gaya Gentleman (1992) starring Shah Rukh Khan, which released there in 1997 and sparked a short-lived boom in Indian films released in Japan for the next two years.[187] Dil Se.. (1998) was also a hit in Japan.[188] The highest-grossing Hindi film in Japan is the 3 Idiots (2009) starring Aamir Khan,[189] which also received a Japanese Academy Award nomination.[190] 3 Idiots was also a critical and commercial success in South Korea.[191]

Some Hindi movies like Dr. Kotnis Ki Amar Kahani, Awaara, and Do Bigha Zamin were successful in China in the 1940s and 1950s, and are still popular among older generations of Chinese people. The few Indian films to gain commercial success in China during the 1970s and 1980s included Tahir Hussain's Caravan, Noorie, and Disco Dancer.[173][192] Famous Indian film stars in China included Raj Kapoor, Nargis,[193] and Mithun Chakraborty.[192] In the 1980s, Hindi films significantly declined in popularity in China.[194] In recent years, films by Aamir Khan have been successful in China,[173][195][192] with Lagaan becoming the first Indian film to have a nationwide release there in 2011.[194][196] The Chinese filmmaker He Ping was impressed by Lagaan, especially its soundtrack, and thus hired the film's composer A. R. Rahman to score the soundtrack for his film Warriors of Heaven and Earth (2003).[197]

When 3 Idiots released in China, the country was only the 15th largest film market, partly due to China's widespread pirate DVD distribution at the time. However, it was the pirate market that introduced 3 Idiots to most Chinese audiences, becoming a cult hit in the country. It became China's 12th favourite film of all time, according to ratings on Chinese film review site Douban, with only one domestic Chinese film (Farewell My Concubine) ranked higher. Aamir Khan gained a large growing Chinese fanbase as a result.[195] After 3 Idiots went viral, several of his other films, such as Taare Zameen Par (2007) and Ghajini (2008), also gained a cult following.[198] By 2013, China grew to become the world's second largest film market (after the United States), paving the way for Aamir Khan's Chinese box office success, with Dhoom 3 (2013), PK (2014), and Dangal (2016),[195] which became the 16th highest-grossing film in China,[199] the fifth highest-grossing non-English language film worldwide,[200] and the highest-grossing non-English foreign film in any market.[201][202][203] Several Aamir Khan films, including Taare Zameen Par, 3 Idiots, and Dangal, are some of the highest-rated films on popular Chinese film site Douban.[204][205] His next film, the Zaira Wasim starrer Secret Superstar (2017), broke Dangal's record for the highest-grossing opening weekend by an Indian film, cementing Aamir Khan's status as a superstar in China,[206] and as "a king of the Chinese box office",[207][208] with Secret Superstar being China's highest-grossing foreign film of 2018 to date.[209] He has become a household name in China,[210] with his success there described as a form of Indian soft power,[211] helping to improve China–India relations, despite political tensions between the two nations.[206][212][193] With Bollywood giving serious competition to Hollywood in the Chinese market,[213] the success of Aamir Khan films has drove up the buyout prices of Indian film imports for Chinese distributors.[214] Salman Khan's Bajrangi Bhaijaan and Irrfan Khan's Hindi Medium also became blockbusters in China during early 2018.[215]

Oceania

Bollywood is not as successful in the Oceanic countries and Pacific Islands such as New Guinea. However, it ranks second to Hollywood in countries such as Fiji, with its large Indian minority, as well as Australia and New Zealand.[216]

Australia is one of the countries where there is a large South Asian diaspora. Bollywood is popular amongst non-Asians in the country as well.[216] Since 1997 the country has provided a backdrop for an increasing number of Bollywood films.[216] Indian filmmakers have been attracted to Australia's diverse locations and landscapes, and initially used it as the setting for song-and-dance sequences, which demonstrated the contrast between the values.[216] However, nowadays, Australian locations are becoming more important to the plot of Bollywood films.[216] Hindi films shot in Australia usually incorporate aspects of Australian lifestyle. The Yash Raj Film Salaam Namaste (2005) became the first Indian film to be shot entirely in Australia and was the most successful Bollywood film of 2005 in the country.[217] This was followed by Heyy Babyy (2007) Chak De! India (2007) and Singh Is Kinng (2008) which turned out to be box office successes.[216] Following the release of Salaam Namaste, on a visit to India the then prime minister John Howard also sought, having seen the film, to have more Indian movies shooting in the country to boost tourism, where the Bollywood and cricket nexus, was further tightened with Steve Waugh's appointment as tourism ambassador to India.[218] Australian actress Tania Zaetta, who co-starred in Salaam Namaste, among other Bollywood films, expressed her keenness to expand her career in Bollywood.[219]

Eastern Europe and Central Asia

Bollywood films are particularly popular in the former Soviet Union (Russia, Eastern Europe, Central Asia).[220] Bollywood films have been dubbed into Russian, and shown in prominent theatres such as Mosfilm and Lenfilm.

Indian films were popular in the Soviet Union, more so than Hollywood films[221][222] and occasionally even domestic Soviet films.[223] The first Indian film to release there was Dharti Ke Lal (1946), directed by Khwaja Ahmad Abbas and based on the Bengal famine of 1943, released in the Soviet Union in 1949.[48] Since then, 300 Indian films were released in the Soviet Union,[224] most of which were Bollywood films, drawing higher average audience figures than domestic Soviet productions,[222][225] with 50 Indian films drawing more than 20 million viewers (compared to 41 Hollywood films),[226][227] with some such as Awaara (1951) and Disco Dancer (1982) drawing more than 60 million viewers,[228][229] establishing Indian actors like Raj Kapoor, Nargis,[229] Rishi Kapoor[230] and Mithun Chakraborty as household names in the country.[231]

According to Ashok Sharma, a diplomat who served in Commonwealth of Independent States:

The popularity of Bollywood in the CIS dates back to the Soviet days when the films from Hollywood and other Western cinema centers were banned in the Soviet Union. As there was no means of other cheap entertainment, the films from Bollywood provided the Soviets a cheap source of entertainment as they were supposed to be non-controversial and non-political. In addition, the Soviet Union was recovering from the onslaught of the Second World War. The films from India, which were also recovering from the disaster of partition and the struggle for freedom from colonial rule, were found to be a good source of providing hope with entertainment to the struggling masses. The aspirations and needs of the people of both countries matched to a great extent. These films were dubbed in Russian and shown in theatres throughout the Soviet Union. The films from Bollywood also strengthened family values, which was a big factor for their popularity with the government authorities in the Soviet Union.[232]

After the collapse of the Soviet film distribution system, Hollywood occupied the void created in the Russian film market, reducing Bollywood's market share.[220] This made things difficult for However, Russian newspapers report that there is a renewed interest in Bollywood among young Russians.[233]

In Poland, Bollywood star Shah Rukh Khan has a large following. He was introduced to Polish audiences with the release of Kabhi Khushi Kabhie Gham (2001) there in 2005, after which some of his other films became hits in the country, including Dil Se (1998), Main Hoon Na (2004) and Kabhi Alvida Naa Kehna (2006). Shah Rukh Khan has become a household name in Poland, and Bollywood films are often covered in the largest Polish newspaper Gazeta Wyborcza.[234][235]

Middle East and North Africa

Hindi films have become popular in Arab countries.[236] Imported Indian films are usually subtitled in Arabic upon the film's release. Since the early 2000s, Bollywood has progressed in Israel. Special channels dedicated to Indian films have been displayed on cable television.[237] There are channels such as MBC Bollywood and Zee Aflam, which show Hindi movies and serials.[238]

In Egypt, Bollywood films used to be very popular in the 1970s and 1980s. In 1987 however, Bollywood films were restricted to only a handful of films by the Egyptian government.[239][240] Amitabh Bachchan, however, has remained been very popular in Egypt.[241] Indian tourists visiting Egypt are frequently asked by locals, "Do you know Amitabh Bachchan?"[180]

Bollywood movies are regularly screened in Dubai cinemas because of the high demand. Recently in Turkey, Bollywood has been gaining popularity as Barfi! was the first Hindi film to have a wide theatrical release.[242] Bollywood also has viewership in Central Asia (particularly in Uzbekistan[243] and Tajikistan).[244]

South America

Bollywood movies are not influential in many countries of South America, though Bollywood culture and dance is recognised. However, due to significant South Asian diasporic communities in Suriname[245] and Guyana, Hindi-language movies are popular.[246] In 2006, Dhoom 2 became the first Bollywood film to be shot in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.[247]

In January 2012, it was announced that UTV Motion Pictures would be releasing movies in Peru, starting with Guzaarish.[248]

Sub-Saharan Africa and Horn of Africa

Historically, Hindi films have been distributed to some parts of Africa, largely by Lebanese businessmen. Mother India (1957), for example, continued to be played in Nigeria decades after its release. Indian movies have also gained ground so as to alter the style of Hausa fashions, songs have also been copied by Hausa singers and stories have influenced the writings of Nigerian novelists. Stickers of Indian films and stars decorate taxis and buses in Northern Nigeria, while posters of Indian films adorn the walls of tailor shops and mechanics' garages in the country. Unlike in Europe and North America where Indian films largely cater to the expatriate Indian market yearning to keep in touch with their homeland, in West Africa, as in many other parts of the world, such movies rose in popularity despite the lack of a significant Indian audience, where movies are about an alien culture, based on a religion wholly different, and, for the most part, a language that is unintelligible to the viewers. One such explanation for this lies in the similarities between the two cultures. Other similarities include wearing turbans; the presence of animals in markets; porters carrying large bundles, chewing sugar cane; youths riding Bajaj motor scooters; wedding celebrations, and so forth. With the strict Muslim culture, Indian movies were said to show "respect" toward women, where Hollywood movies were seen to have "no shame". In Indian movies women were modestly dressed, men and women rarely kiss, and there is no nudity, thus Indian movies are said to "have culture" that Hollywood films lack. The latter choice was a failure because "they don't base themselves on the problems of the people," where the former is based socialist values and on the reality of developing countries emerging from years of colonialism. Indian movies also allowed for a new youth culture to follow without such ideological baggage as "becoming western."[171] The first ever movie to be shot in Mauritius was Souten starring Rajesh Khanna in 1983.[249]

In South Africa, film imports from India were watched by both Black South African and Indian South African audiences.[250] Several Bollywood personalities have avenued to the continent for both shooting movies and off-camera projects. The film Padmashree Laloo Prasad Yadav (2005) was one of many movies shot in South Africa.[251] Dil Jo Bhi Kahey (2005) was shot almost entirely in Mauritius, which has a large ethnically Indian population.

Ominously, however, the popularity of old Bollywood versus a new, changing Bollywood seems to be diminishing the popularity on the continent. The changing style of Bollywood has begun to question such an acceptance. The new era features more sexually explicit and violent films. Nigerian viewers, for example, commented that older films of the 1950s and 1960s had culture to the newer, more westernised picturisations.[171] The old days of India avidly "advocating decolonization ... and India's policy was wholly influenced by his missionary zeal to end racial domination and discrimination in the African territories" were replaced by newer realities.[252] The emergence of Nollywood, Africa's local movie industry has also contributed to the declining popularity of Bollywood films. A greater globalised world worked in tandem with the sexualisation of Indian films so as to become more like American films, thus negating the preferred values of an old Bollywood and diminishing Indian soft power.

Additionally, classic Bollywood actors like Kishore Kumar and Amitabh Bachchan have historically enjoyed popularity in Egypt and Somalia.[253] In Ethiopia, Bollywood movies are shown alongside Hollywood productions in Piazza theatres, such as the Cinema Ethiopia in Addis Ababa.[254] In the other countries of North Africa, Bollywood films are also broadcast, though local aesthetics tend much more toward expressive or auteur cinema than commercial fare.[255]

Western Europe and North America

 
"Bollywood Steps" show in London.

The first Indian film to be released in the Western world, and get mainstream attention, was Aan (1952), directed by Mehboob Khan, and starring Dilip Kumar and Nimmi. It was subtitled in 17 languages and released in 28 countries,[250] including the United Kingdom,[256] United States, and France.[257] Aan also received critical acclaim in the British press at the time, such as The Times which compared it favourably with Hollywood productions at the time.[258] Mehboob Khan's later Academy Award-nominated Mother India (1957) was an unprecedented success in overseas markets, including Europe,[258] Russia, the Eastern Bloc, French territories, and Latin America.[259]

Many Bollywood films have found commercial success in the United Kingdom. The most successful Indian actor at the UK box office has been Shah Rukh Khan, whose popularity in British Asian communities played a key role in introducing Bollywood to the UK,[260] with films such as Darr (1993),[261] Dilwale Dulhaniya Le Jayenge (1995),[262] and Kuch Kuch Hota Hai (1998).[260] Dil Se (1998) was the first Indian film to enter the UK top ten.[260] Many Indian films, such as Dilwale Dulhaniya Le Jayenge and Kabhi Khushi Kabhie Gham (2001), have been set in London.

Bollywood is also appreciated in other Western European countries, such as France, Germany, the Netherlands,[263] and the Scandinavian countries. Various Bollywood films are dubbed in German, and shown on the German television channel RTL II on a regular basis.[264] Germany is the second largest European market for Indian films, after the United Kingdom. The most recognized Indian actor in Germany is Shah Rukh Khan, who has had box-office success in the country, with films such as Don 2 (2011)[235] and Om Shanti Om (2007).[115] He has a large German fan following,[180] particularly in cities such as Berlin, where the tabloid Die Tageszeitung compared his popularity to that of the Pope.[115]

 
Michelle Obama joining students for a 'Bollywood Dance Clinic' in the State Dining Room of the White House, 2013.

Bollywood has experienced a marked growth in revenue in Canada and the United States, particularly popular amongst the South Asian communities in large cities, such as Toronto, Chicago, and New York City.[95] Yash Raj Films, one of India's largest production houses and distributors, reported in September 2005 that Bollywood films in the United States earn around $100 million a year through theatre screenings, video sales and the sale of movie soundtracks.[95] In other words, films from India do more business in the United States than films from any other non-English speaking country.[95] Numerous films in the mid-1990s and onwards have been largely, or entirely, shot in New York, Los Angeles, Vancouver and Toronto. Bollywood's immersion in the traditional Hollywood domain was further tied with such films as The Guru (2002) and Marigold: An Adventure in India (2007) trying to popularise the Bollywood-theme for Hollywood.

Plagiarism

Constrained by rushed production schedules and small budgets, some Bollywood writers and musicians have been known to resort to plagiarism. Ideas, plot lines, tunes or riffs have been copied from other Indian film industries or foreign films (including Hollywood and other Asian films) without acknowledgement of the original source. This has led to criticism towards the film industry.[265]

Before the 1990s, this could be done with impunity. Copyright enforcement was lax in India and few actors or directors ever saw an official contract.[266] The Hindi film industry was not widely known to non-Indian audiences (excluding the Soviet states), who would not even be aware that their material was being copied. Audiences may also not have been aware of the plagiarism since many audiences in India were unfamiliar with foreign films and music.[265] While copyright enforcement in India is still somewhat lenient, Bollywood and other film industries are much more aware of each other now and Indian audiences are more familiar with foreign movies and music. Organisations like the India EU Film Initiative seek to foster a community between film makers and industry professional between India and the EU.[265]

One of the common justifications of plagiarism in Bollywood in the media is that producers often play a safer option by remaking popular Hollywood films in an Indian context. Screenwriters generally produce original scripts, but due to financial uncertainty and insecurity over the success of a film many were rejected.[265] Screenwriters themselves have been criticised for lack of creativity which happened due to tight schedules and restricted funds in the industry to employ better screenwriters.[267] Certain filmmakers see plagiarism in Bollywood as an integral part of globalisation where American and western cultures are firmly embedding themselves into Indian culture, which is manifested, amongst other mediums, in Bollywood films.[267] Vikram Bhatt, director of films such as Raaz which stars Bipasha Basu, a remake of What Lies Beneath, and Kasoor, a remake of Jagged Edge, has spoken about the strong influence of American culture and desire to produce box office hits based along the same lines in Bollywood. He said, "Financially, I would be more secure knowing that a particular piece of work has already done well at the box office. Copying is endemic everywhere in India. Our TV shows are adaptations of American programmes. We want their films, their cars, their planes, their Diet Cokes and also their attitude. The American way of life is creeping into our culture."[267] Mahesh Bhatt has said, "If you hide the source, you're a genius. There's no such thing as originality in the creative sphere".[267]

There have been very few cases of film copyright violations taken to court because of serious delays in the legal process, and due to the long time they take to decide a case.[265] There have been some notable cases of conflict though. The makers of Partner (2007) and Zinda (2005) have been targeted by the owners and distributors of the original films, Hitch and Oldboy.[268][269] American Studio Twentieth Century Fox brought the Mumbai-based B.R. Films to court over its forthcoming Banda Yeh Bindaas Hai, allegedly an illegal remake of its 1992 film My Cousin Vinny. B.R. Films eventually settled out of court by paying the studio at a cost of about $200,000, paving the way for the film's release.[270] Some on the other hand do comply with copyright law, with Orion Pictures in 2008 securing the rights to remake the Hollywood film Wedding Crashers.[271]

Music

One of the most frequently plagiarised musicians was the late Pakistani Qawwali singer Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan. His music had a big impact on Bollywood music since the late 1980s, inspiring numerous Indian musicians working in Bollywood, especially during the 1990s. There were many instances of Indian music directors plagiarising Khan's music to produce hit filmi songs.[272][273][274] For example, Vedpal's "Yeh Jo Halka Halka Suroor Hai" in Souten Ki Beti (1989) and Anu Malik's "Mera Piya Ghar Aaya" in Yaarana (1995) are based on Khan's songs.[273] Viju Shah's hit song "Tu Cheez Badi Hai Mast Mast" in Mohra (1994) was plagiarised from Khan's popular Qawwali song "Dam Mast Qalandar".[272] Several Nadeem-Shravan songs are based on Khan's songs, including "Kisika Yaar Na Bichde" in Shreemaan Aashique (1993), "Kitna Pyara Tujhe Rab Ne Banaya" in Raja Hindustani (1996), "Mujhe Ek Pal Chain Na Awe" in Judaai (1997),[273] and "Bheed Me Tanhai Me" in Tumsa Nahin Dekha: A Love Story (2004).[275] Other Bollywood songs based on Khan's music include K. K. Mahajan's "Zamaana Deewana Ho Gaya" in Zamaana Deewana (1995) and Laxmikant-Pyarelal's "Wada Karke Sajan Nahi Aaya" in Barsaat Ki Raat (1998), among others.[275]

Numerous Bollywood songs were also copied from other Pakistani musicians. The earliest example was "Moam Ki Gurrya" in Baaghon Main Bahaar Aayi (1972) being copied from Bakhshi Wazir's "Jadon Holi Jayi" in Pakistani film Utt Khuda Da Wair (1970). Numerous hit Bollywood songs were copied from Pakistani composer M. Ashraf, such as Police Public (1990) copying "Main Jis Din Bhula Doon" in Khushboo (1979), Kal Ki Awaz (1992) copying "Kisi Meherban Ne Aa Ke" in Shama (1974), and Laxmikant–Pyarelal's "Choli Ke Peeche Kya Hai" in Khalnayak (1993) copying "Raat De Bara Baje" in Pakistani films Do Badan (1974) and Zabardast (1989).[276] Anu Malik copied the song "Yaariyan" in Beqabu (1996) from a 1993 song by Pakistani band Vital Signs with singer Junaid Jamshed. Pritam copied the song "Aahun Aahun" in Love Aaj Kal (2009) from Shaukat Ali's "Kadi Te Has" (1984), "Janambhoomi Pe" in Agnipankh (2004) from Abrar-ul-Haq's "Bheega Bheega Sa" (1998), and "Akhiya Na" in Ek Khiladi Ek Haseena (2005) from Waris Baig's "Challa" (2004). Nadeem–Shravan copied "Tuu Meri Zindagi Hain" in Aashiqui (1990) from a 1976 song by Pakistani singer Tassawar Khanum, "Tumhein Apna Banaane Ki" in Sadak (1991) from ghazal song "Chale To" (1983) by Pakistani singer Musarrat Nazir, and "O Rabba" in Zamaana Deewana (1995) from M. Ashraf's "Chahe Duniya" in Naheed Akhtar's Pakistani film Naukar (1975). Among numerous other examples.[277][276]

A number of Bollywood soundtracks also plagiarized Guinean singer Mory Kanté, particularly his 1987 album Akwaba Beach. For example, his song "Tama" inspired two Bollywood songs, Bappi Lahiri's "Tamma Tamma" in Thanedaar (1990) and "Jumma Chumma" in Laxmikant-Pyarelal's soundtrack for Hum (1991), the latter also featuring another song "Ek Doosre Se" which copied his song "Inch Allah".[278] His song "Yé ké yé ké" was also used as background music in the 1990 Bollywood film Agneepath, inspired the Bollywood song "Tamma Tamma" in Thanedaar, and was also copied by Mani Sharma's "Pellikala Vachesindhe" in the 1997 Telugu film Preminchukundam Raa.[278]

See also

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Further reading

  • Alter, Stephen. Fantasies of a Bollywood Love-Thief: Inside the World of Indian Moviemaking. ISBN 0-15-603084-5.
  • Begum-Hossain, Momtaz. Bollywood Crafts: 20 Projects Inspired by Popular Indian Cinema, 2006. The Guild of Mastercraftsman Publications. ISBN 1-86108-418-8.
  • Bose, Mihir, Bollywood: A History, New Delhi, Roli Books, 2008. ISBN 978-81-7436-653-5.
  • Dwyer, Rachel. Bollywood's India: Hindi Cinema as a Guide to Contemporary India (Reaktion Books, distributed by University of Chicago Press; 2014) 295 pages
  • Ganti, Tejaswini. Bollywood, Routledge, New York and London, 2004.
  • Ganti, Tejaswini. Producing Bollywood: Inside the Contemporary Hindi Film Industry (Duke University Press; 2012) 424 pages; looks at how major changes in film production since the 1990s have been influenced by the liberal restructuring of India's state and economy.
  • Gibson, Bernard. 'Bollywood'. Passing the Envelope, 1994.
  • Jolly, Gurbir, Zenia Wadhwani, and Deborah Barretto, eds. Once Upon a Time in Bollywood: The Global Swing in Hindi Cinema, TSAR Publications. 2007. ISBN 978-1-894770-40-8.
  • Joshi, Lalit Mohan. Bollywood: Popular Indian Cinema. ISBN 0-9537032-2-3.
  • Kabir, Nasreen Munni. Bollywood, Channel 4 Books, 2001.
  • Mehta, Suketu. Maximum City, Knopf, 2004.
  • Mishra, Vijay. Bollywood Cinema: Temples of Desire. ISBN 0-415-93015-4.
  • Pendakur, Manjunath. Indian Popular Cinema: Industry, Ideology, and Consciousness. ISBN 1-57273-500-7.
  • Prasad, Madhava. Ideology of the Hindi Film: A Historical Construction, Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-19-565295-9.
  • Raheja, Dinesh and Kothari, Jitendra. Indian Cinema: The Bollywood Saga. ISBN 81-7436-285-1.
  • Raj, Aditya (2007) "Bollywood Cinema and Indian Diaspora" in Media Literacy: A Reader edited by Donaldo Macedo and Shirley Steinberg New York: Peter Lang
  • Rajadhyaksa, Ashish (1996), "India: Filming the Nation", The Oxford History of World Cinema, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-811257-2.
  • Rajadhyaksha, Ashish and Willemen, Paul. Encyclopedia of Indian Cinema, Oxford University Press, revised and expanded, 1999.
  • Jha, Subhash and Bachchan, Amitabh (foreword). The Essential Guide to Bollywood. ISBN 978-81-7436-378-7.

External links