Vishwanath Pratap Singh
Vishwanath Pratap Singh
Singh in 1989
|7th Prime Minister of India|
2 December 1989 – 10 November 1990
|Deputy||Chaudhary Devi Lal|
|Preceded by||Rajiv Gandhi|
|Succeeded by||Chandra Shekhar|
|Minister of Defence|
2 December 1989 – 10 November 1990
|Preceded by||Krishna Chandra Pant|
|Succeeded by||Chandra Shekhar|
24 January 1987 – 12 April 1987
|Prime Minister||Rajiv Gandhi|
|Preceded by||Rajiv Gandhi|
|Succeeded by||Krishna Chandra Pant|
|Minister of Finance|
31 December 1984 – 23 January 1987
|Prime Minister||Rajiv Gandhi|
|Preceded by||Pranab Mukherjee|
|Succeeded by||Rajiv Gandhi|
|Leader of the House, Rajya Sabha|
December 1984 – April 1987
|Preceded by||Pranab Mukherjee|
|Succeeded by||Narayan Datt Tiwari|
|12th Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh|
9 June 1980 – 19 July 1982
|Preceded by||Banarsi Das|
|Succeeded by||Sripati Mishra|
|Member of Parliament, Rajya Sabha|
|Member of Parliament, Lok Sabha|
|Preceded by||Hari Krishna Shastri|
|Succeeded by||Vishambhar Prasad Nishad|
|Preceded by||Janeshwar Mishra|
|Succeeded by||Krishna Prakash Tiwari|
|Preceded by||Amitabh Bachchan|
|Succeeded by||Janeshwar Mishra|
|Preceded by||Janeshwar Mishra|
|Succeeded by||Kamala Bahuguna|
Vishwanath Pratap Singh
25 June 1931
Allahabad, United Provinces, British India
(now in Uttar Pradesh, India)
|Died||27 November 2008 (aged 77)|
New Delhi, India
|Cause of death||Multiple myeloma|
|Political party||Indian National Congress (Before 1987)|
Janata Dal (1988–1998)
Jan Morcha (1987–1988, 2006–2008)
|Alma mater||Allahabad University (B.A., LL.B.)|
University of Pune (B.Sc.)
Born in a zamindari family, he was educated at the Allahabad University and Pune University. In 1969, he joined the Indian National Congress party and was elected as a member of the Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly. In 1971, he became a Member of Parliament in the Lok Sabha. He served as the Minister of Commerce from 1976 to 1977. In 1980, he became the Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh.
In the Rajiv Gandhi ministry, Singh was given various cabinet posts, including Minister of Finance and Minister of Defence. During his tenure as Minister of Defence, the Bofors scandal came to light, and Singh resigned from the ministry. In 1988, he formed the Janata Dal party by merging various factions of the Janata Party. In the 1989 elections, the National Front, with the support of the BJP, formed the government and Singh became the 7th Prime Minister of India.
During his tenure as prime minister, he implemented the Mandal Commission report for India's backward castes. Following his opposition to the Ram Rath Yatra, the BJP withdrew its support for the National Front, and his government lost the vote of no-confidence. Singh resigned on 7 November 1990. His prime ministerial tenure lasted for 343 days.
Singh was the prime ministerial candidate for the National Front in the 1991 elections, but was defeated. He spoke out against the Babri Masjid demolition in 1992. After 1996, Singh retired from political posts, but continued to remain a public figure and political critic. He was diagnosed with bone marrow cancer in 1998, and ceased public appearances until the cancer went into remission in 2003. He died on 27 November 2008, at the age on 77.
Early life and backgroundEdit
Singh was born on 25 June 1931, as the third child of the Rajput  Zamindar of Daiya, which is located on the banks of the Belan River in the Allahabad district. He was adopted by Raja Gopal Singh of Manda and became the heir-apparent. He became the Raja of Manda at the age of 10 in 1941.
He obtained his education from Colonel Brown Cambridge School, Dehradun and did his Bachelor of Arts and Law degree from Allahabad University. He was the elected the vice president of Allahabad university students union and later did a Bachelor of Science in Physics from Fergusson College in the Pune University.
Singh was elected from Soraon  to the Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly in 1969 as a member of the Congress Party and became the chief whip for the legislative party. He got elected to the Lok Sabha in 1971 and was appointed a Deputy Minister of Commerce by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi in 1974. He served as the Minister of Commerce in 1976–77.
Chief Minister of Uttar PradeshEdit
He was appointed as the Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh in 1980, when Indira Gandhi was re-elected after the Janata interlude. As Chief Minister (1980–82), he cracked down hard on dacoity, a problem that was particularly severe in the rural districts of the south-west Uttar Pradesh. He received much favourable national publicity when he offered to resign following a self-professed failure to stamp out the problem, and again when he personally oversaw the surrender of some of the most feared dacoits of the area in 1983.
He resumed his post as Minister of Commerce in 1983. Singh was responsible for managing the coalition of the Left and the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) against Rajiv Gandhi to dethrone him in the 1989 elections. He is remembered for the important role that he played in 1989 that changed the course of Indian politics. Singh acted boldly by issuing an arrest warrant against L. K. Advani midway through the latter's Rath Yatra.
Minister for Finance (1984-87) and Defence (1987), Bofors and HDWEdit
Called to New Delhi following Rajiv, Gandhi's mandate in the 1984 general election, Singh was appointed to the post of Finance Minister in the tenth Cabinet of India, where he oversaw the gradual relaxation of the License Raj (governmental regulation) as Gandhi had in mind. During his term as Finance Minister, he oversaw the reduction of gold smuggling by reducing gold taxes and giving the police a portion of the confiscated gold. He also gave extraordinary powers to the Enforcement Directorate of the Finance Ministry, the wing of the ministry charged with tracking down tax evaders, then headed by Bhure Lal. Singh's efforts to reduce government regulation of business and to prosecute tax fraud attracted widespread praise.
Following a number of high-profile raids on suspected evaders – including Dhirubhai Ambani and Amitabh Bachchan – Gandhi was forced to sack him as Finance Minister, possibly because many of the raids were conducted on industrialists who had supported the Congress financially in the past. However, Singh's popularity was at such a pitch that only a sideways move seemed to have been possible, to the Defence Ministry (in January 1987).
Once ensconced in South Block, Singh began to investigate the notoriously murky world of defence procurement. After a while, word began to spread that Singh possessed information about the Bofors defence deal (the infamous arms-procurement fraud) that could damage Gandhi's reputation. Before he could act on it, he was dismissed from the Cabinet and, in response, resigned his memberships in the Congress Party (Indira) and the Lok Sabha.
In an interview with Shekhar Gupta in July 2005, Singh said that he had resigned from the Rajiv Gandhi cabinet due to differences that arose in the dealing of information regarding commissions taken by Indian agents in the HDW submarine deal, and not due to Bofors. In April 1987, Singh received a secret telegram from J.C.Ajmani, the Indian ambassador in West Germany. The telegram stated that Indian agents had received large commissions in the HDW deal. These commissions amounted to a staggering Rs. 32.55 crore (7% of the agreed price). Singh informed Rajiv Gandhi about this and instituted an inquiry. However, the handling of this case led to differences and Singh finally resigned from the cabinet.
Formation of Janata DalEdit
Together with associates Arun Nehru and Arif Mohammad Khan, Singh floated an opposition party named Jan Morcha. He was re-elected to Lok Sabha in a tightly contested by-election from Allahabad, defeating Sunil Shastri. On 11 October 1988, the birthday of the original Janata coalition's leader Jayaprakash Narayan, Singh founded the Janata Dal by the merger of Jan Morcha, Janata Party, Lok Dal and Congress (S), in order to bring together all the centrist parties opposed to the Rajiv Gandhi government, and Singh was elected the President of the Janata Dal. An opposition coalition of the Janata Dal with regional parties including the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, Telugu Desam Party, and Asom Gana Parishad, came into being, called the National Front, with V. P. Singh as convener, NT Rama Rao as president, and P Upendra as a General Secretary.
National Front coalition governmentEdit
The National Front fought 1989 General Elections after coming to an electoral understanding with Bharatiya Janata Party and the Left parties (the two main oppositions) that served to unify the anti-Congress vote. The National Front, with its allies, earned a simple majority in the Lok Sabha and decided to form a government. The Bharatiya Janta Party under the leadership of Atal Bihari Vajpayee and Lal Krishna Advani and the left parties such as the Communist Party of India (Marxist) and the Communist Party of India declined to serve in the government, preferring to support the government from outside.
In a meeting in the Central Hall of Parliament on 1 December, Singh proposed the name of Devi Lal as Prime Minister, in spite of the fact that he himself had been clearly projected by the anti-Congress forces as the 'clean' alternative to Rajiv Gandhi and their Prime Ministerial candidate. Chaudhary Devi Lal, a Jat leader from Haryana stood up and refused the nomination, and said that he would prefer to be an 'elder uncle' to the Government, and that Singh should be Prime Minister. This last part came as a clear surprise to Chandra Shekhar, the former head of the erstwhile Janata Party, and Singh's greatest rival within the Janata Dal. Shekhar, who had clearly expected that an agreement had been forged with Lal as the consensus candidate, withdrew from the meeting and refused to serve in the Cabinet.
Singh was sworn in as India's Prime Minister on 2 December 1989.
Prime Minister (1989 – 90)Edit
Singh held office for slightly less than a year, from 2 December 1989 to 10 November 1990. After state legislative elections in March 1990, Singh's governing coalition achieved control of both houses of India's parliament. During this time, Janata Dal came to power in five Indian states under Om Prakash Chautala (Banarsi Das Gupta, Hukam Singh), Chimanbhai Patel, Biju Patnaik, Laloo Prasad Yadav, and Mulayam Singh Yadav, and the National Front constituents in two more NT Rama Rao, and Prafulla Kumar Mahanta. The Janata Dal also shared power in Kerala under EK Nayanar and in Rajasthan under Bhairon Singh Shekhawat (supporting the Bharatiya Janata Party government from outside). Singh decided to end the Indian army's unsuccessful operation in Sri Lanka which Rajiv Gandhi, his predecessor, had sent to combat the Tamil separatist movement.
V. P. Singh faced his first crisis within few days of taking office, when Kashmiri militants kidnapped the daughter of his Home Minister, Mufti Mohammad Sayeed (former Chief Minister of Jammu and Kashmir). His government agreed to the demand for releasing militants in exchange; partly to end the storm of criticism that followed, he shortly thereafter appointed Jagmohan Malhotra, a former bureaucrat, as Governor of Jammu and Kashmir.
In Punjab, Singh replaced the hard-line Siddhartha Shankar Ray as Governor with another former bureaucrat, Nirmal Kumar Mukarji, who moved forward on a timetable for fresh elections. Singh himself made a much-publicised visit to the Golden Temple to ask forgiveness for Operation Blue Star and the combination of events caused the long rebellion in Punjab to die down markedly in a few months.
Mandal Commission reportEdit
Singh himself wished to move forward nationally on social justice-related issues, which would, in addition, consolidate the caste coalition that supported the Janata Dal in northern India, and accordingly decided to implement the recommendations of the Mandal Commission which suggested that a fixed quota of all jobs in the public sector be reserved for members of the historically disadvantaged called Other Backward Classes. This decision led to widespread protests among the upper caste youth in urban areas in northern India. OBC reservation (less creamy layer) was upheld by the Supreme Court in 2008.
Tussle with Reliance groupEdit
In 1990, the government-owned financial institutions like the Life Insurance Corporation of India and the General Insurance Corporation of India stonewalled attempts by the Reliance group to acquire managerial control over Larsen & Toubro. Sensing defeat, the Ambanis resigned from the board of the company. Dhirubhai, who had become Larsen & Toubro's chairman in April 1989, had to quit his position to make way for D. N. Ghosh, former chairman of the State Bank of India.
Ram temple issue and the fall of the coalitionEdit
Meanwhile, the Bharatiya Janata Party was moving its own agenda forward. In particular, the Ram Janmabhoomi agitation, which served as a rallying cry for several Hindu organisations, took on a new life. The party president, LK Advani, with Pramod Mahajan as aide, toured the northern states on a rath – a bus converted to look like a mythical chariot – with the intention of drumming up support. Before he could complete the tour by reaching the disputed site in Ayodhya, he was arrested on Singh's orders at Samastipur on the charges of disturbing the peace and fomenting communal tension. The kār-Seva proposed by Advani on 30 October 1990 was prevented by stationing troops at the site.
This led to the Bharatiya Janata Party's suspension of support to the National Front government. VP Singh faced the vote of no confidence in the Lok Sabha saying that he occupied the high moral ground, as he stood for secularism, had saved the Babri Masjid at the cost of power and had upheld the fundamental principles which were challenged during the crises. "What kind of India do you want?" he asked of his opponents in Parliament, before losing the vote 142–346; only a portion of the National Front remaining loyal to him (see below) and the left parties supported him in the vote.
Singh resigned on 7 November 1990.
The Chandra Shekhar governmentEdit
Chandra Shekhar immediately seized the moment and left the Janata Dal with several of his own supporters (including Devi Lal, Janeshwar Mishra, HD Deve Gowda, Maneka Gandhi, Ashoke Kumar Sen, Subodh Kant Sahay, Om Prakash Chautala, Hukam Singh, Chimanbhai Patel, Mulayam Singh Yadav, Yashwant Sinha, VC Shukla, and Sanjay Singh) to form the Samajwadi Janata Party/Janata Dal (Socialist). Although Chandra Shekhar had a mere 64 MPs, Rajiv Gandhi the leader of the Opposition, agreed to support him on the floor of the House; so he won a confidence motion and was sworn in as Prime Minister. Eight Janata Dal MPs who voted for this motion were disqualified by the speaker Rabi Ray. His government lasted only a few months before he resigned and called for fresh elections.
VP Singh contested the new elections but his party was relegated to the opposition chiefly due to the assassination of Rajiv Gandhi (May 1991) during the election campaign, and he later retired from active politics. He spent the next few years touring the country speaking about matters related to issues of social justice and his artistic pursuits, chiefly painting.
In 1992, Singh was the first to propose the name of the future President KR Narayanan as a (eventually successful) candidate for vice president. Later the same year in December, he led his followers to Ayodhya to oppose the Karseva proposed by LK Advani, and was arrested before he could reach the site; the Masjid was demolished by the Karsevaks a few days later.
In 1996, the Congress party lost the general elections and Singh was the natural choice of the winning United Front (Singh was one of the forces behind the broad United Front coalition) for the post of Prime Minister. But he declined the offer made to him by communist veteran Jyoti Basu, Bihar strongman Lalu Prasad Yadav and almost all leaders of the Janata family.
Singh was diagnosed with cancer in 1998 and ceased public appearances. When his cancer went into remission in 2003, he once again became a visible figure, especially in the many groupings that had inherited the space once occupied by his Janata Dal. He relaunched the Jan Morcha in 2006 with actor-turned-politician Raj Babbar as president. After Jan Morcha drew a blank in the 2007 UP elections, Raj Babbar joined the Congress, and Singh's elder son Ajeya Singh took over the reins of the party in anticipation of the 2009 General elections. Ajeya Singh then contested as Jan Morcha candidate from Fatehpur, but lost to Rakesh Sachan of the Samajwadi Party. The Jan Morcha was renamed as the National Jan Morcha in June 2009. A month later, the Jan Morcha merged with the Indian National Congress.
Singh was placed under arrest in Ghaziabad as he and his supporters were proceeding towards a hauling where prohibitory orders under Section 144 had been imposed to join the farmers agitating against the acquisition of land at Dadri by the Anil Ambani-owned Reliance Industries and demanding adequate compensation. Later, Singh and CPI General Secretary AB Bardhan were again arrested on the UP border when they were proceeding to Dadri. However, Singh and Babbar were later able to evade the police, reaching Dadri on 18 August 2006, and ploughing the land in solidarity with the farmers.
Singh died after a very long struggle with multiple myeloma and kidney failure at Apollo Hospital in Delhi on 27 November 2008, aged 77. He was cremated at Allahabad on the banks of the River Ganges on 29 November 2008, his son Ajeya Singh lighting the funeral pyre.
Singh married Princess Sita Kumari, the daughter of the Raja of Deogarh-Madaria, Rajasthan, on 25 June 1955. It was an arranged marriage. He turned 24 on the day of the marriage, and she was 18. Kumari was a Sisodia Rajput descended from Rana Pratap of Udaipur. The couple had two sons, Ajeya Singh (born 1957), a chartered accountant in New York, and Abhai Singh (born 1958), a doctor at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences in New Delhi.
- Juliet Reynolds, an art critic and a close friend of Singh, made a short documentary on him, titled The Art of the Impossible (45 minutes long), and covers his political and artistic career.
- Suma Josson made another film on Singh titled One More Day to Live.
- GS Bhargava: Peristroika in India: VP Singh's Prime Ministership, Gian Publishing House, New Delhi, 1990.
- Madan Gaur: VP Singh: Portrait of a Leader, Press and Publicity Syndicate of India, 1990.
- Seema Mustafa: The Lonely Prophet: VP Singh, a Political Biography, New Age international, 1995.
- Ram Bahadur Rai: Manjil se Jyada Safar (in Hindi), 2005.
Other books connected to V. P. SinghEdit
- "The State As Charade: V. P. Singh, Chandra Shekhar and the Rest" by Arun Shourie, Publisher: South Asia Books
- IK Gujral: Matters of Discretion: An Autobiography, Hay House, India, 519 pages, Feb. 2011. ISBN 978-93-8048-080-0. Distributors: Penguin books, India.
- R Venkataraman: My Presidential Years, HarperCollins/Indus, 1995. ISBN 81-7223-202-0.
- P Upendra: Gatham Swagatham.
- "VP Singh's wife to get Rs 1 lakh for defamation". The Times of India. Retrieved 9 January 2016.
- Pandya, Haresh (29 November 2008). "V. P. Singh, a leader of India who defended poor, dies at 77". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 September 2011.
- Singh, Indra Shekhar. "A grandson's tribute: The forgotten idealism of VP Singh". scroll.in. Retrieved 27 March 2018.
- "V P Singh | Former Prime Minister of India". Webindia123.com. Retrieved 30 August 2019.
- Ghai, Rajat (7 May 2014). "The office of Prime Minister: A largely north Indian upper-caste, Hindu affair". Business Standard India. Retrieved 30 August 2019.
- "Remembering VP Singh on his 86th birthday: A grandson reminds us why India needs its political Siddharth". Firstpost. 27 June 2017. Retrieved 18 January 2019.
- "V.P. Singh | Biography". Britannica.com. 23 November 2018. Retrieved 18 January 2019.
- Surindar Suri (1 August 1990). The rise of Raja Manda and the 1989 and 1990 elections. Konark Publishers.
- "Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly Election in 1969 Party Wise". Elections.in. Retrieved 21 June 2019.
- "The Times and Tides during 1989". www.primepoint.in. Retrieved 11 December 2019.
- In May 1985, Singh suddenly removed the import of Purified Terephthalic Acid (PTA) from the Open General License category. As a raw material, this was very important to manufacture polyester filament yarn. This made it very difficult for Reliance Industries under Dhirubhai Ambani to carry on operations. Reliance was able to secure, from various financial institutions, letters of credit that would allow it to import almost one full year’s requirement of PTA on the eve of the issuance of the government notification changing the category under which PTA could be imported.
- In India, economic gains and new perils. The New York Times. (2 March 1987). Retrieved 14 September 2011.
- Indian Government Lodges First Charges In Weapons Scandal. The New York Times. (23 January 1990). Retrieved 14 September 2011.
- Turmoil and a Scandal Take a Toll on Gandhi. The New York Times. (24 August 1987). Retrieved 14 September 2011.
- Gupta, Shekhar (1 July 2005). "Walk the talk - an interview with V.P.Singh". NDTV. Retrieved 25 October 2018.
- Chawla, Prachu (15 March 1990). "HDW submarine deal assumes centre stage again. An exclusive inside story". India Today. Retrieved 25 October 2018.
- Is the Raja Ready for War, or Losing His Steam?. New York Times. (8 October 1987). Retrieved 14 September 2011.
- Gandhi foes face test of strength. New York Times. (13 June 1988). Retrieved 14 September 2011.
- Gandhi Is Finding Out Fast How Much He Had to Lose. New York Times. (3 July 1988). Retrieved 14 September 2011.
- New Opposition Front in India Stages Lively Rally. New York Times. (18 September 1988). Retrieved 14 September 2011.
- Man in the News; V. P. Singh: Low-key Indian in high-anxiety job – New York Times report. New York Times (3 December 1989). Retrieved 14 September 2011.
- Indian opposition chooses a Premier. New York Times. (2 December 1989). Retrieved 14 September 2011.
- Obituary VP Singh Mark Tully The Guardian, 3 December 2008 
- India's Premier Offers Concessions to Sikhs. New York Times. (12 January 1990). Retrieved 14 September 2011.
- India Asserts That Pakistan Is Preparing for Border War. New York Times. (15 April 1990). Retrieved 14 September 2011.
- India and Pakistan Make the Most of Hard Feelings. New York Times. (22 April 1990). Retrieved 14 September 2011.
- India, Stymied, Pulls Last Troops From Sri Lanka. New York Times. (25 March 1990). Retrieved 14 September 2011.
- "Mandal vs Mandir".
- Affirmative Action Has India's Students Astir. The New York Times. (22 August 1990). Retrieved 14 September 2011.
- Premier of India in appeal on riots. The New York Times. (27 September 1990). Retrieved 14 September 2011.
- Hindu fundamentalist threatens India's government over temple. New York Times. (18 October 1990). Retrieved 14 September 2011.
- India Sends Troops to Stop Hindu March. New York Times. (26 October 1990). Retrieved 14 September 2011.
- India ready to bar Hindu move today – New York Times report. New York Times. (30 October 1990). Retrieved 14 September 2011.
- Toll in India clash at Mosque rises. New York Times. (1 November 1990). Retrieved 14 September 2011.
- India's Prime Minister Loses His Parliamentary Majority in Temple Dispute. New York Times. (24 October 1990). Retrieved 14 September 2011.
- India's cabinet falls as Premier loses confidence vote, by 142–346, and quits – New York Times report. New York Times (8 November 1990). Retrieved 14 September 2011.
- A Test of Principles in India – New York Times Editorial. New York Times. (8 November 1990). Retrieved 14 September 2011.
- A Question Unanswered: Where Is India Headed?. New York Times. (11 November 1990). Retrieved 14 September 2011.
- Dissidents Split Indian Prime Minister's Party. New York Times. (6 November 1990). Retrieved 14 September 2011.
- Rival of Singh Becomes India Premier. New York Times. (10 November 1990). Retrieved 14 September 2011.
- For India, Will It Be Change, Secularism or a Right Wing?. New York Times. (24 April 1991). Retrieved 14 September 2011.
- Ex-Darling of India Press Finds Himself Ignored. The New York Times (14 May 1991). Retrieved 14 September 2011.
- V. P. Singh, Raj Babbar launch new Jan Morcha Archived 6 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- An irreparable loss: Mayawati Archived 2 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine
- National Jan Morcha plans farmers’ meet in Delhi Archived 24 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- Jan Morcha merges with Congress. The Hindu. (25 July 2009). Retrieved 14 September 2011.
- V. P. Singh arrested on way to Reliance plant Archived 5 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine
- V. P. Singh, Bardhan held on U. P. border Archived 5 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine
- V. P. Singh, Raj Babbar spring a surprise at Dadri Archived 5 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine
- Jan Morcha plans `Nyaya Yatra' Archived 6 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- V. P. Singh passes away Archived 5 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine
- V. P. Singh cremated Archived 5 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine
- Singh, Khushwant (11 April 2013). "Plane to Pakistan". Malicious Gossip. HarperCollins Publishers India. ISBN 9789350292891. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- The Raja, Up, Close and Personal Archived 26 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine. Indian Express. (21 January 2001). Retrieved 14 September 2011.
- Suma Josson Archived 14 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine. Cinemaofmalayalam.net. Retrieved 14 September 2011.
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| Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh
| Minister of Finance
| Minister of Defence
Krishna Chandra Pant
| Prime Minister of India
| Chairperson of the Planning Commission|
Krishna Chandra Pant
| Minister of Defence|