Andha Naal (English: That Day, pronounced [an̪da naːɭ]) is a 1954 Indian Tamil-language mystery-thriller film, produced by A. V. Meiyappan and directed by S. Balachander. It is the first film noir in Tamil cinema, and the first Tamil film to be made without songs, dance, or stunt sequences. Set in the milieu of World War II, the story is about the killing of a radio engineer Rajan (Sivaji Ganesan). The suspects are Rajan's wife Usha (Pandari Bai), the neighbour Chinnaiya Pillai (P. D. Sambandam), Rajan's brother Pattabi (T. K. Balachandran), Rajan's sister-in-law Hema (Menaka), and Rajan's mistress Ambujam (Suryakala). Each one's account of the incident points to a new suspect.
Theatrical release poster
|Directed by||S. Balachander|
|Produced by||A. V. Meiyappan|
|Screenplay by||Javar Seetharaman|
|Story by||S. Balachander|
|Music by||Saraswathy Stores Orchestra|
|Cinematography||S. Maruti Rao|
|Edited by||S. Surya|
Balachander watched Akira Kurosawa's Rashomon (1950) at a film festival, was inspired by it and wrote a play in the same narrative style, but the script was rejected by All India Radio; Meiyappan later agreed to produce it as the film that would later be titled Andha Naal under AVM Productions. The screenplay was written by Javar Seetharaman, who also played a prominent role as an investigative officer in the film. The cinematography was handled by S. Maruti Rao, and the background score was composed by AVM's own music troupe, Saraswathy Stores Orchestra. The film was shorter than most contemporaneous Tamil films. It was the only film directed by Balachander for AVM.
Andha Naal was released on 13 April 1954, on the eve of Puthandu (Tamil New Year). It was critically acclaimed and was awarded a Certificate of Merit for Second Best Feature Film in Tamil at the 2nd National Film Awards in 1955. Despite being a commercial failure at the time of its original release, it has acquired cult status over the years and is regarded as an important film in Tamil cinema. In 2013, Andha Naal was included in CNN-News18's list of the "100 Greatest Indian Films of All Time".
On the night of 11 October 1943, during World War II, Japanese forces bomb the Indian city of Madras (now Chennai). The next morning, Rajan, a radio engineer and communications researcher, is found shot dead by his own handgun in his house in Madras after his neighbour, Chinnaiya Pillai, having heard the gunshot, informs the police. Purushothaman Naidu, a local police inspector, arrives at Rajan's house and starts investigating the death. Criminal Investigation Department (C.I.D.) Officer Sivanandam joins Naidu to help with the investigation. Naidu suggests that the killer could be a thief who killed Rajan for the money found at the crime scene. However, Sivanandam is unconvinced by Naidu's theory because the amount of money at the scene matches the withdrawal entry in the bank passbook found in the same room. Rajan was about to leave Madras in anticipation of the bombings.
The two policemen question five people in and around Rajan's house, most of whom are his family members or friends. The first to be questioned is Rajan's wife Usha, who is unable to speak because of her grief. Sivanandam and Naidu feel embarrassed and are reluctant to question her further. They begin interrogating Chinnaiya Pillai, who reported the gunshot. Chinnaiya Pillai proposes that the killer is probably Pattabi, Rajan's younger brother, and recalls a confrontation between them: Pattabi asked for his share of the family property but Rajan refused his request, feeling that he and his wife would squander it. Chinnaiya Pillai concludes that this may have prompted Pattabi to kill Rajan.
When Sivanandam and Naidu interrogate Pattabi, who feels remorse for Rajan's death, he admits that he did not treat his brother well nor understand his good intentions. He recounts an incident in which his wife Hema fought with Rajan because he refused to apportion the property. Pattabi says Hema could have killed Rajan for the money as she loses her sanity when overpowered by anger.
Sivanandam leaves Naidu to interrogate Hema. She is initially impudent and refuses to give a statement about the crime, but she later agrees when Sivanandam threatens to arrest her husband. She reveals Rajan's extramarital affair with Ambujam, a dancer who is pregnant with his child. As Rajan treated the news of the pregnancy with a reckless attitude, Hema suggests that Ambujam could have killed him. When questioned, Ambujam accuses Chinnaiya Pillai of murdering Rajan, saying Chinnaiya Pillai was her foster father and wanted her to stay away from Rajan after the three met during a picnic. As their relationship continued, Chinnaiya Pillai became infuriated and wanted to put an end to the affair.
Sivanandam interrogates Usha, who tells him how she and Rajan fell in love. Sivanandam tricks Usha into using a leaky fountain pen in order to collect her fingerprints. That evening, he and Naidu meet all the suspects at Rajan's house. Sivanandam carries out an exercise in which the suspects—including Usha—must pretend he is Rajan and shoot him using revolvers loaded with fake bullets. Chinnaiya Pillai, Pattabi and Hema shoot him as instructed, but Usha fails to do so and bursts into tears. Sivanandam then demands to have Pattabi and Hema arrested, until Usha reveals the truth: Rajan was a radio engineer who wanted to sell radios to the poor at an affordable price. Unable to get any support from the government, he went to Japan where his work was appreciated. He became a spy selling India's military secrets to Japan. Usha learnt about this and tried unsuccessfully to reform him. She could not stop him and attempted to shoot him. She changed her mind but pulled the trigger accidentally, killing him. After revealing the truth, Usha commits suicide.
Director S. Balachander watched Akira Kurosawa's Rashomon (1950) at a film festival, was inspired by it, and wrote a play in the same narrative style, but the script was rejected by All India Radio. He later approached A. V. Meiyappan, the founder of AVM Productions, and narrated the story for him. Although Meiyappan agreed to produce it as the film that would later be titled Andha Naal, he was unconvinced with Balachander's idea of making it without songs or stunts; however, he agreed to finance the project because he liked the story and trusted Balachander's talent. Andha Naal thus became the first Tamil film that did not have any songs or dance sequences,[a] and was the only film directed by Balachander for AVM Productions.
The role of the radio engineer Rajan was initially given to S. V. Sahasranamam, who was dismissed after a few days of shooting because Balachander and Meiyappan were not satisfied with his performance and felt he looked "too old" to play the role. The makers then engaged newcomer N. Viswanathan, a Tamilian professor from Calcutta (now Kolkata). When the production was halfway through, Meiyappan was dissatisfied with his performance and wanted to reshoot the film with Sivaji Ganesan. When Balachander refused Meiyappan ordered the production controller Vasu Menon to settle Balachander's salary dues and to bring the reels to be burnt before him. Balachander was shocked on hearing this and obliged to Meiyappan's wish.
Since Meiyappan had introduced Ganesan in Parasakthi (1952), he was very keen to have him play the lead role. Initially, Balachander was hesitant to approach Ganesan because he was unsure whether he would agree to play a negative role. In his autobiography, Ganesan said the film was almost completed before he was approached. He agreed to be part of the film because he found the story interesting and thought that portraying a variety of characters would interest the audience. In 2009, film historian Film News Anandan suggested that the success of Thirumbi Paar (1953), which featured Ganesan as an antihero, encouraged him to play a similar role in Andha Naal. According to film historian Randor Guy, Rajan was one of the earliest antihero roles in Tamil cinema.
Ganesan initially demanded a sum of ₹40,000 (equivalent to ₹3.3 million or US$46,000 in 2019)[b] for the film, which Meiyappan could not afford to pay. He offered to pay him ₹25,000 (equivalent to ₹2.0 million or US$28,000 in 2019),[b] which Ganesan declined. Balachander, however, convinced Ganesan that Meiyappan would pay him ₹1,000 (equivalent to ₹81,000 or US$1,100 in 2019)[b] for every day they shot the film. A reluctant Ganesan agreed to this, believing the project would take a long time to complete. But to his dismay, Balachander completed the shoot in 17 days. The screenplay was written by Javar Seetharaman, who also appeared in the film as a C.I.D. officer, and provided the voiceover in the opening sequence before Rajan is shot. It was Seetharaman's first collaboration with AVM Productions as an actor and screenwriter. Pandari Bai was selected to play Rajan's wife, while P. D. Sambandam, T. K. Balachandran, S. Menaka and K. Sooryakala formed the rest of the cast.
V. Srinivasan—who later became popularly known as Muktha Srinivasan—assisted Balachander with the film. Cinematography was handled by S. Maruti Rao, and editing was done by S. Surya. The background score was recorded by Saraswathy Stores Orchestra, AVM Productions' music troupe. Two Hindi songs are used in the film in instrumental form: "Yeh Zindagi Usi Ki Hai" from Anarkali (1953) and "Chup Chup Khade Ho" from Bari Behen (1949). No credit for the story is given in the introductory credits. Andha Naal's photography was markedly different from most early Tamil films. Rao used the "painting with light" technique, which captures the actors' shadows to convey their "mood and character". Its final cut was shorter than most contemporaneous Tamil films.[c]
Themes and influencesEdit
Regarded as the first film noir in Tamil cinema, Andha Naal is set in World War II, during the bombing of the Indian city of Madras by Japanese forces in 1943. The story of the blind men and an elephant is referenced in the narrative, when Sivanandam notes how each suspect's account of Rajan's death contradicts those of the others.
Though various sources, including Ganesan, have said the film was inspired by Rashomon, Randor Guy notes that this notion is erroneous, that Andha Naal was actually adapted from the 1950 British film The Woman in Question directed by Anthony Asquith, and that there was only a "thematic resemblance" between Andha Naal and Rashomon. Film journalist Jason P. Vest describes the three films as following a nonlinear narrative by presenting diverging accounts of the same incident. Film historian Swarnavel Eswaran Pillai notes that Andha Naal is unrelated to Rashomon except for its whodunit plot, where the killing is explored using various angles, and also notes that, unlike Rashomon, Andha Naal ends with the mystery being solved. In the opinion of B. Vijayakumar of The Hindu, Andha Naal is the first film noir made in South India.
According to Ganesan, the main theme of Andha Naal is patriotism; for him the film suggests that if a country does not appreciate its talented young men's efforts, they could turn against the nation. Regarding the more personal undertones, Ganesan said that the film tells how unemployment and desolation can lead young people to become traitors. Rajan becomes a traitor by selling Indian secrets to Japan because his idea was rejected by the Indian government. According to Guy, Andha Naal reuses the thematic line of the 1946 Tamil film Chitra: "a person sending secret messages to the enemy through radio". Swarnavel Eswaran Pillai compared Pandari Bai's "ideologically driven" character Usha in the film to her character in Parasakthi, but in the former, "it is the idea of the Indian nation that she pledges her allegiance to." The Times of India compared Andha Naal to Citizen Kane (1941) for its similar lighting and camera angles.
The film uses a Tamil saying "Kolaiyum Seival patthini" (a virtuous wife may even kill her own husband) as a clue to the identity of the culprit. Usha is depicted as a virtuous wife and a patriot who loves her country. When she discovers that her husband has betrayed India, she decides to kill him. The jury of the 2nd National Film Awards described Naidu as a "conscientious" officer, and Sivanandam as a "brilliant, eccentric but not so serious" man.
Release and receptionEdit
—Producer A. V. Meiyappan, on the film's reception
Andha Naal received a "U" (universal) certificate by the Central Board of Film Certification after 14 cuts. It was released on 13 April 1954 on the eve of Puthandu (Tamil New Year). The film received critical acclaim upon release, but failed commercially as the audiences were disappointed over the absence of songs. In theatres, they were disappointed after the first scene when Ganesan's character is shot dead, and many even walked out. Theatre owners had to persuade them to watch the entire film. After its commercial failure, Meiyappan never again made a film without song sequences. The film was later re-released after winning the Certificate of Merit for the Second Best Feature Film in Tamil at the 2nd National Film Awards (1955),[d] and became a box-office success. Moser Baer and AP International have released the film on home video.
In addition to its National Film Award win, the film won a Best Film Award from the Madras Filmfans' Association in 1955. Contemporary critics lauded Meiyappan and Balachander for the experimental film. While Ganesan's role as an antihero won him critical acclaim, many critics felt that Pandari Bai's role as the patriotic wife overshadowed his performance. Many contemporary critics expected the film to be a trendsetter, but it failed to inspire many thematically similar films in Tamil. Several years later, Balachander's wife Shanta recalled that he was not affected by the film's failure as he was "delighted that he pulled it off", with critics praising the performances of Ganesan, Pandari Bai and the other actors.
A contemporary review from the Tamil monthly magazine Kalaimanram praised AVM for novelty and called Andha Naal a daring venture. The Tamil weekly Kumudam (dated 1 May 1954) praised Meiyappan for recognising "young talents" like Balachander and Seetharaman. However, the reviewer criticised AVM for not publicising the film as a thriller; he asserted that had the film been publicised in such manner, the fans would not have been horrified by the absence of songs in the film. The reviewer's verdict was "Success of art; failure of narrative". The same month, a meeting was organised by the Film Fans Association in Madras to congratulate Meiyappan, Balachander, the actors and the other crew members. V. C. Gopalaratnam, the president of the association, praised Meiyappan for his "pioneering spirit" in producing a film without songs or dances. The Tamil magazine Gundoosi said that, for fans who were wondering whether there would be a day when a shorter film without songs and dance would be produced that had a narrative beyond the traditional love story, "That Day has come. Such a cinema of renaissance is Andha Naal". The writer also appreciated Maruti Rao's cinematography and Meiyappan's courageous effort, and asked fans to support such a film if they "really want Tamil cinema to progress". The Indian Express praised the script by Seetharaman, the performances of Ganesan, Pandari Bai and Sambandam, the absence of songs and dance sequences, and concluded that the film was "remarkable for some fine and original ideas in photography".
The film has been described by French film historian Yves Thoraval as a revolution in Tamil cinema for the absence of songs and dances. Though largely ignored at the time of its original release, it has since attained cult status in Tamil cinema. In addition to becoming a trendsetter for Tamil films without songs, it set a benchmark in Tamil cinema for noir-style lighting with some of its dramatic sequences. In 2001, journalist S. Muthiah called Andha Naal the "best film" produced by Meiyappan. He noted that it "proved that a song-and-danceless film could also be a hit." In July 2007 when S. R. Ashok Kumar of The Hindu asked eight Tamil film directors for a list of their all-time favourite Tamil films, three of them—K. Balachander, Mani Ratnam and Ameer—named Andha Naal. Malaysian author Devika Bai, writing for the New Straits Times, described Andha Naal as Balachander's magnum opus, and Balachander as "Tamil cinema's Father of Film Noir".
The film is regarded by many critics as Balachander's best. Encouraged by its critical success, Balachander went on to direct and act in several more films of the same genre: Avana Ivan (1962), Bommai (1964) and Nadu Iravil (1970). Andha Naal inspired several later whodunit films: including Puthiya Paravai (1964), Kalangarai Vilakkam (1965), Sigappu Rojakkal (1978), Moodu Pani (1980) and Pulan Visaranai (1990), and several songless Tamil films such as Unnaipol Oruvan (1965), Kudisai (1979), Veedu (1988) and Uchi Veyil (1990). Researcher and ethnographer Preeti Mudliar compared Ratha Kanneer (1954) to Andha Naal because in both films "the sin of foreignness is [neutralised] by a chaste Tamil woman, the virtuous wife". Director Chimbu Deven acknowledged Andha Naal as an influence on his 2014 film Oru Kanniyum Moonu Kalavaanikalum.
Andha Naal was screened in the "Tamil Retrospective Section" of the 14th International Film Festival of India in 1991. In 2008, Randor Guy praised it for "being the first Tamil film which had no dance, song or stunt sequence and for [Balachander]'s impressive direction and fine performances by Sivaji Ganesan and Pandari Bai". In March 2012, film historian Mohan Raman told The Times of India that, being the first film noir in Tamil cinema, it was "among the significant black and white films of yore", along with Mayabazar (1957) and Uthama Puthiran (1940). In a 2013 interview with the Tamil magazine Ananda Vikatan, Malayalam filmmaker Adoor Gopalakrishnan listed Andha Naal as one of his earliest favourites in Tamil cinema. In April 2013, Andha Naal was included in CNN-News18's list of "100 greatest Indian films of all time". In mid-April 2014, it was screened at the Russian Cultural Centre, Chennai, to mark its diamond jubilee anniversary.
In March 2015, the Film Heritage Foundation announced that it would be restoring Andha Naal along with a few other Indian films from 1931 to 1965 as a part of its restoration projects being carried out in India and abroad. The Foundation said it would not colourise any of the films as they should be "the way the master or the creator had seen it." Filmmaker Shivendra Singh Dungarpur also believes that the film requires restoration on a "priority basis". A 30-minute play adaptation of the film was staged in April 2016, directed by Balachander's son Raman. Another play adaptation, also directed by him, was staged the following year, on 13 April.
- Although Naujawan (1937) is widely considered Indian cinema's first sound film without songs, the Limca Book of Records and Meiyappan's son M. Saravanan claim Andha Naal to be the first songless film in India. According to Indian cinema: A Visual Voyage (a book by National Film Development Corporation of India) and film historian Randor Guy, Andha Naal was the first of its kind in the whole of South Indian cinema.
- The exchange rate between 1948 and 1966 was 4.79 Indian rupees (₹) per 1 US dollar (US$).
- The average length of a Tamil film at the time was at least 15,000 feet (4,600 m). While Randor Guy states that Andha Naal's length was less than 12,500 feet (3,800 m), the Film Preservation and Restoration Workshop India 2016 gives its exact length as 13,165 feet (4,013 m).
- The film won the award jointly with Edhir Paradhathu.
- Vest 2014, p. 309.
- Pillai 2015, p. 268.
- Pillai 2015, p. 265.
- "'அந்த நாள்' திரைப்படமும் அதன் முன்னோடியான 'ராஷோமா'னும்!" [The film 'Andha Naal' and its predecessor 'Rashomon']. Dinamalar (in Tamil). Nellai. 27 February 2017. Archived from the original on 10 August 2018. Retrieved 10 August 2018.
- Venkataramanan, Geetha (7 April 2016). "Andha Naal: Remembering veena S. Balachander". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 17 April 2016.
- Gnani (9 January 2011). "திருப்புமுனை திரைப்படங்கள்" [Pathbreaking films]. Dinamani (in Tamil). Archived from the original on 21 February 2015.
- "இசையுலகில் ஒரு கலகக்காரர்!" [A rebel in the musical world]. Ananda Vikatan (in Tamil). 18 January 2016. Archived from the original on 23 July 2016.
- "Cinematic milestones". The Times of India. 9 October 2010. Archived from the original on 21 February 2015.
- Chakravarty, Riya (3 May 2013). "Indian cinema@100: 40 Firsts in Indian cinema". NDTV. Archived from the original on 4 May 2013.
- Reddy 2005, p. 157.
- Limca Book of Records 2006, p. 112.
- "AVM productions finds Gen-Next heirs". The Economic Times. 20 March 2010. Archived from the original on 8 July 2012.
- Kumar, S. R. Ashok (14 May 2004). "Finger on people's pulse". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 21 February 2015.
- Guy, Randor (10 July 2000). "The stamp of honour". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 6 August 2016.
- Guy, Randor (11–17 January 2014). "Tamil Cinema and Music – 79" (PDF). Mambalam Times. Vol. 19 no. 969. p. 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 May 2014.
- Indian cinema: A Visual Voyage 1998, p. 100.
- Baskaran 2013, p. 164.
- Saravanan 2013, p. 450.
- Guy, Randor (27 July 2001). "Talent, charisma and much more". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 21 February 2015.
- Sampath 2012, pp. 70–71.
- Guy, Randor (6–12 March 2011). "The AVM story – 54 The Indian movie mogul" (PDF). Anna Nagar Times. 18 (908): 14. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 April 2014. Retrieved 26 April 2014.
- Sampath 2012, p. 71.
- "சினிமாவின் மறுபக்கம் – 'செட்டி நாட்டு செல்வம்' ஏவி.எம். செட்டியார்" [The other side of cinema – AVM Chettiar, dearest of Chettinad]. Dina Thanthi (in Tamil). 25 October 2014. Archived from the original on 22 July 2016.
- Ganesan & Narayana Swamy 2007, p. 95.
- Guy, Randor (28 July 2006). "AVM, the adventurer, the maverick, the pioneer". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 21 February 2015.
- Aishwarya, S. (16 July 2009). "New trend in Kollywood". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 21 February 2015.
- Guy 1997, p. 256.
- Raman, Mohan (13 April 2016). Celebrating a Pioneer, A Path breaking Film Maker – Veena S Balachander. Chennai: Padma Bhushan Veena Vidwan Dr. S. Balachander Trust.
- Guy, Randor (12 December 2008). "Andha Naal 1954". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 21 February 2015.
- Saravanan 2013, pp. 419, 491.
- Ganesan & Narayana Swamy 2007, p. 96.
- Pillai 2015, pp. 264–265.
- Balachander, S. (director) (1954). Andha Naal (motion picture) (in Tamil). India: AVM Productions. From 2:58 to 3:04.
- Ramnath, Nandini (23 August 2017). "Tamil noir classic 'Andha Naal' is more than the sum of its memes". Scroll.in. Archived from the original on 23 August 2017. Retrieved 23 August 2017.
- Bai, Devika (15 April 2014). "The Indian Hitchcock". New Straits Times. Archived from the original on 21 February 2015.
- "Film Preservation & Restoration Workshop India 2016" (PDF). National Film Archive of India. pp. 14–25. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 July 2016.
- Suganth, M. (2 March 2012). "Black and white films in Kollywood". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 21 February 2015.
- Fraser & Hammond 2008, p. 137.
- Balachander, S. (director) (1954). Andha Naal (motion picture). India: AVM Productions. From 44:42 to 45:20.
- Saju, M. T. (6 September 2013). "How Kurosawa inspired Tamil films". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 21 February 2015.
- Guy, Randor (16 September 2011). "A classic remembered". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 18 July 2016.
- Vest 2014, p. 1.
- Vijayakumar, B. (21 June 2015). "Hotel High Range (1968)". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 23 February 2016.
- Rangan, Baradwaj (24 June 2016). "Crime does pay". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 28 June 2016.
- Guy, Randor (2 July 2010). "Blast from the past – Chitra (1946)". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 21 February 2015.
- "Classic Pick: Andha Naal". The Times of India. 20 June 2008. Archived from the original on 8 June 2016.
- Balachander, S. (director) (1954). Andha Naal (motion picture) (in Tamil). India: AVM Productions. From 1:10:14 to 1:13:40.
- "2nd National Film Awards" (PDF). Directorate of Film Festivals. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 March 2012.
- Sampath 2012, p. 72.
- "'ANTHA NAAL' (Celluloid)". Central Board of Film Certification. 12 April 1954. Retrieved 27 July 2016.
- Raman, Mohan (18 June 2012). "Andha Naal [That Day]". Facebook. Archived from the original on 7 August 2016.
- "Film News" Anandan (2004). Sadhanaigal padaitha Tamil Thiraipada Varalaaru (in Tamil). Chennai: Sivagami Publications. pp. 28:71.
- "Did You Know?". The Times of India. 13 July 2015. Archived from the original on 27 June 2016.
- "State Awards for films – 1955". Directorate of Film Festivals. Archived from the original on 14 March 2016.
- Pillai 2015, p. 2.
- "Andha Naal". Amazon.in. 8 May 2008. Archived from the original on 17 July 2016.
- Muthiah, S. (30 January 2006). "The innovative film-maker". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 22 February 2015.
- Guy, Randor (14 February 2003). "Actress who glowed with inner beauty". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 22 February 2015.
- Tara 1954, pp. 23–24.
- Pillai 2015, p. 304.
- Pillai 2015, p. 267.
- "Miscellaneous – This Day That Age – dated May 17, 1954: Felicitated". The Hindu. 17 May 1954. Archived from the original on 22 February 2015.
- Pillai 2015, pp. 266–267.
- "Andha Naal". The Indian Express. 8 May 1954. p. 3. Archived from the original on 13 April 2017.
- Thoraval 2000, p. 326.
- Guy, Randor (18–24 January 2014). "Tamil Cinema and Music – 80" (PDF). Mambalam Times. 19 (970): 4. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 May 2014.
- "தமிழின் டிரெண்ட் செட்டர் படங்கள்.. ஒரு பார்வை!" [A look on trendsetting films in Tamil]. Ananda Vikatan (in Tamil). 13 July 2016. Archived from the original on 18 July 2016.
- Muthiah, S. (3 December 2001). "Banners on screen and stage again". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 22 February 2015.
- Muthiah 1989, p. 137.
- Kumar, S. R. Ashok (13 July 2007). "Filmmakers' favourites". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 11 October 2014.
- "Captured: Polymath S. Balachander and his great wars". Sify. IANS. 10 February 2012. Archived from the original on 22 February 2015.
- Baskaran 2013, p. 93.
- Baskaran 2013, p. 239.
- Mudliar, Preeti (2015). "Watching from an Arm's Length: The Foreign Hand in Tamil Cinema" (PDF). Communication, Culture & Critique. pp. 9–10. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 July 2016.
- Deven, Chimbu (director) (2014). Oru Kanniyum Moonu Kalavaanikalum (motion picture). India: Mohana Movies. Event occurs at 2:17:50.
- "14th International Film Festival of India" (PDF). Directorate of Film Festivals. p. 125. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 January 2013.
- "தமிழர்களைப் போல மலையாளிகள் அப்பாவிகள் அல்ல!". Ananda Vikatan (in Tamil). 19 June 2013. Archived from the original on 22 February 2015.
- "100 Years of Indian Cinema: The 100 greatest Indian films of all time – Andha Naal (1954)". CNN-News18. 17 April 2013. Archived from the original on 22 February 2015.
- "Screening of Tamil classic 'Andha Naal' on Sunday morning". Mylapore Times. 12 April 2014. Archived from the original on 14 July 2015.
- Behrawala, Krutika (2 March 2015). "Quest to save India's cine history". Mid Day. Archived from the original on 6 October 2015.
- Dutt, Purba (10 August 2015). "Kamal Haasan is the only filmmaker who's passionate about film heritage: Shivendra Singh Dungarpur". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 16 July 2016.
- "Balachander's magnum opus replayed on stage with a modern touch". The Times of India. 19 April 2017. Archived from the original on 17 May 2017. Retrieved 17 May 2017.
- "Rupee's journey since Independence: Down by 65 times against dollar". The Economic Times. 24 August 2013. Archived from the original on 29 August 2013.
- Baskaran, S. Theodore (2013) . The Eye of the Serpent: An introduction to Tamil cinema (2nd ed.). Westland. ISBN 978-93-83260-74-4.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Fraser, R.; Hammond, M. (2008). Books Without Borders, Volume 2: Perspectives from South Asia. Palgrave Macmillan UK. ISBN 978-0-230-28913-0.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Ganesan, Sivaji; Narayana Swamy, T. S. (2007) . Autobiography of an Actor: Sivaji Ganesan, October 1928 – July 2001. Sivaji Prabhu Charities Trust.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Guy, Randor (1997). Starlight, Starbright: The Early Tamil Cinema. Amra Publishers.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Limca Book of Records. Bisleri Beverages Limited. 2006.
- Muthiah, S. (1989). Tales of Old and New Madras: The Dalliance of Miss Mansell and 34 Other Stories of 350 Years. Affiliated East-West Press. ISBN 81-85336-25-3.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- National Film Development Corporation of India (1998). Indian cinema: A Visual Voyage. Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. ISBN 978-81-230-0646-8.
- Pillai, Swarnavel Eswaran (2015). Madras Studios: Narrative, Genre, and Ideology in Tamil Cinema. SAGE Publications. ISBN 978-93-5150-212-8.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Reddy, K. Krishna (2005). General Studies History 4 Upsc. Tata McGraw-Hill Education. ISBN 0-07-060447-9.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Sampath, Vikram (2012). Voice of the Veena, S. Balachander: A Biography. Rupa & Co. ISBN 978-81-291-1936-0.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Saravanan, M. (2013) . AVM 60 cinema (in Tamil) (3rd ed.). Rajarajan Pathippagam.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Tara (24 April 1954). "திரை அரங்கம்: அந்த நாள் (விமர்சனம்)". Kalaimanram (in Tamil).CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Vest, Jason P. (2014). Spike Lee: Finding the Story and Forcing the Issue. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-0-313-39226-9.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Thoraval, Yves (2000). The Cinemas of India. Macmillan India. ISBN 978-0-333-93410-4.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)