Jaya-chandra (IAST: Jayacandra, r. c. 1170–1194 CE) was a king from the Gahadavala dynasty of northern India. He is also known as Jayachchandra (IAST: Jayaccandra) in inscriptions, and Jaichand in vernacular legends. He ruled the Antarvedi country in the Gangetic plains, including the important cities of Kannauj and Varanasi. His territory included much of the present-day eastern Uttar Pradesh and some parts of western Bihar. The last powerful king of his dynasty, he was defeated and killed in 1194 CE, in a battle near Yamuna against a Ghurid army led by Muhammad of Ghor.
|Ashva-pati Nara-pati Gaja-pati Rajatrayadhipati|
|King of Antaravedi|
|Reign||c. 1170-1194 CE|
|Coronation||21 June 1170 |
A fictional account of Jayachandra (as Jaichand) occurs in a legendary text Prithviraj Raso. The epic poem was likely written centuries after his death. According to this account, he was a rival of another Indian king, Prithviraj Chauhan. His daughter Samyukta eloped with Prithviraj against his wishes, and he allied with the foreign non-Hindu Ghurids to ensure Prithviraj's downfall. The name "Jaichand" became synonymous with the word "traitor" in folklore of northern India because of this legend.
Jayachandra was a son of the Gahadavala king Vijayachandra. According to a Kamauli inscription, he was crowned king on 21 June 1170 CE. Jayachandra inherited his grandfather Govindachandra's royal titles: Ashva-pati Nara-pati Gaja-pati Rajatrayadhipati ("leader of three forces: the cavalry, the infantry and the elephant corps") and Vividha-vidya-vichara-vachaspati ("patron of different branches of learning").
Jayachandra's inscriptions praise him using the conventional grandiloquent terms, but do not mention any concrete achievement of the king. The records of his neighbouring Hindu kings (Paramara, Chahamana, Chandela and Kalachuri) do not mention any conflict with him either. The Sena king Lakshmana Sena is believed to have invaded the Gahadavala territory, but this invasion may have taken place after Jayachandra's death.
The Muslim Ghurids invaded Jayachandra's kingdom in the 1193 CE. According to the contemporary Muslim accounts, Jayachandra was "the greatest king of India and possessed the largest territory". These accounts describe him as the Rāi of Banaras (king of Varanasi). According to Kamil ut-Tawarikh, his army had a million soldiers and 700 elephants.
The Hindu accounts (such as Vidyapati's Purusha-Pariksha and Prithviraj Raso) claim that Jayachandra defeated the Ghurids multiple times. The contemporary Muslim accounts, on the other hand, mention only two battles: one relatively minor engagement and the Battle of Chandwar, in which Jayachandra was killed.
The Ghurid ruler Muhammad of Ghor had defeated the Chahamana king Prithviraja III in 1192 CE. According to Hasan Nizami's 13th century text Taj-ul-Maasir, he decided to attack the Gahadavala kingdom after taking control of Ajmer, Delhi and Kol. He dispatched a 50,000-strong army commanded by Qutb al-Din Aibak. Nizami states that this army defeated "the army of the enemies of the Religion" (Islam). It appears that the defeated army was not Jayachandra's main army, but only a smaller body of his frontier guards.
Jayachandra then himself led a larger army against the Ghurids in 1194 CE. Muhammad of Ghor himself returned to Indian frontier and crossed Jamuna with a sizeable army of 50,000 horses and defeated Jayachandra after a fierce battle. Jayachandra was killed in action and the Ghurids captured 300 elephants alive, and plundered the Gahadavala treasury at the Asni fort. (The identification of Asni is not certain, but most historians believe it to be the present-day Asni village in Fatehpur district.) Afterwards, the Ghurids ransacked the city of Kashi (Varanasi) and destroyed several temples there.
Jayachandra's son Harishchandra succeeded him on the Gahadavala throne. According to one theory, he was a Ghurid vassal. However, in an 1197 CE Kotwa inscription, he assumes the titles of a sovereign.
Prithviraj Raso legendEdit
Jayachandra is a prominent character in the Braj language text Prithviraj Raso. According to the text, Jayachandra ("Jaichand") was a cousin of the Chahamana king Prithviraja III ("Prithviraj Chauhan"). Their mothers were sisters born to the Tomara king of Delhi. This claim is directly contradicted by the more reliable contemporary text Prithviraja Vijaya, according to which Prithviraj's mother had nothing to do with the Tomaras.
The text states that Jaichand's wife was a daughter of king Mukunda-deva, the Somavanshi king of Kataka. Jaichand's father Vijayachandra had defeated Mukunda-deva, who concluded a peace treaty by marrying his daughter to prince Jaichand. Samyukta was the issue of this marriage. This narrative is historically inaccurate: the Somavanshi dynasty did not have any king named Mukunda-deva. Moreover, the Somavanshis had already been displaced by the Gangas before Vijayachandra's ascension.
The text also talks of a conflict between Jaichand and Prithviraj. Neither Chahamana nor Gahadavala inscriptions mention any such conflict. The text claims that Jaichand assisted the Chandela king Paramardi in a battle against Prithviraj. The Chandelas were defeated in this battle. The inscriptional evidence confirms that Prithviraj defeated Paramardi, but there is no evidence for a Gahadavala-Chandela alliance. That said, it is known that Paramardi's grandfather Madanavarman had friendly relations with the Gahadavalas. It is also possible that Gahadavalas may have supported the Chandelas, because the Chahamanas were a common rival of these two kingdoms. This hypothesis notwithstanding, there is no evidence to suggest that Jayachandra and Prithviraja were rivals.
Prithviraj Raso further claims that Jaichand launched a digvijaya campaign (conquest in all directions). At the end of this campaign, he conducted a rajasuya ceremony to proclaim his supremacy. However, none of the Gahadavala inscriptions mention such a ceremony by Jaichand. The contemporary literary work Rambha-Manjari, which presents Jaichand as a hero, does not mention this campaign either.
According to the text, Jaichand also conducted a svayamvara (husband selection) ceremony for his daughter Samyukta. He did not invite Prithviraj to this ceremony, but Samyukta had fallen in love with Prithviraj, and decided to select him as her husband. Prithviraj came to the ceremony and eloped with the princess after a fight with Jaichand's men. This anecdote is not supported by any historical evidence either. 
It is possible that Jaichand and Prithviraj were political rivals, as indicated by their non-cooperation against the Ghurid invaders. But the Prithviraj Raso goes on to claim that Jaichand not only refused to help Prithviraj against the Ghurids, but also formed an alliance with the invading Ghurid king Muhammad of Ghor Although the account in Prithviraj Raso is disputed by historians, the name "Jaichand" became synonymous with the word "traitor" in Indian folklore. 
The inscriptions from Jayachandra's reign include the following:
|Date of issue (CE)||Place of discovery||Issued at||Issued by||Purpose|
|21 June 1170||Varanasi district: Kamauli||Vadaviha||Jayachandra||Village grant|
|4 June 1172||Varanasi district: Kamauli||Prayaga||Jayachandra||Village grant|
|21 November 1173||Varanasi district: Kamauli||Varanasi: Near Adikeshava Temple||Jayachandra||Village grant|
|1174||Varanasi district: Kamauli||Varanasi: Near Krttivasa Temple||Jayachandra||Village grant|
|1175||Varanasi district: Kamauli||Varanasi||Jayachandra||Village grant|
|30 August 1175||Varanasi district: Sehwar||Varanasi||Jayachandra||Village grant|
|3 April 1177||Varanasi district: Kamauli||Varanasi||Jayachandra||Village grant|
|9 April 1177||Varanasi district: Varanasi||Varanasi||Jayachandra||Village grant (Godanti)|
|9 April 1177||Varanasi district: Varanasi||Varanasi||Jayachandra||Village grant (Kotharavandhuri)|
|25 December 1177||Varanasi district: Varanasi||Varanasi||Jayachandra||Village grant|
|11 April 1180||Varanasi district: Varanasi||Randavai on Ganga||Jayachandra||Village grant (Dayadama)|
|11 April 1180||Varanasi district: Varanasi||Randavai on Ganga||Jayachandra||Village grant (Saleti)|
|11 April 1180||Varanasi district: Varanasi||Randavai on Ganga||Jayachandra||Village grant (Abhelavatu)|
|22 February 1181||Unknown||Varanasi||Jayachandra||Village grant|
|1186||Faizabad district: Faizabad||Varanasi||Jayachandra||Village grant|
|1189||Kaushambi district: Myohar (or Meohar)||Unknown||Vastavya Thakkura||Erection of Siddheshvara temple|
|1180s-1190s (1240s VS)||Bodh Gaya||Unknown||Unknown||Construction of Jayapura cave monastery|
Jayachandra's court poet Bhatta Kedar wrote a eulogy titled Jaichand Prakash on his life, but the work is now lost. Another lost eulogy on his life is the poet Madhukar's Jaya-Mayank-Jasha-Chandrika (c. 1183).
According to the 1167 CE Kamauli inscription, as a prince, Jayachandra was initiated as a worshipper of Krishna by the Vaishnavite guru Praharaja-Sharman. Nevertheless, after ascending the throne, Jayachandra assumed the dynasty's traditional title Parama-Maheshvara ("devotee of Shiva"). His Kamauli grant inscription states that he made a village grant and performed tulapurusha ceremony in the presence of the god Kṛittivāsa (an epithet of Shiva).
An inscription discovered at Bodh Gaya suggests that Jayachandra also showed interest in Buddhism. This inscription begins with an invocation to Gautam Buddha, the Bodhisattavas, and one Shrimitra (Śrimītra). Shrimitra is named as a perceptor (diksha-guru) of Kashisha Jayachchandra, identified with the king Jayachandra. The inscription records the construction of a guha (cave monastery) at Jayapura.
- Tomars of Delhi by Harihar Niwas Dwivedi. Gwalior: Vidya Mandir Publications. 1983. p. 256.
- Roma Niyogi 1959, p. 102.
- D. C. Sircar 1966, p. 35.
- Roma Niyogi 1959, p. 87.
- Roma Niyogi 1959, p. 103.
- Roma Niyogi 1959, p. 105.
- Roma Niyogi 1959, p. 109.
- Roma Niyogi 1959, p. 110.
- Roma Niyogi 1959, p. 107.
- Roma Niyogi 1959, pp. 110–111.
- Roma Niyogi 1959, pp. 111–112.
- D. P. Dubey 2008, p. 231.
- Satish Chandra (2007). Medieval India:800-1700. Orient Longman. p. 71. ISBN 978-81-250-3226-7.
In 1194, Muizzuddin returned to India. He crossed the Jamuna with 50,000 cavalry and moved towards Kanauj. A hotly contested battle between Muizzuddin and Jaichandra was fought at Chandawar near Kanauj. We are told that Jaichandra had almost carried the day when he was killed by an arrow, and his army was totally defeated. Muizzuddin now moved on to Banaras which was ravaged, a large number of temples there being destroyed
- Roma Niyogi 1959, pp. 113–114.
- R. C. Majumdar 1977, p. 339.
- Roma Niyogi 1959, p. 92.
- Roma Niyogi 1959, p. 106.
- Swami Parmeshwaranand 2000, p. 541.
- Roma Niyogi 1959, p. 106-107.
- R. C. Majumdar 1977, p. 317:"There is, however, nothing to support the current story that Jayachandra invited the Muslim king to invade India to weak his vengeance against Prithviraja."
- Dhirendra K Jha & Krishna Jha 2012, p. 234.
- Sukumar Dutt 1988, p. 209.
- Roma Niyogi 1959, pp. 255–260.
- Sujit Mukherjee 1998, p. 142.
- Roma Niyogi 1959, p. 197.
- Roma Niyogi 1959, p. 198.
- V. B. Mishra 1973, p. 70.
- D. C. Sircar (1966). Indian Epigraphical Glossary. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 35. ISBN 978-81-208-0562-0.
- D. P. Dubey (2008). "A note on the identification of Asni". Bulletin of the Deccan College Research Institute. Deccan College Research Institute. 68: 231–236. JSTOR 42931209.
- Dhirendra K Jha; Krishna Jha (2012). Ayodhya - The Dark Night. HarperCollins. ISBN 9789350299012.
- R. C. Majumdar (1977). Ancient India. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 9788120804364.
- Roma Niyogi (1959). The History of the Gāhaḍavāla Dynasty. Oriental. OCLC 5386449.
- Sujit Mukherjee (1998). A Dictionary of Indian Literature. Vol. 1. Orient Blackswan. ISBN 9788125014539.
- Sukumar Dutt (1988). Buddhist Monks and Monasteries of India. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 9788120804982.
- Swami Parmeshwaranand (2000). Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Vedic Terms. Vol. 1. Sarup & Sons. ISBN 9788176250887.
- V. B. Mishra (1973). Religious Beliefs and Practices of North India During the Early Mediaeval Period. BRILL. ISBN 90-04-03610-5.