A tawaif (Urdu: طوائف‎) was a highly sophisticated courtesan who catered to the nobility of India, particularly during the Mughal era. The tawaifs excelled in and contributed to music, dance (mujra), theatre, and the Urdu literary tradition,[1] and were considered an authority on etiquette. Tawaifs were largely a North Indian institution central to Mughal court culture from the 16th century onwards[2] and became even more prominent with the weakening of Mughal rule in the mid-18th century.[3]



The patronage of the Mughal court before and after the Mughal Dynasty in the Doab region and the artistic atmosphere of 16th century Lucknow made arts-related careers a viable prospect. Many girls were taken at a young age and trained in both performing arts (such as Kathak and Hindustani classical music) as well as literature (ghazal, thumri) to high standards.[4] Once they had matured and possessed a sufficient command over dancing and singing, they became a tawaif, high-class courtesans who served the rich and noble.[5]

The tawaif's introduction into her profession was marked by a celebration, the so-called missī ceremony, that customarily included the inaugural blackening of her teeth.[6]

It is also believed that young nawabs-to-be were sent to these "tawaifs" to learn "tameez" and "tehzeeb" which included the ability to differentiate and appreciate good music and literature, perhaps even practice it, especially the art of ghazal writing. By the 18th century, they had become the central element of polite, refined culture in North India.

These courtesans would dance, sing (especially ghazals), recite poetry (shairi) and entertain their suitors at mehfils. Like the geisha tradition in Japan,[7] their main purpose was to professionally entertain their guests, and while sex was often incidental, it was not assured contractually. High-class or the most popular tawaifs could often pick and choose among the best of their suitors.

Some of the popular tawaifs were Begum Samru (who rose to rule the principality of Sardhana in western UP), Moran Sarkar (who became the wife of Maharaja Ranjit Singh), Wazeeran (patronised by Lucknow’s last nawab Wajid Ali Shah), Begum Hazrat Mahal (Wajid Ali's first wife who played an important role in the First War of Independence), Umrao Jaan Ada (a fictional character), Gauhar Jaan (a notable classical singer who sang for India's first-ever record), and Zohrabai Agrewali.


The annexation of Oudh by the British in 1856 sounded the first death-knell for this medieval institution. It soon was not favoured by the British, and the women were branded as prostitutes to defame them.

Popular cultureEdit

The image of the tawaif has had an enduring appeal, immortalized in Bollywood movies. Films with a tawaif as a central character include Devdas (1955), Sadhna (1958), Pakeezah (1972), Amar Prem (1972), Umrao Jaan (1981), Tawaif (1985), Devdas (2002),[8] and Umrao Jaan (2006)[9] and documentary film, The Other Song (2009). Other films depict a tawaif in a supporting role, often in situations where a man in a loveless marriage goes to her.[10]

Today, the term in Urdu has undergone semantic pejoration and is now synonymous with a prostitute.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ "Mapping cultures". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 2004-08-11. 
  2. ^ Schoffield, Katherine Butler (April 2012). "The Courtesan Tale: Female Musicians and Dancers in Mughal Historical Chronicles, c.1556–1748". Gender & History. 24 (1): 150–171. 
  3. ^ "Fall of a culture". Tribune India. Retrieved 22 January 2012. 
  4. ^ "A hundred years of unsung love". Mid Day. Retrieved 22 January 2012. 
  5. ^ "The Last Song of Awadh". Indian Express. Retrieved 22 January 2012. 
  6. ^ "Zumbroich, Thomas J. (2015) 'The missī-stained finger-tip of the fair': A cultural history of teeth and gum blackening in South Asia. eJournal of Indian Medicine 8(1): 1-32". Retrieved 2015-03-31. 
  7. ^ "Courtesans resisted male dominance". Times of India. 29 December 2002. Retrieved 22 January 2012. 
  8. ^ "Umrao Jaan". Times of India. 4 November 2006. Retrieved 22 January 2012. 
  9. ^ "Ash glows at the mahurat of Umrao Jaan". Rediff. Retrieved 22 January 2012. 
  10. ^ "The Black Woman". Washington Bangla Radio. Retrieved 22 January 2012. 

Further readingEdit

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